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Full text of "Zeus : a study in ancient religion"

*" WOVO, UTAH 



^ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 



http://www.archive.org/details/zeusstudyinancie03cook 



ZEUS 



A STUDY IN ANCIENT RELIGION 



VOLUME III 
PART I 



CAMBRIDGE 
UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON: BENTLEY HOUSE 

NEW YORK, TORONTO, BOMBAY 
CALCUTTA, MADRAS: MACMILLAN 

TOKYO: MARUZEN COMPANY LTD 
All rights reiewed 



'''Jl ZEUS 

' A STUDY IN ANCIENT RELIGION 



BY 

ARTHUR BERNARD COOK, Litt.D. 

VICE-PRESIDENT OF QUEENs' COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 
EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



VOLUME III 

ZEUS GOD OF THE DARK SKY 

(EARTHQUAKES, CLOUDS, WIND, 

DEW, RAIN, METEORITES) 

yjii Z€U5 aWoKa fxev TreXet aWpcos, aXXo/ca S' vei 

Theokritos 4. 43 



PART I 

TEXT AND NOTES 



Cambridge 

at the University Press 

1940 



LIBRARY 
PROVO. UTAH 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 



HAROLD B. LEE LIBRARY 
aftlQHAM YOUNC UWVBRtfnf 
PROVO, UTAH .J 



KAi d 4>epeKYAHC eAereN eic "EpcoTA MerABeBAHcGAi ton Ai'a MeAAoNTA 
AHMioypreiN, OTi Ah ton kocmon ek toon cnantioon cynictac eic omoAohan 

Ka'i 4)|A|'aN HfAre KAI TAyTOTHTA HACIN €N€Cn6ip6 KAI ENOaCIN THN Al' OACjON 
AlHKOyCAN. 

Pherekydes of Syros fra^. 3 Diels ap. Prokl. m Plat. Tzm. 

ii. 54, 28 ff. Diehl. 

Ae HMeTepoc eipHNiKOC kai hantaxoy npAOc, oToc actaciactoy kai 

OMONOOYCHC THC 'EAAaAOC CniCKOnOC* ON erOO MeTA THC eMAYTOf Te'XNHC 
KAI Thlc 'HAei'oON noAeOOC C0(J)HC kai ArAB^C BOYAeYCAMCNOC lApYCAMHN, 
HMGpON KAI CeMNON eN AAYHCO C)(HMATI, TON Bl'oY KAI ZOOHC KAI CYMHANTOON 
AOTHpA TOON Ar<^900N, KOINON AN0pobnOON KAI HATepA KAI COOThpA KAI 
(J)YAAKA, (jOC AYNAT()N HN 0NHT(|J AlANOHOeNTI MIMHCACGaI THN OeiAN KAI 
AMh'xANON (t)YCIN. 

Dion of Prousa or. 12 p. 236 f. Dindorf. 



PREFACE 

VOLUME III with its two Parts comprises the third, and final, 
instalment of my work on Zeus: nu^nero deus hnpare gaiidet. 
It may be thought that a task taken in hand as far back as 1907 
ought to have been completed long before 1939. But kindly critics 
will remember that the task itself was one of formidable com- 
plexity, that the leisure left to a teacher occupied throughout with 
College and University duties is necessarily limited, and that the 
commotions of our time have hardly been conducive to a peaceful 
investigation of the past. This at least I can claim that, year in, 
year out, I have steadily pursued the plan originally laid down for 
the scope and contents of the book. Volume I was to deal with 
Zeus as god of the Bright Sky, Volume II with Zeus as god of the 
Dark Sky — an arrangement of essentials approved by the high 
authority of Otto Weinreich {Arckiv f. Rel. 1937 xxxiv. 138). 
Accordingly, Volume I included not only the Hellenic worship 
of the Bright Zeus, god of the Upper Sky, but also the Hellenistic 
attempts to connect him with Sun, Moon, and Stars, while Volume II 
was devoted to the Dark Zeus, god of Thunder and Lightning, in 
all his multifarious aspects. Thunder and Lightning proved to be 
so wide-spread and far-reaching that much had perforce to be left 
over for a third, at first uncontemplated, volume. This concerns 
itself with Zeus in his relations to a further series of cosmic phaen- 
omena — Earthquakes, Clouds, Wind, Dew, Rain, and Meteorites. 
But I need not here enter into a detailed account of sections and 
subsections, as I have later endeavoured to trace in sequence the 
whole evolution of the cult of Zeus (pages 943 to 973), concluding 
with a statement of what I conceive to be its ultimate significance 

(PP- 973, 974). 

The work as a whole sets out to survey the range and influence 
of the Greek Sky-god. It would, I suppose, have been possible to 
do this in less discursive fashion by means of tabulated statements 
and statistics — a list of his cult-centres, an index of his appellations, 
a classified catalogue of his representations in art — in short, to 
adopt the dictionary-method, admirably carried out by E. Fehrle, 
K. Ziegler, and O. Waser towards the end of Roscher's great 
Lexikon (vi. 564 — 759). But my notion of a survey is somewhat 
different. I find a road-map less helpful than an ordnance-sheet. 



Vlll 



Preface 



The former may simplify things and enable you to get more directly 
to your destination. But the latter invites you to explore the neigh- 
bourhood, marks the field-paths, puts in the contour-lines, colours 
the water-ways, and prints in Gothic lettering the local antiquities. 
Time is lost, but knowledge is gained, and the traveller returns 
well-content with his trapesings. So I have deliberately chosen the 
more devious method, and I can only fall back on Herodotos' plea 
that 'my subject from the outset demanded digressions.' Indeed, it 
was just this need for latitude that led me to widen the title Zeus 
by adding the subtitle 'a Study in Ancient Religion.' That is 
the real justification for long-winded footnotes and a fringe of 
Appendixes. 

With regard to the Appendixes I regret, not so much the 
fifteen that I have written, as the three that I have failed to 
write — letters C, D, and O. Ideally C should have dealt with Zeus 
at Corinth, D with Zeus at Dodona, O with Zeus at Olympia. 
I did indeed pen a screed on 'Korinthos son of Zeus,' but I sup- 
pressed it because the aetiological myth that I thought to detect 
implied the existence of customs for which I could produce no 
adequate evidence. As to Dodona, I have made certain interim 
observations in the Classical Review for 1903 xvii. 178 — 186, 268 f., 
278; but the problems presented by the oracular cult cannot be 
securely solved till the oracle itself has been fully excavated {infra 
p. 1 131). On Olympia too I have said my say both in the Classical 
Review for 1903 xvii. 270 — 277 and in Folk-Lore for 1904 xv. 397 — 
402. To describe the material remains of the famous tSmenos was 
no part of my programme. Dr E. N. Gardiner has covered the 
ground {Olympia Oxford 1925), and Dr W. Dorpfeld dug deep 
beneath it {Alt-Olympia Berlin 1935). 

The quarter-century that has intervened between the publication 
of Volume I and that of Volume III has of course brought an 
annual harvest of discoveries and discussions bearing on the subject 
of Zeus, all grist to my mill. Hence the mass of miscellaneous 
Addenda from page 1066 onwards — '1066 and all that'! It was a 
cheer to find that these additions, almost without exception, fitted 
well into the framework of the book and very seldom called for the 
retraction of a definitely expressed opinion. 

As before, I write with a sense of profound obligation to others. 
First and foremost stands my debt of gratitude to the Syndics of 
the University Press, who once again have borne the whole financial 



Prefac( 



IX 



burden of publishing, despite all difficulties, this costly and un- 
profitable work. 

Zeus, I am happy to say, has been begun, continued, and ended 
under the auspices of two old friends, old in years but young in 
outlook — Sir James Frazer and Dr Rendel Harris. It was they 
who first welcomed the inception of the work, and, though quite 
aware that I often dissent from their findings, they have wished me 
well from start to finish. 

I have further been able to count on the co-operation of many 
loyal helpers. Where my enquiries have trenched upon unfamiliar 
ground I have not hesitated to call in expert advisers. On points 
of Semitic lore I have consulted Professor S. A. Cook (p. 1072), 
the late Professor S. Langdon (p. 550 n. o), and the Reverend H. 
St J. Hart (p. 891). In Mesopotamian matters I have been assisted 
by Mr Sidney Smith (p. 832 ff.) and Dr H. Frankfort (p. 1196). 
Egyptian usages have been made plain to me in conversations with 
Mr Sidney Smith, Mr P. E. Newberry, and the late Mr J. E. Quibell 
(p. 305). Sir John Marshall gave me his opinion on the origin 
of Civa's trident (p. 11 56). Professor H. W. Bailey has reported 
on Sanskrit and Persian etymologies (pp. 916 n. i, 925 n. 3). 
Mr A. Waley identified the source of a Chinese inscription and 
translated it for me (p. 11 38). Dr B. F. C. Atkinson allowed me 
to rifle his unpublished work on Illyrian names (p. 364 n. 8). 
Lastly, Dr F. R. C. Reed enabled me to determine the material 
of an ancient cameo, while Dr F. C. Phillips as official mineralogist 
and petrologist made analyses on my behalf (p. 898 n. 4). 

Reviewers in general have been benevolent, but superficial and 
sometimes woefully misunderstanding. Signal exceptions have been 
the detailed and very helpful critique of Charles Picard {Revue de 
Vhistoire des religions 1926 xciii. 65 — 94) and a most heartening 
notice by Otto Weinreich {Archiv f. Rel. ig^y xxxiv. 137 — 139). 
For such shrewd objections and penetrating judgments I can but 
feel immense respect. Critics of this type are all too rare. 

Among friends that have put an active shoulder to my wheel 
I would name first my colleague Mr C. T. Seltman, who with his 
amazing knowledge of ancient art and modern art-collectors has 
been endlessly useful. It was, for example, through his good offices 
that I secured the unique double axes from Crete and Athens 
(figs. 894, 895), the new Orpheus-vase published in pi. xvi, and 
that most notable of all Greek coppers the Mytilene-medallion 



X Preface 

of pi. i. But Mr Seltman has no monopoly of kindliness. Not a 
few of my former pupils, while engaged on quests of their own, 
have spared time to forage on my behalf. In particular, Mr A. D. 
Trendall, Fellow of Trinity College and our foremost authority on 
South Italian vases, has sent me a flight of valuable photographs 
from Athens (pi. xlvi, 2), Capua (pi. Ixxv), Rome (pi. lii), Taranto 
(pis. xiii, XV, 2, Ixxi), Berlin (pis. liv, Ix), Bonn (pi. xiii, 3), 
Gotha (pi. Ixiii), Leipzig (pis. Ixii, ixv, i), and Vienna (fig. 476). 
Mr J. D. S. Pendlebury, Fellow of Pembroke College, has more 
than once put his intimate knowledge of modern Crete at my 
service (pp. 1070, 1143) and himself photographed for me an early 
Greek stdmnos from Knossos (pi. xxv). Mr E. J. P. Raven pro- 
cured for me photographs of an interesting ////^^^-lid from the same 
place (pi. Ixxxi) and of the x^X\^{-plaque from Athens representing 
a primitive form of Athena (pi. xxvi). And Mr R. M. Cook 
furnished me with the photograph of a small bronze statuette 
recently found in Bulgaria and important as being clearly inspired 
by Pheidias' Zeus Olympios (pi. Ixxxii). 

Others have gone far afield to record mountain-scenes difficult 
of access. Dr N. Bachtin gave me prints of Mount Ossa and of the 
chapel on its summit from photographs taken by Mrs Bachtin in 
1934 (figs. 908, 909), and three times over climbed Mount Pelion 
to investigate the alleged discoveries of Arvanitopoulos (p. 1161). 
Ossa, Pelion, and — to complete the proverbial pile — Olympos. 
Mr C. M. Sleeman, Fellow of Queens* College, ascended Olympos 
twice, in 1926 and 1929, bringing home with him a wonderful series 
of views, which included not only the actual summit (pi. Ixviii) 
but all the principal peaks (figs. 911, 912) and the little chapel 
of St Elias (fig. 913). Mr Sleeman in 1926 also photographed 
the summit of Parnassos (fig. 907), and, being an indefatigable 
mountaineer, in 1936 climbed Mount Argaios and supplied me 
with striking photographs of the top (fig. 915) and of a rock- 
pinnacle beneath it (fig. 916). Mr W. K. C. Guthrie, Fellow of 
Peterhouse and now Public Orator, in 1932 discovered and photo- 
graphed a double rock-cut throne on Findos Tepe (figs. 858 — 860). 
Mr N. G. L. Hammond, Fellow of Clare College, in 193 1 told me 
of Mount Emertsa on the Albanian frontier, which he had found 
to be locally identified with Dione in repose (p. 1173). But of all 
these mountain-exploits none is more arresting than the narrative 
dictated to me by Mr H. Hunt, who in 1929 went on pilgrimage 



Preface 



XI 



with Bektashite monks to the summit of Mount Tomori near Berat 
and there actually witnessed the sacrifice of a white bull to 'Zefs' 

(p. 1171). 

For other photographs, too numerous to specify in detail, I am 

indebted to a host of contributors both at home and abroad. My 
debt has, I think, always been acknowledged in a footnote. But 
I cannot refrain from mentioning here certain cases of outstanding 
interest. Mr Sidney Smith, Honorary Fellow of Queens' College 
and Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British 
Museum, presented me with a magnificent photograph of the newly- 
discovered 'Lilith' and added to his kindness by discussing with 
me her status and attributes (pi. Ixi). The late Dr A. H. Lloyd 
gave me an exquisite plate of the golden barley found amid the 
dust and dibris of a grave near Syracuse (pi. xxxi). Professors 
G. M. Columba and E. Gabrici supplied a fine photograph of the 
Oknos-vase at Palermo (pi. xxxvi); Professor D. M. Robinson, 
several views of the Bouzyges-vase at Baltimore (pi. xlv); Professor 
P. P. Jacobsthal, the print of a vase at Marseilles representing, he 
holds, the oracle of Orpheus' head (pi. xviii). 

Casts of coins and gems have again been sent me without 
charge and without stint by the authorities of the British Museum, 
to whom I am further indebted for much encouragement and 
helpful talk. I am particularly beholden to Mr H. Mattingly, 
Mr E. S. G. Robinson, and Mr Sidney Smith, of whose prompt 
aid I have availed myself time after time with shameless per- 
sistence. Mr R. B. Whitehead also was good enough to send me 
a series of choice impressions from his own unrivalled store of 
Bactrian coins (figs. 369, 371). Monsieur le Comte Chandon de 
Briailles supplied the cast of a gem representing Kroisos on the 
pyre (fig. 329), and Mr C. D. Bicknell that of a gem in the Lewis 
Collection showing Athena as a human-headed bird (fig. 608). 

Permission to produce or reproduce plans and illustrations has 
been generously granted by Messrs F. Bruckmann and Co. of 
Munich (pis. vi, vii, xxiii, xxxvii), by Sir Arthur Evans (figs. 202, 
265), by Mr N. Glueck of the American School of Oriental Re- 
search, Jerusalem (fig. 876), by the Council of the Hellenic Society 
(figs. 578, 579), by Dr F. Matz of the Staatliches Lindenau-Museum 
at Altenburg (fig. 619), by Dr H. Meier of the Warburg Institute 
(pi. xl), by the late Mr J. E. Quibell (fig. 195), by Monsieur Richard, 
Conservateur des Musees at Abbeville (fig. 888), by Miss G. M. A. 



xii Preface 

Richter of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (pi. xxxv, 
figs. JT^, 883, 897), by Professor Homer A. Thompson (figs. 923, 
924), by Professor A. J. B. Wace (fig. 193), by Dr C. Weickert of 
the Museum at Munich (pi. 1), and by the Direktor of the Badisches 
Landesmuseum at Karlsruhe (pi. li). 

In the matter of text-figures I have been lucky enough to retain 
the services of Miss E. T. Talbot, the artist to whom I owe the 
bulk of the drawings in Volumes I and II. Her work has through- 
out maintained a high level of exactitude. Her coins, for instance, 
are not merely faithful transcripts of originals or casts, but actually 
'stilgetreu' — a rare achievement in draughtsmanship. 

The cameo in malachite portraying the bust of a Ptolemaic 
Zeus (pi. xliv) was drawn from the original by Miss F. E. Severs 
and produced as an experiment in lithography by the Cambridge 
Press. But most of the colour-plates have been specially painted 
for me by another artist of quite exceptional powers, Mrs D. K. 
Kennett. She sketched the Corfu pediment from a full-size cast in 
the Cambridge Museum of Classical Archaeology (pi. Ixiv) and the 
Sulis Minerva pediment from the original at Bath (pi. Ixvi). But 
her feeling for colour is better shown by the little head of Hera 
in blue glass from Girgenti (pi. Ixxiii), the bust of Sarapis in 
lapis lazuli (pi. Ixxiv), or the bronze mace from Willingham 
Fen (pi. Ixxviii). These are veritable triumphs of sympathetic 
rendering. 

And here I must add a word on another of Mrs Kennett's 
plates, the neolithic pounder from Ephesos (pi. Ixvii). That 
remarkable object — given me as a souvenir of Sir William Ridgeway 
by the President of Queens' College and Mrs Venn — has, if I am 
right in my interpretation of it, presented us for the first time with 
a prehistoric Greek baitylos, a stone believed to have fallen from 
heaven and worshipped accordingly. Not the least of its claims 
upon our attention is the incidental light that it throws on a 
passage in the New Testament (Acts 19. 35). 

The passage in question sets in sharp contrast the old 'Zeus- 
fallen image' with the new Gospel proclaimed by St Paul. These 
were in effect the two extremes. Between them lay the whole 
history of Greek religion with its gradual development, now slower, 
now faster, from primitive paganism towards complete Christianity 
— a long story, for the telling of which three volumes would scarce 
suffice. My contention is that in that development the cult of the 



Preface 



Xlll 



Sky-god was one main factor, leading the minds of men upwards 
and onwards to ever greater heights till Zeus at his noblest joined 
hands with the Christian conceptions of Deity. If I have succeeded 
in proving that, I shall feel that the labours of half a lifetime have 
been well worth while. 

ARTHUR BERNARD COOK. 

19 Cranmer Road, Cambridge. 
22 July 1939. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III 



PART I. CHAPTER II 



ZEUS AS GOD OF THE WEATHER 



§ 5. Zeus and the Earthquakes 

§ 6. Zeus and the Clouds 

{a) Zeus and the Clouds in Literature . 
{b) Zeus and the Clouds in Art 

{c) Nephelokokkygia 

id) The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

§ 7. Zeus and the Wind 

{a) Men believed to control the winds . 

{b) Aiolos Hippotades 

{c) The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

{d) Zeus Otirios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 

§ 8. Zeus and the Dew 

{a) The Arrhephdroi 

i. The birth of Erichthonios 

ii. Hephaistos and Athena 
{b) The Daughters of Kekrops 

{c) Zeus Errhos^ Ersaios^ IkmaioSy Ikmios, Aphrios 
{d) Zeus Thau Ho s ...... 

§ 9. Zeus and the Rain 

(a) Rain-magic . . . . . , 
i. Rain-magic in modern Greece 

ii. Rain-magic in ancient Greece 
iii. Rain-magic in the cult of Zeus 

(b) Prayers to Zeus for rain .... 

(c) The relation of rain to Zeus . 

(d) Rain as water poured through a holed vessel 
i. The holed vessel in Egypt . 

ii. The holed vessel in Greece . 

(a) Water-carrying in the myth of the Danai( 

O) Water-carrying in connexion with marriage 

(y) Water-carrying in connexion with the mysteries 

(8) Conclusions with regard to the myth of the Danaides 

iii. The holed vessel in Italy 

iv. The holed vessel elsewhere . 

(e) Rain as the seed of Zeus .... 
i. Zeus identified with rain 

ii. Zeus descends in rain to fertilise the earth 
iii. The myth of Danae and analogous myths 

C. III. 



or sieve 



des 



PAGES 

I — 29 

30—103 
30 

36 

44 
68 

103—165 
103 
106 
112 
140 

165—283 
165 
181 

188 

237 
261 
277 

284—881 
284 
284 

296 
314 
317 
319 
338 
338 
354 
355 
370 

397 
425 

427 

445 
451 
451 

452 

455 
6 



XVI 



Contents 



^ (/) Ominous rain sent by Zeus .... 

i. Rain of blood ...... 

ii. Rain of stones ...... 

iii. Rain of food 

iv. Pyre-extinguishing rain .... 

{g) Zeus Ombrios ....... 

(//) Zeus Hy^tios . 

i. The Ox-driving of Zeus Hyetios at Didyma 
ii. The Ox-slaughter of Zeus Polieus at Athens 
(a) Ritual of the Dipolieia 
O) Myths of the Dipolieia: Sopatros 
(y) Myths of the Dipolieia: Diomos 

(5) Myths of the Dipolieia : Thaulon 
(e) Purpose of the Dipolieia . 
(^) Zeus as an ox ; Zeus Olbios 
{t}) Zeus struck with a double axe. The birth of Athena 

(6) The birth of Athena in art 
(i) Significance of the birth of Athena 
(k) The superannuation of Zeus 
(X) The attributes of Athena . 

(i) The olive of Athena 

(2) The snake of Athena . 

(3) The owl of Athena 

(4) The aigis and Gorgoneion of Athena 

(5) The aigis of Athena transferred to Zeus 

(6) The thunderbolt of Zeus transferred to Athena 

(/) Zeus Hyes .... 
(/) Zeus and the Hail . 

§ 10. Zeus and the Meteorites . 

{a) The cult of meteorites 

{b) Baityloij Baitylia^ and Zeus Betylos 

{c) Kybele and meteorites . 

{d) The stone of Elagabalos 

{e) The stone of Dousares . 

{/) The stone siderites or oreites . 

{g) Akinoti ..... 

{k) The stone of Kronos 

(0 Zeus Kappdtas 

§ 11. General Conclusions with regard to Zeus as god of 
Dark Sky 



the 



PAGES 
478 

478 
482 

495 
506 

525 
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570 

577 

590 

593 
596 

598 

60s 

656 

662 

726 

739 
747 
749 
764 

776 

837 
866 

867 

875 

881—942 
881 

887 

893 

900 

907 

920 

924 
927 

939 
943—974 



Contents 



xvn 



PART II 

Appendix P. Floating Islands .... 
Q. The Prompting Eros .... 
R. The Hierbs Gdmos .... 
(i) The Hierbs Gdmos at Samos 

(2) The Hierbs Gdmos at Knossos 

(3) The Hierbs Gdmos on Mount Ide 

(4) The Hierbs Gdmos on Mount Oche 

(5) The Hierbs Gdmos at Elymnion . 

(6) The Hierbs Gdmos on Mount Kithairon 

(7) The Hierbs Gdmos in the Cave of Achilleus 

(8) The Hierbs Gdmos at Argos . 

(a) Zeus and Hera at Hermione 
O) Zeus and Hera at Argos 

(9) The Hierbs Gdmos at Athens 
• (a) Zeus with Hera behind him 

(/3) Zeus with Hera beside him 

(7) Zeus with Hera facing him 

(S) Zeus with Hera on the frieze of the Parthenon 

(e) Zeus with Hera in archaistic reliefs 

(10) The Hierbs Gdmos in the Far West 

(11) Inferences concerning the Hierbs Gdmos 



PAGES 
975—1015 



1016- 
1025- 



-1025 

-1065 
1027 
1032 
1032 
1041 
104 1 
1042 

1043 
1043 
1043 
1043 
1047 
1048 
1048 
1049 

1053 
1055 

1062 
1064 



Addenda . 

Corrigenda. 

Index I (Persons, Places, Festivals) 
Index II (Subjects, Authorities) . 



1066 — 1197 

1198 — 1199 

1201 — 1263 
1265 — 1299 



bi 



LIST OF PLATES IN VOLUME III 

to face 
PLATE P^g^ 

I Bronze medallion of Mytilene showing Zeus, Poseidon, and 

Hades as Theoi Akraioi 6 

II Amphora from Vulci, now in the Vatican: Poseidon, 

shouldering the island, attacks a Giant . . . . 14 

III Kylix from Vulci, now at Paris : 

{A) Poseidon, shouldering the island, attacks a Giant 
{B) Apollon(?), Dionysos, and Ares(?) attack Giants 
(C) Hephaistos, Poseidon, and Hermes (?) attack Giants . . 16 

IV Fresco from Herculaneum, now at Naples : Zeus reclining 

amid the clouds ........ 36 

V A frescoed ceiling from a room in the Golden House: Zeus 

enthroned in heaven, surrounded by gods, goddesses, 
Tritons, etc 39 

VI Kylix from Vulci, now at Berlin : 

{A) Poseidon attacks Polybotes in the presence of (jC 
{E) Ares v. Mimon, Apollon v. Ephialtes, Hera v. Phoitos 
(C) Artemis v. Gaion, Zeus v, Porphyrion, Athena v. Enkelados 56 

VII Amphora from Melos, now at Paris: the Gigantomachy — 

Zeus, descending from his chariot, attacks Porphyrion . . 56 
VIII Krater {amphora ?) from Ruvo, now at Petrograd : the Gigan- 
tomachy — 
Porphyrion blasted by the thunderbolts of Zeus ... 56 

IX Reliefs from the eastern frieze of the great Altar at Pergamon, 

now in Berlin : 
Zeus contends with Porphyrion, Athena with Enkelados . 57 

X Hyd?ia from Vulci, now in the British Museum : 

Athena v. Enkelados, Zeus v. Porphyrion (^) .... 57 

XI Lekythos from Ruvo, now in the British Museum : 

The Judgment of Paris with the Argive Hera as prize-winner d^ 
XII A'r^^/'/r in the British Museum : the death of Prokris . . T2t 
XIII (i) Krater from Ceglie, now at Taranto 

(2) Detail of same vase : the birth of Dionysos 

(3) Vase-fragment at Bonn : the birth of Dionysos ... 82 

XIV (l) Gold bulla from Vulci, now at Paris : Birth of Dionysos 

(2) Gold bulla from Italy, now in the British Museum : Birth of 

Dionysos 88 

XV (i) Lekythos of early Apulian style from Anxia, now in the British 

Museum : Herakles suckled by Hera 
(2) Lekythos of early Apulian style, now at Taranto : Herakles 

suckled by Hera 94 

XVI Hydria at Queens' College, Cambridge: Apollon visits the 

Lesbian oracle of Orpheus 99 



XX 



List of Plates 



to face 
page 



XVII Etruscan mirrors representing the oracular head of Orpheus : 

( 1 ) A mirror from Clusium, now in the Casuccini collection at Chiusi 

(2) A mirror now in Paris 

(3) A fragmentary mirror formerly in the Borgia collection and 

now at Naples (?) 

XVI 1 1 Early 'Campanian' amphora in the MuseeBorely at Marseilles : 
a youth consulting the oracle of Orpheus' head (?) . 

XIX A stucco-relief in the semi -dome of the subterranean basilica 

at Rome : 

the last voyage of the soul over the waters of death to 

the Islands of the Blest [with transparent overleaf]. 

XX Dronze statuette from Ephesos, now at Queens' College, 

Cambridge : 

a praying Negro ........ 

XXI Plan of the American excavations on the north slope of the 

Akropolis 

XXII Hydria from Chiusi (?), now in the British Museum : 

Ge hands Erichthonios to Athena in the presence of Zeus, 
Nike, and Hebe (?) 

XXIII Stdmnos from Vulci, now at Munich : 

Ge hands Erichthonios to Athena in the presence of 
Hephaistos ......... 

XXIV Kratir from Chiusi, now at Palermo: 

Ge hands Erichthonios to Athena in the presence of 
Hephaistos and Kekrops ....... 

XXV StdviJios from Knossos, now at Candia : 

{a) and ib) the Snake-goddess repeated as a proto- 
geometric motif. ........ 

XXVI Painted terra-cotta ^/cji^^/r^ from Athens: 

the Snake-goddess (Athena?) of late geometric art . 

XXVII Kylix from Nola, now in the British Museum : 

Anesidora fashioned by Hephaistos and adorned by Athena 

XXVII I Votive relief in island marble, found on the Akropolis at Athens: 

a husband, with his wife and three children, brings a sow 

for sacrifice to Athena ....... 

XXIX Pelike from Kameiros, now in the British Museum : 

{a) Athena finds Erichthonios in his basket guarded by 

two snakes 

ip) Aglauros(?) and Herse(?) make off .... 

XXX An amphora at Petrograd : 

(i) A heroion containing five stalks of bearded wheat, flanked by 
conventional figures bearing garlands and gifts 

(2) A young warrior, wreathed by Nike, between two companions. 
A domestic scene (his homecoming?) 

(3) The whole vase (4) Head of Kore (5) Palmette . 
XXXI Three gold ears of barley found in a grave near Syracuse : 

and now in the Loeb collection at Murnau 



102 
102 

135 

151 
170 

182 

184 

187 

189 
189 
201 

225 
248 



306 



List of Plates 



XXI 



to face 
page 

XXXII Reliefs from the Column of Marcus Aurelius at Rome : 

lupiter Pluviiis and the rain-storm ..... 330 

XXXIII The so-called 'Canopic jars' of Egypt, surmounted by the 

heads of the four children of Horos : 
(i) A typical set 
(2) A set in veined alabaster, now at Queens' College, Cambridge 345 

XXXIV Amphora from the Basilicata, now in the British Museum: 
{la — lb) Evocation of the Greek Earth-goddess 

{2a — 2b) Consultation of an Isiac 'Canopus' .... 353 

XXXV Loutrophoros in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York : 
(i) Whole vase showing mourners with loutrophoros above, 

mourners at prothesis below, and subsidiary zones of lions 
and horsemen 
(2) Detail of same vase . 375 

XXXVI Lckythos from Monte Saraceno, now at Palermo : 

the uninitiated in the Underworld, together with Oknos 

and his ass ......... 400 

XXXVII Krater from Canosa, now at Munich : 

Orpheus leads a family of initiates into the presence of 
Hades and Persephone, whose palace is surrounded by 
the stock denizens of the Underworld .... 402 

XXXVIII Hydria at Boston: the carpenter completes the chest in the 
presence of Akrisios, Danae, and the nurse holding the 

infant Perseus 458 

XXXIX A Roman mosaic from Palermo : the amours of Zeus — Antiope, 

Danae, Leda ......... 467 

XL Das Schlauraffenlandt^ 'The Country of Cokaygne,' 

from a woodcut printed by W. Strauch of Nuremberg . 502 
XLI Krater from Santa Agata dei Goti, now in the British 
Museum : 

Alkmene rescued from a fiery death at the hands of 
Amphitryon and Antenor by the intervention of Zeus . 511 
XLI I Relief from the eastern frieze of the great Altar at Pergamon, 
now in Berlin : 
Zeus fighting Porphyrion . . . . . . . 534 

XLI 1 1 A sardonyx cameo from Ephesos, now in Venice: 

Zeus with oak- wreath and aigis 538 

XLIV A malachite cameo, now at Queens' College, Cambridge : 

Zeus with oak-wreath and aigis ..... 538 

XLV Krater from Vari, now at Baltimore: 

{a — d) Bouzyges ploughing in the presence of Athena 

and an elderly male spectator ...... 607 

XLVI (i) Terra-cotta plaque from a tomb at Hadra(?), now at Queens' 
College, Cambridge : 
Europe on the Bull 
(2) Bronze mirror from Athens (?), now in Rome : 

Europe on the Bull 618 



xxii List of Plates 

to face 
page 

XLVII A)npJiora from Canosa, now at Naples : Europe playing with 

the Bull 620 

X LVI 1 1 A Roman mosaic from Aquileia : Europe on the Bull, escorted 

by Eros and Poseidon ....... 627 

XLIX (i) Amphora at Munich : lo as a heifer with Argos and Hermes 
(2) Stdjunos from Caere, now at Vienna: lo as a steer (!) with 

Argos, Hermes, and Zeus . . . . . . .631 

L Afnphora at Munich : Zeus in labour, flanked by two Eileithyiai 663 

LI Afnphora from Girgenti, now at Karlsruhe: 

Zeus in labour, with two Eileithyiai and Hermes in 
attendance ......... 665 

LIl Amphora from Vulci, now in the Vatican : 

Zeus in labour, with one Eileithyia and two gods in 
attendance ......... 667 

LHI Amphora from Caere, now in the Vatican : 

Zeus in labour, with one Eileithyia and Hermes (.'*), Pos- 
eidon, Ares in attendance ....... 667 

LIV^ A7npho7'a from Caere, now at Berlin : 

Athena born from the head of Zeus, with two Eileithyiai 

and other deities in attendance 673 

LV Amphora from Vulci, now in the British Museum: 

Athena born from the head of Zeus, with two Eileithyiai, 
Hermes, and Hephaistos in attendance .... 675 
LVI Pelike from Vulci, now in the British Museum : 

(a, b) Athena born from the head of Zeus, with one Eileithyia 

and other deities in attendance 675 

LVI I (i) Drawing of the east pediment of the Parthenon by J. Carrey (.?) 

(1674) 

(2) Restoration by E. A. Gardner (1902) 

(3) Restoration by K. Schwerzek (1904) 689 

LVIII (i) Restoration by J. N. Svoronos (1912) 

(2) Restoration by Rhys Carpenter (1933) 

(3) Restoration by A. B. Cook (191 7) 689 

LIX Pelike in the British Museum: {A) Zeus and Nike {B) Hera 

and Hebe (.?) 733 

LX Ainphora from Nola, now at Berlin : 

a spectator stands before the Owl on the Akropolis . •]']'] 

LXI A Sumerian relief in baked clay : 

Lilith (?), a possible ancestress of the Owl-Athena . . 832 
LXI I Krater at Leipzig : Perseus presents Athena with the Gorgon's 

head for her aigis ........ 843 

LXI II Krater at Gotha: Perseus presents Athena with the Gorgon's 

head for her shield 843 

LXIV The west pediment of the temple of Artemis at Palaiopolis, 

Corfu . . 345 



List of Plates 



XXlll 



to face 
pa^e 
LXV (i) Etruscan kjflix at Leipzig: Pegasos born from the blood of 
the Gorgon 
(2) Etruscan kylix in the British Museum : Pegasos born from 

the blood of the Gorgon 853 

LXVI Pedimental relief from the temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath . 862 
LXVII A baitylosij) from Ephesos, now at Queens' College, Cambridge 898 
LXVI 1 1 The highest peak of Mount Olympos {Miika, the 'Needle') . 943 
LXIX Coins, struck by Hadrian, representing the Zeus Olyiitpios of 
Pheidias : 
(i <2, \b) Two differently lighted views of bronze coin now at Paris 

(2) Bronze coin now at Florence 

(3) and (4) Bronze coins now at Berlin 959 

LXX (i) A bronze mirror-case in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge : 

Ganymedes feeds the Eagle in the presence of a Nymph 
(2) A similar mirror-case in the Lloyd collection, Cambridge . 982 
LXX I (i) — (3) Details oi kratdr {xova Ceglie, now at Taranto: 

a group oi kalathiskos-^2iXiZtxs ...... 996 

LXXII Fresco from Pompeii, now at Naples: the //zeros Gdmos of 

Zeus and Hera on Mount Ide in the Troad . . . 1033 
LXXIII A head of Hera LakzniaQ) in blue glass, c. 400 B.C., from 

Girgenti, now at Queens' College, Cambridge . . . 1039 
LXXIV A bust of Zeus Sarapis in lapis lazuli.^ c. 300 A.D., now in the 

British Museum 107 1 

LXXV {a) and {b) Amphora in the Museo Campano di Capua : 

Ixion on his fiery wheel ....... 1072 

LXXVI Antefixal ornament from Italy, now in the British Museum : 

head of Zeus ^;;z;?/d7;z ....... 1076 

LXXVI I {a) and ip) Terra-cotta group in the British Museum, 

possibly connected with the cult of lupiter Dolichemis {^) 1098 
LXXVI 1 1 {a — c) A bronze mace from Willingham Fen, 

now in the Museum of Archaeology and of Ethnology, 

Cambridge 1099 

LXXIX {^a) and {b) Marble head of luno Lucinai^)., now at Queens' 

College, Cambridge 1 1 1 7 

LXXX {a) and {b) Marble head of Pan from Greece, now in the 

British Museum .1131 

LXXXI Pithos-\\di from Knossos, Cretan work oi c. 700 B.C. : 

Zeus advancing with triple lightning-fork and bird . . 11 50 
LXXXI I Bronze statuette of Zeus Olympics from Bulgaria, 

now in the Museum of the Augusta Trajana Society at 

Stara Zagora . . . . . . . . .1194 

LXXXI 1 1 Marble head from Jerash : 

a third-century Zeus (.''), which perhaps served as a fifth- 
century Christ . . . . . . . . .1196 



ABBREVIATIONS 

The following additions should be made to the List of Abbreviations printed in 

Vol. I pp. XXV — xliii and Vol. II pp. xxiii — xliii. 
Albizzati Fast d. Vaticano =■ C. Albizzati Vasi antichi dipinti del Vaticano Fasc. i — 6 

(pis. I — 60) Roma 1925 — 1932. 
Amelung Sculpt. Vatic, iii, i (Sala delle Muse, Sala rotonda, Sala a Croce Greca) von 

G. Lippold Berlin — Leipzig 1936. 
Am, Journ. Arch, From 1932 ( vol. xxxvi) onwards the American Journal oj Archaeology 

has been issued in larger format. 
Anz.d. Akad.d. JViss, Wien Vh.\\,-\\\s,\.. C\2iS?>e = Anzeiger der Akademieder Wissenschaften 

Philosophisch-historische Classe Wien 1864 — 
Ath. Mitth. From 1901 (vol. xxvi) entitled Mitteilungen des kaiserlich deiitschen archaeo- 

logischen Instituts: athenische Abtnlu?ig, and from 1915 (vol. xl) Mitteilungen des 

deutschen archdologischen Instituts: athenische Abteilung, 
Babelon Monn. gr. rom. II Description historique iv Paris 1926 — 1932 with Atlas of pis. 

Ill Monnaies orientales i Numismatique de la Perse antique par J. de Morgan Paris 

1927 — 1933 with Atlas of pis. 
Berl, philol. Woch. So called from 1884 to 1920. Before (188 1 — 1883) andafter (1921 — ) 

that period the title is simply Philologische Wochenschrift, 
Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Cyrenaica ig2'j by E. S. G. Robinson. 
Brit. Mus, Cat. Finger Rings = Y, H. Marshall Catalogue of the Finger Rings, Greek, 

Etruscan, and Roman, in the Departments of Antiquities, British Museum London 

1907. 
Brit, Mus. Cat, Gents'^ = H. B. Walters Catalogue of the Engraved Gems and Cameos Greek 

Etruscan and Roman in the British Museum London 1926. 
Brit. Mus. Cat, Paintings and Mosaics = R. P. Hinks Catalogue of the Greek Etruscan and 

Roman Paintings and Mosaics in the British Museum London 1933. 
Brit. Mus. Cat. Rom. Coins Emp. ii (Vespasian to Domitian) London 1930. iii (Nerva 

to Hadrian) London 1936. 
Brit. Mus. Cat. Rom. Pottery =^ H. B. Walters Catalogue of the Roman Pottery in the 

Departments of Antiquities, British Museum London 1908. 
Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpture'^ = Catalogue of Sculpttire in the Department of Greek and Roman 

Antiquities of the British Museum i. i (Prehellenic and early Greek) by F. N. Pryce 

London 1928. i. 2 (Cypriote and Etruscan) by F. N. Pryce London 193 1. 
Brit. Mus. Quart. = British Museum Quarterly 1926 — 
Brunn — Bruckmann Denkm. der gr. und rom. Sculpt, fortgefuhrt und mit erlauternden 

Texten versehen von P. Arndt und G. Lippold iv (Tafeln 651 — 700) Miinchen 1926, 

V (Tafeln 701 — 750) Miinchen 1932, vi (Tafeln 751 — 785) Miinchen 1939. 
Corp. inscr. Gr. sept. iii. 2 Inscriptiones Thessaliae ed. O. Kern, Indices comp. F. Hiller 

de Gaertringen [Inscriptiones Graecae ix. 2] Berolini 1908. 
Corp. inscr. Lat. xi. 2. 2 Inscriptiones Aemiliae, Etruriae, Umbriae Latinae, ed. 

E. Bormann. Addenda ad partes priores et Indicum capita tria. Berolini 1926. 

xiv Supplementum Ostiense, ed. L. Wickert Berolini 1930. 
Corpusc. poes. ep. Gr. ludib. = Corpusculum poesis epicae Graecae ludibundae i Parodorum 

epicorum Graecorum et Archestrati reliquiae, ed. P. Brandt Lipsiae 1888, ii Sillo- 

graphorum Graecorum reliquiae, ed. C. Wachsmuth Lipsiae 1885. 
Corp. vas. ant. = Corpus vasorum antiquorum. This great international publication, started 

by E. Pottier at Paris in 1922, has already (1939) run to 63 parts, of which Belgium 



xxvi Abbreviations 

has contributed 2, Denmark 6, France 14, Germany 3, Great Britain 11, Greece i, 
Holland 2, Italy 12, Poland. 3, Spain i, the United States 6, and Yugoslavia 2. 
Belos V Le Portique d' Antigone ou du Nord-est etles constructions voisines par F. Courby. 
Paris 1912. 

ix Description des Revetements peints a sujets religieux par M. Bulard. Paris 1926. 

X Les Vases de I'Heraion par C. Dugas. Paris 1928. 

xi Les Sanctuaires et les Cultes du Mont Cynthe par A. Plassart. Paris 1928. 

xii Les Temples d' Apollon par F. Courby. Paris 1931. 

xii (Planches). 

xiii Les Portraits hellenistiques et romains par C Michalowski. Paris 1932. 

xiv Les Mosaiques de la Maison des Masques par J. Chamonard. Paris 1933. 

XV Les Vases prehelleniques et geometriques par C. Dugas et C. Rhomaios. Paris 

1934- 
xvi Le Sanctuaire des Dieux de Samothrace par F. Chapouthier. Paris 1935. 

xvii Les Vases orientalisants de style non melien par C. Dugas. Paris 1935. 

xviiiLe Mobilier delien par W. Deonna. Paris 1938. 

xviii (Planches). 

xix L' Agora des Italiens par E. Lapalus. Paris 1939. 
Ducange Gloss, vied, et inf. Graec. = C. du Fresne Du Cange Glossarium ad Scriptores 

tnedia' <2r infimoi Grcecitatis i, ii Lugduni 1688. 
Ebert Keallex. = Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fach- 

gelehrter herausgegeben von Max Ebert i — xiv Berlin 1924 — 1929, xv (Register) 

Berlin 1932. 
Einzelaufnahmen Serie 10 Miinchen 1925, Register zu Serie 6 — 10 Miinchen 1929, 

II Miinchen 1929, 12 Miinchen 1931, 13 Miinchen 1932, 14A Miinchen 1934, 14B 

Miinchen 1936, 15 A Miinchen 1937, 15 B Miinchen 1938, 16 a Miinchen 1939. 
Ernout — Meillet Diet, etytn. de la Langue Lat. = Dictionnaire itymologique de la Langtie 

Latine Histoire des mots par A. Ernout et A. Meillet. Paris 1932. 
Esperandieu Bas-reliefs de la Gaule Rom. vii — ix (Gaule Germanique i — 3 et Supplement) 

Paris 19 18 — 1925, X (Supplement et Tables generales) Paris 1928. Compliment du 

Recueil ginerale des bas-reliefs, statues et busies de la Gaule Romaine Paris et Bruxelles 

1 93 1, xi (Supplements (suite)) Paris 1938. 
Farnell Gk. Hero Ctilts = L. R. Farnell Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality OySordi 

1921. 
Fouilles de Delphes 

iii Epigraphie. Texte. Fasc. 5 par Emile Bourguet Paris 1932. 
iv Monuments Figures — Sculpture. Planches complementaires. Paris 1926. 
F^ag. gr. Hist. = Die Fragmente der griechischen Historikervon Felix Jacoby Erster Teil: 

Genealogie und Mythographie Berlin 1923, ZweiterTeil: Zeitgeschichte A Universal- 

geschichte und Hellenika Berlin 1926, B Spezialgeschichten, Autobiographien, Zeit- 

tafeln Berlin 1927, 1929, c Kommentar Berlin 1926, 1927, 1930. 
Frag. gr. Kultschr. = Die Fragmente der griechischen Kultschriftsteller gesammelt von 

Alois Tresp Giessen 191 4. 
Frazer Golden Boug/r^: Aftermath London 1936. 
Frazer Toteviism and Exogamy — (Sir) J. G. Frazer Totejnisvi and Exogamy A Treatise on 

Certain Early Forms of Superstition and Society i — iv London 1910. Totemica: a 

supplement to 'Totemism and exogamy' London 1937. 
Frazer Worship of Nature = Sir J. G. Frazer The Worship of Nature i (Sky, Earth, Sun) 

London 1926, ii (Sun, Moon, Stars, Fire, Watei, Wind, Plants, Animals) London — . 
Graef Ant. Vasen Athen iv Berlin 1925, IL Band i Berlin 1929, ii Berlin 1931, iii Berlin 

»933- 
Head Coins of the Greeks = A Guide to the principal Coins of the Greeks from circ. yoo B.C. 

to A.D. 270 based on the work of Barclay V. Head. London 1932. 
Inscr. Cret. = Inscriptiones Creticae opera et consilio Friderici Halbherr collectae i Tituli 

Cretae mediae praeter Gortynios curavit Margarita Guarducci Roma 1935. 



Abbreviations xxvii 

Inscr. Gr. ins. ix Inscriptiones Euboeae insulae [InscripHones Graecae xii. 9] ed. 

E. Ziebarth Berolini 1915. 
Inscr. Gr. ed. min. = Inscriptiones Graecae editio minor 

i Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno anteriores ed. Fridericus Hiller de Gaer- 

tringen Berolini 1924. 

ii — iii Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno posteriores ed. lohannes Kirchner. Pars 

altera: i Tabulae magistratuum Berolini 1927. 2 Catalogi nominum. Instrumenta 

iuris privati Berolini 1931. 

ii — iii Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno posteriores ed. lohannes Kirchner. Pars 

tertia: i Dedicationes, Tituli honorarii, Tituli sacri Berolini 1935. 
ii — iii Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno posteriores ed. lohannes Kirchner. Pars 
quarta: Indices i Berolini 19 18. 
iv Inscriptiones Argolidis i Inscriptiones Epidauri ed. Fridericus Hiller de Gaer- 
tringen Berolini 1929. 
ix. I Inscriptiones Phocidis Locridis Aetoliae Acarnaniae Insularum Maris lonii. 
I Inscriptiones Aetoliae ed. Guentherus Klafifenbacli Berolini 1932. 
Jahrb. d. Deutsch. Arch. Inst. From 1918 (vol. xxxiii) onwards Xht, Jahrbuch des kaistrlich 
dent sc hen Archdologischen Instituts has been entitled the Jahrbiich des Deutschen 
Archdologischen Instituts. 
V Antiquitd Classique^ U Antiquiti Classique Louvain 1932 — 

Mc Clean Cat. Coins = Fitzwilliam Museum. Catalogue of the Mc Clean Collection of Greek 
Coinshy S. W. Grose i — iii Cambridge 1923, 1926, 1929. 
i Western Europe, Magna Graecia, Sicily. 
ii The Greek Mainland, the Aegaean Islands, Crete, 
iii Asia Minor, Farther Asia, Egypt, Africa. 
Mem. d. Inst.=Memorie dell' Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica i Roma 1832, ii 

{Nuove Meniorie deW Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica) Lipsia 1865. 
Mendel Cat. Fig. gr. de Terre Cuite Constantinople = Musics Impiriaicx Ottomans. 
Catalogue des Figurines grecques de Terre Cuite par Gustave Mendel Constantinople 
1908. 
Mendel Cat. Sculpt. Constantinople =^ Musics Imperiaux Ottomans. Catalogue des 
Sculptures grecques^ romaines et byzantines par Gustave Mendel i — iii Constantinople 
1912, 1914, 1914. 
Milet 

i. 9 Thermen und Palaestren von Armin von Gerkan und PVitz Krischen mit 
Beitragen von Friedrich Drexel, Karl Anton Neugebauer, Albert Rehm und 
Theodor Wiegand Berlin 1928. 
ii. 2 Die milesische Landschaft von Theodor Wiegand mit Beitragen von Kurt 

Krause, Albert Rehm und Paul Wilski Berlin 1929. 
ii. 3 Die Stadtmauern von Armin von Gerkan mit epigraphischem Beitrag von 

Albert Rehm Berlin — Leipzig 1935. 
iii. 4 Das islamische Milet von Karl Wulzinger, Paul Wittek, Friedrich Sarre unter 
Mitwirkung von Th. Menzel, J. H. Mordtmann, A. Zippelius Berlin — Leipzig 

1935- 

iii. 5 Das siidliche Jonien von Alfred Philippson Berlin — Leipzig 1936. 
Muller Altital. Worterb. — Altitalisches Worterbuch von Dr Frederik Muller Jzn 

Gottingen 1926. 
Museo Italiano di Antic hitd. Classica = Museo Italiano di Antichita Classica Firenze 

1885- 
Nachr. d. kon, Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Gottingen Phil. -hist. Classe. From 1924 onwards 

entitled Nachr. d. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Gottingen Phil. -hist Classe. 
Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. = The Minoan- Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek 

Religion by Martin P. Nilsson Lund 1927. 
Nuov. Mem. d. Inst. See Mem. d. Inst. 
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek= Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Billedtavler til Kataloget over antike 



xxviii Abbreviations 



Kunstvarker Kj^benliavn 1907. Tillag til Billedtavler of antike Kunstvarker 

Kjjibenhavn 191 5. 
Oral. Attic. = Oratores Attici. Recensnerunt adnotaveruut scholia fragmenta indicem 

nominum addiderunt lo. Georgius Baiterus et Hermannus Sauppius. i Verba 

oratorum cum adnotationibus criticis Turici 1839 — 1^43* " Scholia fragmenta indices 

Turici 1845 — 1850. 
Pixiily — Wissowa Real-Enc. Neue Bearbeitung begonnen von Georg Wissowa...heraus- 

gegeben von Wilhelm Kroll und Karl Mittelhaus (Zvveite Reihe [R — Z]) iii A — 

Stuttgart 1927 — , Supplement v — vi Stuttgart 1931, 1935. This monumental 

work, begun in 1894 and now nearing completion, at present (1939) covers the entries 

'Aal'— 'Olympia', * Pech '— ' Philon ', 'Ra'— 'Tribus' in 48 half-volumes and 6 

supplements. 
Pei'gamon 

v, I Die Palaste der Hochburg von Georg Kawerau und Theodor Wiegand Berlin — 
Leipzig 1930. 

ix Das Temenos fiir den Herrscherkult ('Prinzessinnen Palais') von Erich 
Boehringer und Friedrich Krauss Berlin — Leipzig 1937. 

X Die hellenistischen Arsenale ('Garten der Konigin ') von Akos von Szalay und 
Erich Boehringer Berlin — Leipzig 1937. 
Pfister Rel. Gr. Rbvi. \()7^o = Die Religion der Griechen iind Romer. Darstellung und 

Literaturbericht ( 1 9 1 8 — i g2gl^o) • {Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der klassischen 

A Itertumswis sense haft Supplementband. Band 229.) Von Friedrich Pfister Leipzig 

1930. 
Pfuhl Malerei n. Zeichnung d. Gr. = Afalerei und Zeichnung der Griechen von Ernst 

Pfuhl i (Text erste Halfte), ii (Text zweite Halfte), iii (Verzeichnisse und Abbild- 

ungen) Miinchen 1923. 
Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. Drittes Buch. ii. Abteilung. Zweite Halfte. Der troische 

Kreis: die Nosten. Berlin 1926. 
Proc. Brit. Acad. = British Academy. Proceedings. 1903 — 
A. Reinach Textes Feint. Anc. = Recneil Alilliet. Textes grecs et latins relatifs a Vhistoire 

de la peinture ancienne publics, traduits et commentes par Adolphe Reinach i Paris 

1921. 
Reinach Ant. du Bosph. Civiin. = Antiquites dii Bosphore Cininierien (1854) reeditees avec 

un commentaire nouveau et un index general des Coinptes rendns par Salomon Reinach 

Paris 1892. 
Reinach Rep. Stat, vi Mille trois cent cinquante statues antiques Paris 1930. This handy 

Repertoire (apart from its first volume, the 'Clarac de poche') claims to have published 

in all no fewer than 19750 statues. 
Richter Cat. Bronzes Netv York= The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Greek., Etruscan 

and Roman Bronzes by Gisela M. A. Richter New York 191 3. 
Rom. Mitth. From 1901 (vol. xvi) entitled Mitteilungen des kaiserlich deutschen archaeo- 

logischen Instituts : roemische Abteilung, and from 19 16 (vol. xxxi) Mitteilungen des 

deutschen archaeologischen Instituts: roemische Abteilung. 
Sardis 

i The Excavations. Part i (1910 — 1914) by Howard Crosby Butler Leyden 1922. 

ii Architecture. Part 1 The Temple of Artemis by Howard Crosby Butler Leyden 
1925. 

v Roman and Christian Sculpture. Part i The Sarcophagus of Claudia Antonia 
Sabina and the Asiatic Sarcophagi by Charles Rufus Morey Princeton 1924. 

vii Greek and Latin Inscriptions. Part i by W. H. Buckler and David M. Robinson 

Leyden 1932. 
X Terra-cottas. Part i Architectural Terra-cottas by Theodore Leslie Shear Cam- 
bridge 1926. 
xiii Jewelry and Gold Work. Part i (1910 — 1914) by C. Densmore Curtis Roma 1925. 
Stuart Jones Cat. Sculpt. Pal. d. Conserv. Rome = A Catalogue of the Ancient Sculptures 



Abbreviations xxix 

preserved in the Municipal Collections of Rome. The Sculptures of the Palazzo dei 

Conservatory By members of the British School at Rome, edited by H. Stuart 

Jones... with Atlas of pis. Oxford 1926. 
Syll. num. Gr.=Sylloge numniorum Graecorum 

i. I The collection of Capt. E. G. Spencer-Churchill, M.C., of Northwick Park. 
The Salting collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London 1931. 

i. 2 The Newnham Davis coins in the Wilson collection of Classical and Eastern 
Antiquities Marischal College Aberdeen London 1936. 

ii. 1 — 2 The Lloyd collection (Etruria to Thurium). London 1933. 

ii. 3 — 4 The Lloyd collection (Velia to Eryx). London 1934. 

ii. 5 — 6 The Lloyd collection (Galaria to Selinus). London 1935. 

ii. 7 — 8 The Lloyd collection (Syracuse to Lipara). London 1937. 

iii. r The Lockett collection (Spain — Italy (gold and silver)). London 1938. 

iii. 2 The Lockett collection (Sicily — Thrace (gold and silver)). London 1939. 
Tiryns 

iii Die Architektur der Burg und des Palastes von Kurt Midler. Text, Tafeln. 
Augsburg 1930. 
Verh. d. 26. Philologenversamml. in Wiirzburg^^ Verhandlungen der sechsundzwanzigsten 

Versammlung deutscher Philologen und Schulmdn)ier in Wiirzburgyova 30. September 

bis 3. October 1868. Leipzig 1869. 
Verh. d. j6. Philologenversamml. in Karlsruhe =^ Verhandlungen der sechsunddreissigsten 

Versafnmlung deutscher Philologen und Schulmdnner in Karlsruhe vom 27. bis 

30. September 1882. Leipzig 1883. 
Walde — Pokorny Vergl. Worterh. d. indogerm. Spr. — hlovs, Walde Vergleichendes 

Worterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen herausgegeben und bearbeitet von Julius 

Pokorny i, ii Berlin — Leipzig 1930, 1927, iii (Register bearbeitet von Konstantin 

Reichardt) Berlin — Leipzig 1932. 
Weber Cat. Coins = The Weber Collection. Greek Coins by L. Forrer i (Auriol Find Class, 

Hispania, Gallia, Britannia, Italy and Sicily) with Atlas of pis. London 1922, ii 

(Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly, North Western, Central and Southern Greece) with 

Atlas of pis. London 1924, iii, i (Bosporus, Colchis, Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bythynia, 

Mysia, Troas, Aeolis, Lesbos, Ionia, Caria, Lydia) London 1926, iii, 2 (Phrygia, 

Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Cilicia, Cyprus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Phoenicia, 

Palestine, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Persis, Characene, Bactria, Egypt, 

Cyrenaica, Libya, Zeugitana, Islands between Africa and Sicily, Numidia, Maure- 

tania, Incerta) London 1929 with Atlas of pis. London 1925. 
Woch. f. Mass. Philol.= Wochenschript fUr klassische Philologie 1884 — 1920 (then united 

with the Berl. Philol. Woch. and continued as the Philologische Wochenschrift). 



CHAPTER II {continued) 

ZEUS AS GOD OF THE WEATHER. 

§ 5. Zeus and the Earthquakes. 

Greece is a land of many earthquakes. Reckoning great with 
small, Count de Montessus de Ballore^, our foremost authority in 
seismic geography^, computes a yearly average of at least 275. , 
C. Davison^ in a recent monograph states that 3187 were recorded 
during the six years 1893 — 1898, and adds that, for every shock felt 
in Great Britain, 50 are observed in Japan and no less than 158 
in Greece*. Similarly J. Partsch^, after consideration of Julius 
Schmidt's® earthquake-catalogue for 1859 — 1878, concludes 'that 

^ F. de Montessus de Ballore Les tremblements de ter7-e: Giographie seismologique 
Paris 1906 p. 264. 

^ See C. Davison The Founders of Seismology Cambridge 1927 pp, i6o — 176. 

'^ C. Davison A Manual of Seismology Cambridge 1921 p. 161. 

* F. de Montessus de Ballore ' Introduction a un essai de description sismique du 
globe et mesure de la sismicite' in the Beitrdge zur Geophysik Leipzig 1900 iv. 357 
gives the following statistics for the various divisions of Greece (repeated by C. E. Dutton 
Earthquakes i7i the light of the nezv Seismology London 1904 p. 296) : 

Periods of Observation 
1863 1867-1868 1895-1897 
(Euboia) 1857-1878 1895-1897 

1858-1878 1895-1897 

1895-1897 

1825-1868 1875 1892-1893 1895-1897 

1860-1876 1882-1883 1887-1888 1895-1897 

1858-1878 1886-1888 1895-1897 

1858-1862 1867 1876-1877 1895-1897 

1895-1897 

1895-1897 

1858-1888 

1860-1863 1867-1874 1895-1897 









Earth- 


Localities 


Epicentres 


quakes 


Thessaly 




13 


76 


Euboia and N. Sporades 




23 


1228 


Attike, Parnassos, and 








Lokris 




43 


1979 


Akarnania 




17 


138 


Ionian Isles 




41 


5700 


Achaia 




22 


308 


Korinthia and Argolis 




28 


3" 


Lakonike 




12 


54 


Messene 




21 


93 


Arkadia 




20 


75 


Crete 




8 


100 


Kyklades 




14 


141 


General or ill-defined 




9 


32 


General or ill-defined 








(eastern) 




9 


71 


Totals 


280 


10^06 



^ C. Neumann — J. Partsch Physikalische Geographic von Griechenland mit besonderer 
Riicksicht auf das Alierthum Breslau 1885 p. 320. 

^ J. F. Julius Schmidt Studien Uber Vulkane und Erdbeben Leipzig 1881 ii.^ 166 — 360. 

C. III. I 



2 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

in this land hardly a week, in many years hardly a day, goes by 
without the ground being noticeably shaken at one point or another, 
while a second eminent geographer, A. Philippson^ puts it even 
more forcibly: ' In Greece the soil trembles somewhere almost every 
day.' 

Greek earthquakes, being tectonic, not volcanic, in character, 
occur normally along certain well-marked structural lines, which 
correspond with prominent features of the country — the base of a 
mountain-range, a straight river-valley, a rocky coast-line^ These 
seismic zones may be enumerated as follows: the northern half of 
the Straits of Euboia together with the Malian Gulf and the islands 
Skiathos and Skopelos; an elliptical land-tract including Phokis, 
Lokris, and Boiotia; the northern coast of the Peloponnese from 
Corinth to Patrai ; the western coast of the Peloponnese with 
Zakynthos, Kephallenia, and Leukas ; the valleys that form the 
heads of the Messenian, Laconian, and Argolic Gulfs — the principal 
southerly indentations of the Peloponnese^ The distribution thus 
indicated for modern times is fully borne out by the record of 
ancient earthquakes, of which a well-arranged and critical list for 
the period 600 B.C. — 600 A.D. has been drawn up by W. Capelle*. 

Since most of the seismic lines traceable in Greece are definitely 
maritime and the rest within easy reach of the sea, it is not sur- 
prising to find that the Greeks of the classical age commonly^ 

^ A. Philippson Das Mittelmeergebiet^ seine geographische und kulturelle Eigenart 
Leipzig 1904 p. 28. 

2 W. H. Hobbs Earthqtiakes New York 1907 p. 32. 

3 A. Philippson Der Peloponnes. Versuch einer Landeskunde auf geologischer Grundlage 
Berlin 1892 p. 437 ff. (fig. 41 chart of Messenian earthquake of Aug. 27, 1886), id. Das 
Mittebtieergebiet etc. p. 28 f., F. de Montessus de Ballore Les trejnblements de terre: 
Giographie s^ismologique Paris 1906 p. 267 ff. (fig. 40 seismic map of Greece), W. Capelle 
'Erdbeben im Altertum' in the Neue Jahrb. f. Mass. Altertum 1908 xxi. 604 f., id, in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. Suppl. iv. 345. 

^ W. Capelle in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. Suppl. iv. 346 — 358. 

^ Not invariably. Pythagoras taught that earthquakes were due to a concourse 
(conflict?) of the dead (Ail. var. hist. 4. 19 /cat rhv aeLCT^ibv eyeveaXdyei. ov8^v dWo elvai 
^ ffvpodov tQjv Te^j'ewTOJi' = H . Diels Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker'^ Berlin 1912 i. 357, 
21 f.) — presumably a folk-belief (Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 814 n. 2). 

The frequent notion that earthquake-shocks are occasioned by the movements of a 
subterranean monster or giant or god (J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stally- 
brass London 1883 ii. 816 f., 1888 iv. 1542, E. B. Tylor Primitive Culture'^ London 
1891 i. 364 ff., Frazer Golden Bough^ : Adonis Attis Osiris^ i. 197 ff. ('The Earthquake 
God'), K. Weinhold 'Die Sagen von Loki' in the Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum 
1849 ^"' ^^ ^•» ^- Sebillot Le Folk-Lore de France Paris 1904 i. 423 f., F. Legge Fore- 
runners and Rivals of Christianity (Z2cc(^x\A^& 1915 ii. 297 (citing F. Cumont Recherches 
sur le vianichHsme i La cosmogonie manichienne d'apres Thdodore bar Khdni Bruxelles 
1908 Append, ii), P. Alfaric Les icritures manichiennes Paris 1918 i. 40) is found also 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 3 

in classical tradition (M. Mayer Die Giganten itnd Titanen Berlin 1887 pp. 195 f., 208 ff., 
214 f., Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 434 n. 2). 

In the upper-pliocene beds of Samos are extensive deposits of fossil bones — Saino- 
therhitn^ Hipparion ?nediterrancum. Mastodon longirostris, etc. (L. Burchner in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. i A. 2168, 2171). These bones were attributed by Euphorion to 
primeval monsters called N?7d5es, vi^ho broke the very ground with their cries and 
occasioned the Samian proverb 'He bawls louder than the Neddes^ (Euphor. /ra^. 25 
Meineke ap. Ail. de nat. an. 17. 28 and Apostol. 9. 51). The statement goes back to 
the early local historian Euagon of Samos /r«^. i [Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 16 Muller) ap. Phot. 
lex. s.v. vrji^ and Herakl. YoxA. frag. 10. i {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 215 Miiller) = Aristot./r^^. 
611. 30 Rose^, who however used the form N'>7t5es, not Ni/dSes. Nt^iScs, which means 
* Witless Ones' (cp. h. Dem. 256), must of course be distinguished from NiyiSes or 
NT/idSes, the Naiad nymphs, and may be an attempt to make sense of some pre-Greek 
name. W. R. Halliday in the Class. Rev. 1927 xli. 59 acutely restores Flout, quaestt. 
Gr. 56 (Panaima in Samos was so named after a bloody battle between Dionysos and 
the Amazons) rdv 5' e < Xe > ^dirwi' aTrodaveiv rives \4yovTai irepl t6 ^Xolov /cat rd ocra 
deiKwrai avrCbv' tlv^s 5e Xiyovcri kuI to ^Xotbv e7r' iKeiviav payijvai, (pdeyyo/xivuv ixiya. tl 
Kai didropop (see further Halliday ad loc. p. 207 fF.). S. Reinach in the Rev. Arch. 1928 
ii. 161 quotes with approval Sir A. Evans The Palace of Minos London 1928 ii. i. 324: 
'The delight of the Earth-shaker in bulls, referred to in the Homeric passage [//. 20. 
403 ff.], may itself find a reasonable explanation in the widespread idea... that earth- 
quakes are produced by some huge beast beneath the Earth. Sometimes, as in Japan, 
it is a monstrous fish, sometimes an elephant or other animal of prodigious size, but, 
amongst all of these, the bull is the most natural agent. According to the Moslems 
of Tashkend [J. Troll in the Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie 1892 xxiv. 537 f.], Almighty God 
set to support the Earth a bull of such monstrous size that from his head to the end 
of his tail was five hundred years' journey, and the space between his two horns another 
two hundred [and fifty]. The bull, thus heavily laden, prompted by the Devil, shook his 
head and tried to throw the Earth off him with his horns. Thereat, a midge was sent to 
sting him in the nostril, and he set up a mighty bellowing, so that he is known unto 
this day as "the bellower".' 

Again, there is an earthquake when the giant Briareus under Mt Aitne shifts to his 
other shoulder (Kallim. h. Del. 141 ff.), or when Enkelados beneath the same burden 
changes his weary side (Verg. Aen. 3. 578 ff.). All Sicily trembles when Typhoeus, 
crushed by its weight, struggles to thrust it from him (Ov. met. 5. 346 ff., Val. Flacc. 2. 
23 ff.). A like commotion was caused when Kaineus, buried beneath a huge mound of 
stocks and stones, tried in vain to lift his head (Ov. met. 12. 514 ff.). Giants laid low by 
Herakles — Mimas beneath Prochyte, lapetos beneath Inarime — made the earth shake 
above them and blasted the soil of Campania (Sil. It. 12. 143 ff., cp. ib. 529). In parti- 
cular, Alkyoneus (Claud, de rapt. Pros. 3. i84f.) and other giants with him were thought 
to lie beneath Mt Vesuvius (Philostr. her. 2. 7), and during the eruption of 79 a.d. many 
gigantic phantoms appeared by day and night on the mountain, in the neighbouring 
towns, and in the sky — a prelude to periods of severe drought and appalling earthquakes 
(Dion Cass. ^d. 22). We may venture to compare the happenings described in Matthew 
27. 51 — 53. Analogous beliefs still linger in Greek lands: a short, sharp earthquake 
accompanied by a peculiar crash occurred in Zakynthos on Aug. 4/16, 1862, and the 
next day a peasant employed over the currant-crop in the village of Hagios Kyrikos 
observed with regard to it 'Some building of the giants must have collapsed' (B. Schmidt 
Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. 33, 201 ko-tl xti/sio tov yiyaLVToive da 
iireae. Cp. supra ii. 505 f.). It should, however, be recognised that the express con- 
nexion of earthquakes with buried giants or the like is Hellenistic, not Hellenic. Earlier 
sources {e.g. Hes. theog. 859 ff., Pind. Pyth. i. 29 ff., Pherekyd. /ra^. 14 {Frag. hist. Gr. 
i. 72 Miiller) = />-«^. 54 {Frag. gr. Hist. i. 76 Jacoby) ap. schol. Ap. Rhod. 2. 1210 ff.) 
emphasise volcanic rather than seismic effects. 

Other gods could on occasion produce a quake. Athena did so at Troy when 



4- Zeus and the Earthquakes 

wroth with Laokoon (Quint. Smyrn. 12. 395 ff.)- Dionysos in Soph. Ant. 153 f. 
6 Orj^as 5' eXeXix^oju (eXeXi^ojv cod. L with yp. iXeXixdojv written above by scholiast) I 
Bd/cxtos apxoi bears the title of an earthquake-god (the schol. vet. ad /oc, followed by 
Sir K. C. Jebb, is inadequate — 6 9^/3as 5' eXeXi^oju BaKX^^os : 6 KLvrjaLxdoju- eXeXt'x^ova 8e 
rbv At6vvff6v (priai 5id rds ev rats BaKx^iats Kip-^aeis- r) rbu ttjv yrjv adovra Kal dva^aK- 
Xevovra rats xopeiats) and in Eur. Bacch. 586 ff., 605 f., 622 f. , 632 f. shatters, or at least 
is believed to shatter, the house of Pentheus (G. Norwood The Riddle of the Bacchae 
Manchester 1908 p. 37 ff., id. Greek Tragedy London 1920 p. 281 f., A. W. Verrall The 
Bacchants of Euripides and other Essays Cambridge 19 10 pp. 26 ff., 64 ff.) — an exploit 
compatible with Orphic belief (Orph. h. Perikiott. 47. i ff. KtKXr)<TKU) Bolkxov UepiKiovLov, 
fxedvdiiiTTjp, I Kadfj-etoiffi 56/xois 6s eXiaad/xeuos irepi irduTrj (so G. Hermann for irepl irdvTa) \ 
^arrjae Kparepovs j3pa(x/xo'us yairjs dirotr^ix-^as, \ ijviKa -rrvpcpopos avyr] iKLvqcre (so P. Scriverius 
for ivLK-rjae) x^^^o- irdaav \ TrpTjaTrjpos poL^ois' 6 5' dv^dpa/xe decr/xos dirduruv). Nereus, like 
Poseidon, makes and can therefore unmake earthquakes (Orph. h. Ner. 23. 5 ff. 8s 
Kkovi^is Arjovs iepbu ^ddpov (cp. evpoai-Ads infra p. 9 n. o), y]viKa. ttvolcls \ ev [xvx^ois (so 
G. Hermann for iwvxt-ois) KevdfxQcrii' eXawo^ivas diroKXeiets' \ dXXd, fxdKap, creLcr/JLoin p.^v 
dirdTpewe, iri/uiire 8^ fiija-Tais \ oX^ov k.t.X.). But Usener's contention that Aloeus, son of 
Poseidon by Kanake, *ist der "Drescher" gewiss nicht allein wortlich als Gott des 
Landbaues, sondern vorzugsweise bildlich als Erderschlitterer, 'EXeX^x^'*"' '^vvoaiyaios^ 
(H. Usener in the Rhein. Mus. 1898 liii. ^^g = id. Kleine Schriften Leipzig — Berlin 191 3 
iv. 278) strikes me as far-fetched and improbable. 

The epithet prj^Lxdcav {p-qffixBf^v), the 'land-breaker,' has reference in all probability to 
the disruptive effect of earthquakes, and is applied in Orphic hymns to Dionysos (Orph. 
h. Lys. Len. 50. 5 p-q^ix^^v (E. Abel cj. p-q^ixGov), Xrjuale, [xeyaadevis, aloXo/jLopcpe, h. triet. 
52. 9 piq^ixOf^v (E. Abel cj. pi^^iX^oj'), irvpKpeyyes, iirdipie, Kovpe difxriTop (so E. Abel for 
difjidrwp)) and in magical spells etc. to a variety of chthonian powers including Hekate 
(C. Wessely Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London Wien 1888 p. 88 pap. 
Par. 2722 f. Trbrvia prj^ixOojv aKv\XaKdy€La (A. Nauck cj. aKvXaKay^Ti) TravdafxdTeipa, 
Babelon — Blanchet Cat. Bronzes de la Bihl. Nat. p. 701 ff. no. 2296, loff. = W. Drexler 
in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 2646 = R. Wiinsch in the Corp. inscr. Att. App. defix. p. xv = A. 
Audollent Defixionum tabellae Luteciae Parisiorum 1904 p. 69 f. no. 38, 10 ff. (a leaden 
devotio-tahlet of s. iii A.D., found at Alexandreia) e7r[i]/caXou^tai ere ttjv irdvTiov dvdpdo\Tr(av 
dvvdareLpau, 7ra/x[0o/3]f/od, pr)^lxd(j}v, 7} kol dvevey\Kaixev'q rd rov /AeXtoi;[x]ou /aAt? Kal 
avTbv Tbv /xejXiouxoj', 'Epeo-xi7dX ve§ovTO(TovaXy]d epe^evvrj, \ dpKvia viKvC 'E/ccitt;, 'E/cdr?; 
dXTjdrj, ^Xdere Kal Te|\aw(raT^ fxoi, t7)v TrpayixaTeiav Taijrrjv (on the identification of 
Eriskigal with Hekate and the allusion to the dismemberment of Osiris or Adonis (?) see 
W. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1584 ff., 2645 ff.), Miss L. Macdonald in the 
Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology 1891 xiii. 174 no. i, 3off. = W. Drexler 
in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 2646 = A. Audollent op. cit. p. 41 no. 22, 30 ff. (a leaden 
^^^//<?- tablet of late date, found at Kourion in Kypros) op/ctV^w L'Aid(s), bifioves 
TToXvdvldpioi ('of the graveyard {iroXvdvdpiou)') k^ ^L[ai)oddvaToi kc duipoi /ce diropoL Ta^rjs, 
Kara ttjs pr]\[<TL]x&^f'n^ ttjs KaTepevKaarjs fieXioiJXOv rd fxiXr} k^ avrbv ixeXiovxov — 2i formula 
repeated in Miss L. Macdonald loc. cit. p. 176 no. 3, 16 fif., p. 178 no. 5, 20 ff., p. 179 
no. 6, 18 f., p. 180 no. 7, 21 ff., p. 181 no. 8, 18 ff., p. 183 no. 9, 22 ff., p. 184 no. 10, 
19 ff., p. 185 no. II, 18 ff., p. 186 no. 12 f., 21 fif., p. 188 no. 15, 18 ff., p. 190 no. 17, 
i9fif. = A. Audollent op. cit. p. 45 no. 24, 16 fif., p. 47 no. 26, 20 fif., p. 49 no. 27, 18 f., 
p. 51 no. 28, 21 fif., p. 53 no. 29, 19 ff., p. 54 no. 30, 23 fif., p. 56 f. no. 31, 18 ff., p. 59 
no. 32, 18 flF., p. 62 no. 33, 22 fif., p. 64 f. no. 35, 18 fif., p. 67 no. 37, 19 fif.), Brimo 
(C. Wessely Netce griechische Zaiiberpapyri Wien 1893 p. 45 pap. Lond. 121, 757 f.= 
F. G. Kenyon Greek Papyri in the British Museum London 1893 i. 106 no. 121, 691 f. 
(of s. iii A.D.) <x)v OX) 80vrj | [■irapa]Kov(jai, Bpi/jLoo pv^LX^wu), an unnamed goddess who holds 
the keys of Hades (Miss L. Macdonald loc. cit. p. 175 no. 2, 12 f. = A. Audollent op. cit. 
p. 44 no. 23, 12 f. (a leaden devotio-t2ih\tt of late date, found at Kourion in Kypros) 
[k^ ai) i) rds] | [KXldas tov "Adov Ka]T^x(^v<7a pr)aix6o)u—a.forpiula completed from Miss L. 
Macdonald loc. cit. p. 174 no. i, 53 f., p. 178 no. 5 a, 39, p. 182 no. 8, 35, p. 186 no. 11, 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 5 

attributed earthquakes to Poseidon \ A memorable passage in the 
Iliad is expHcit on the point : 

39, p. 189 no. 15(3:, 8 = A. Audollent op. cit. p. 41 no. 22, 53 f., p. 48 no. 26, 39, p. 53 
no. 29, 36, p. 60 no. 32, 39, p. 65 no. 35, 36), Sterxerx the door-keeper of hell and 
heaven (Miss L. Macdonald loc, cit. p. 1 74 no. i, 19 ff. = W. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Myth. 
ii. i2i7 = R. Wiinsch in the Corp. inscr. Att. App. defix. p. xviii no. i, r9ff. = A. 
Audollent op. cit. p. 40 no. 22, 19 ff. k^ rbv eiri toO ttvXCjuos tov "A[5ol's] | [/cje tQv 
KX'^dpwv TOV oipavov Teray/x^uov 'Zrep^ep^ VPliv^*^ prf\(T'LxO(^v apdafxax^ovp irpiarev Xa/jLirddev 
(rT€va[KTa} \ IdajxpaTe rbv Trpoyeypafx/neuop iirl rovde tov 0t/xwri[«:oO] ] [/cjara^^/iaros — a 
formida recurring in L. Macdonald loc. cit. p. 176 no. 3, 9 ff., p. 177 no. 5, 12 ff., p. 180 
no. 7, 13 ff., p. 181 no. 8, 10 ff., p. 182 no. 9, 13 ff., p. 184 no. 10, 13 ff., p. 185 no. 11, 
II ff., p. 186 no. 12, 12 ff., p. 187 no. 14, 13 ff., p. 188 no. 15, 11 ff., p. 190 no. 17, 11 ff. = 
A. Audollent op. cit. p. 45 no. 24, 9 ff., p. 47 no. 26, 12 ff., p. 50 no. 28, 13 ff., p. 52 
no. 29, II ff., p. 54 no. 30, 14 ff., p. 56 no. 31, 12 ff., p. 59 no. 32, 11 ff., p. 61 no. 33, 
13 ff., p. 63 no. 34, 13 ff., p. 64 no. 35, II ff., p. 67 no. 37, 11 ff. {rjpv^^ with variants 
eiprj^a and iprj^a is possibly to be connected with Upa^, Ionic 'dprj^, the 'hawk': irpiffrev 
suggests a demon 'who saws men asunder' or perhaps ' who gnashes his teeth', XapLirddev 
' who brandishes a torch' : crrevaKrd is vocative of areuuKTris rather than accusative plural 
of ffrevaKrds, pace Audollent op. cit. p. 42)), a hawk-headed deity with a basket on its head 
and in its hands a pair of upright sceptres, round one of which twines a serpent (A. D. 
Nock in The lournal of Egyptian Archaeology 1925 xi. 158 citing Sir C. H. Smith — Miss 
C. A. Hutton Catalogue of the Antiquities {Greek, Etruscan and Roman) in the collection 
of the late Wyndham Francis Cook, Esqre. London 1908 p. 55 no. 248 a flat yellow 
jasper, with bevelled edge, inscribed PHL IX0WN), and an unidentified fire-god (?) of 
the Underworld, who figures frequently in iht formula [xaaKeWi fxaa-KeWo} (pvovKevrajSacod 
opeo^a^aypa Linroxd(^f prj^LxGojv irvpnrr]yavv^ or the like {e.g. C Wessely Griechische 
Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London p. 89 f. pap. Par. 2753 ff., p. 100 pap. Par. 3175 ff., 
id. Neue griechische Zauberpapyri p. 61 pap. Lond. 123, 10 f. = F. G. Kenyon op. cit. i. 
121 no. 123, 10 f. (of s. iv or v A.D.), F. LI. Griffith — H. Thompson The Demotic 
Magical Papyrtis of L^ondon and Leiden London 1904 (i.) 189 verso col. xv, 2 ff., 
Babelon — Blanchet Cat. Bronzes de la Bibl. Nat. p. 701 ff. no. 2296, 27 ff. =:R. Wiinsch 
in the Corp. inscr. Att. App. defix. p. xv = A. Audollent op. cit. p. 70 no. 38, 27 ff., S. 
Eitrem in Papyri Osloenses Oslo 1925 i. 9 and 16 no. i, 154 f., 342 ff. (of ^. iv A.D.), cp. 
Sv Eitrem Les papyrus magiques grecs de Paris {Videnskapssclskapets Skrifter. 11. Hist.- 
Filos. Klasse. 1923. No. i) Kristiania 1923 p. 28 pap. Mimaut 94, C. Wessely Neue 
griechische Zauberpapyri p. 30 pap. Lond. 121, 311 =:F. G. Kenyon op. cit. i. 94 no. 121, 
302 (on which formula with its variants see C. Wessely Ephesia Grammata aus 
Papyrusrollen, Inschriften, Gemmen etc. Wien 1886 nos. 244 — 250, T. Hopfner 
Griechisch-dgyptischer Offenbarungszauber Leipzig 1921 i. 190 § 747, and S. Eitrem in 
Papyri Osloenses i. 72 f.)). K. Preisendanz Papyri Graecae magicae Leipzig — Berlin 
1 93 1 ii. 215 notes that in no. 7 (pap. Lond. 121), 475 A. D. Nock would emend Ati/77 
ffiedoip into prjaixO(^v^ in a formula addressed to debs ovros 'AvayKwv, ' Du Gott der 
Zwangsgottinnen.' 

The fact is that any and every subterranean deity invoked by the magician might be 
expected to cause an earthquake. Jehovah himself is conjured as the god who rends the 
mountains and breaks the rocks in pieces (i Kings 19. 11), who makes the earth to 
tremble and shake (Ps. 77. 18), the hills to move to and fro (Jer. 4. 24) (A. Audollent 
op. cit. p. 374 no. 271, i7f., 34f. = R. Wiinsch Antike Fluchtafeln Bonn 1907 p. 22 
no. 5, i7f. (a leaden devotto-\.'d\AtX. of s. iii a.d. , found at Hadrumetum) bpKi^w (xe tov 
avvTpei^ovTa rdj Tr^rpas* | 6p/ct[^a>] ae Tbv dirop'q^oi.vTa to, opr}, p. 24 no. 5, 34 f. Si' 6u...Kal 
Th 6p7) Tp^fjiei I /cat [i] yrj} Kai ij ddXaaira). 

^ Welcker Gr. Gotterl. i. 627, L.-F. A. Maury Histoire des Religions de la Grke antique 
Paris 1857 i. 416, Preller— Robert Gr. Myth. i. 572, 583 ff., Gilbert Gr. Gotterl. p. 172 f., 



6 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

The sire of men and gods thundered on high 

Horrific, and beneath Poseidon shook 

The boundless earth and the tall mountain-tops. 

Yea, all the feet of many-fountained Ide 

And all her crests were swaying to and fro, 

Troy-town to boot and the Achaean ships. 

Deep underground Aidoneus, king of the dead, 

Trembled and, trembling, sprang from his throne and shouted 

Lest o'er his head Poseidon, shaker of land. 

Should cleave the very earth and bring to the ken 

Of mortals and immortals his grim realm, 

A mouldering realm that ev'n the gods abhor ^ 

This passage is well illustrated by a bronze medallion of 
Mytilene, struck by Valerianus, and hitherto unpublished (pi. i and 
fig. i)2. The reverse type is an attempt to visualise the foregoing 




Fig. I. 



scene. On the left Poseidon, holding a dolphin (?), threatens the 
ground with his trident. On the right Hades, a rod or sceptre in 
his hand, springs from his throne in terror. Zeus, standing between 
them, with himdtion and sceptre, raises his hand to quell the 
tumult. The whole must refer to some historic earthquake, and 
may have been struck to commemorate it. 

The Homeric lines, however effective, are not improbably a late 

F. Durrbach in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. iv. 60 f., Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 814, 
845, 1 139 n. 2, E. H. Meyer in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 2798, 2813 ff., Farnell Cults of Gk. 
States iv. 7 f. 

^ //. 20. 56 — 65. 

^ My specimen came from the cabinet of a Greek collector on May 14, 1928. Obv. 
AVT-K-n-AIK-B AAEPIANOC. Bust of Valerianus to right. Rev.QeO\^ KPAI 
OI|AAVTIAHNA IHN. Scene as described above. PI. i shows the reverse to a 
scale off. L. Holstein's coin {supra ii. 873 n. 0(10)) had apparently the same reverse 
combined with an obverse resembling supra ii. 260 fig. 172. 



Plate 




Bronze medallion of Mytilene showing Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades 

as Theoi Akraioi. 

See page 6 n. 2. 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 7 

interpolation^. But in cantos of earlier date Homer calls Poseidon 
enoszchthon, the 'land-shaker' (?), or ennoszgaios, the 'earth-shaker' (?), 
and often uses both appellatives as substitutes for his name^. Pindar 

^ R. C. Jebb Homer: an Introduction to the Iliad and the Odyssey^ Glasgow 1887 
p. 163, W. Leaf in the argument prefixed to his ed. of //. 20 and in his book A Companion 
to the I/iad 'London 1892 p. 331. See, however, D. Mlilder Die Ilias unde ihre Qtcellen 
BerHn 1910 p. 204 f. and in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ix. 1019. 

2 The epithet euoa-ixdctiv is used of Poseidon 23 times in the I/iad, 18 times in the 
Odyssey (A. Gehring Index Homericus Lipsiae 1891 p. 289), always in the nominative 
case and always as last word of the hexameter — except Od. 3. 6 evoaixdoui KvavoxoLirrj, 
The usual locution is HoaeLbduv ivoalx^^^ (^4 times), for which Kpeiiov evoaixdi^v (7 times) 
and evpvKpeiiDv ivoaix^cov (once, //. 11. 751) are convenient substitutes. 'Ej/oo-^x^wj/ alone 
occurs 8 times (H. Ebeling Lexicon Homericum Lipsiae 1885 i. 424). 

'Ej'j'oo-t7aios is similarly used of Poseidon 20 times in the Iliad, 6 times in the Odyssey 
(A. Gehring op. cit. p. 288). The common phrases are 7at')70xos ivvoa-iyaLos (nom. 4 times, 
ace once, dat. twice) — extended in //. 13. 43 HoaeLddojv yai'^oxos evvoaiyaios (cp. Hom. 
ep. 6. I Uocreiddojv fxeyaXoadev^s evvocriyaLe — and kX^tos evvoalyatos (nom. 7 times, ace. 
twice). ''EivvoffiyaLOi alone occurs 6 times (nom. twice, voc. thrice, ace. once), evvoalyaL' 
ei'ipvcrdev^s thrice. The word mostly occupies the end of the line, but not in //. 7. 455, 8. 
201, 12. 27, 20. 20, 20. 310, 21. 462, Od. II. 102, 13. 140, h. Pos. 4 (H. Ebeling <?/. 
cit. i. 422). 

Hence it may be inferred that the old pre- Homeric tags {supra i. 444, ii. 384 n. o) for 
dactylic tripodies with anacrusis were Iloo-eiSdwi/ ivoaixOoju and 701770x0? iwocriyaios, for 
dactylic dipodies with anacrusis Kpeioiv ivoaixd^^v and kXiJtos iuvoffiyaios. In view of the 
extreme antiquity of such tags we can hardly expect their interpretation to be free from 
doubt. 

The V of €v OCT ixOcov becomes vu in ivvocriyaLos nietri gratia (Cornut. theol. 22 p. 42, 2 
Lang has ivoaiyaiov, a spelling found in late prose — Souid. ivoaiyaios (cod. A gives vv 
against the ordo verdorzim), et. mag. p. 344, 43 evoaiyaios, Zonar. lex. evocxiyaios, Favorin. 
lex. p. 213, 27 evoaiyau) ; and the same reason suffices to explain the lengthened first 
syllable of eluoaicpvWos {II. 2. 632, 2. 757, Od. 9. 22, 11. 316. Simon. /rag. 41. i Bergk*, 
52. I Edmonds, 40. i Diehl ap. Plout. symp. 8. 3. 4 has evvo<7i<pvWos, Favorin. lex. p. 658, 
59 €vuo(Tl<pv\\ov , Hesych. ivo<n<pvW<ji}v (A. Meineke cj. evoaiipvWov)) (W. Schulze 
Quaestiones epicae Gueterslohae 1892 p. 159 f.). But the common assumption (with 
query in Prellwitz Etym. Worterb. d. Gr. Spr.^ p. 146, without query ib. p. 521 and in 
Boisacq Diet. itym. de la Langue Gr. pp. 258, io8o,Walde — Pokorny Vergl. Worterb. d. 
indogerm. Spr. i. 254 f.) that ifoffi- evvoci- eivoffi- are derived from iv-Iod of ivoodeoo 
(Hesych. 'idei- (pdeipei and ^doiv ... cpdeipccu are misleading glosses, based on a wrong inter- 
pretation of //. 9. 540, 16. 260. Cp. schol. A. //. 9. 540) is thoroughly unsatisfactory. 
■*iv-/bd-Ti-s would have produced, not hoffis, but * ivfoan^ *e'Cvo(TTis *^vo<ttls (L. Meyer 
Handb. d. gr. Etym. i. 410, K. F. W. Schmidt in the Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende 
Sprachforschung 1913 xlv. 234 n. 3. Boisacq op. cit. p. 1109 and Walde — Pokorny op. 
cit. i. 255 adduce unconvincingly Jo-is : (hdeio, irelo-is : irddw, etc.). Besides, ivwd^oj is 
a late compound (Ap. Rhod. 4. 1243, Plout. v. Lucull. 28) and yields no tolerable sense. 

Impressed by these difficulties I endeavoured years ago to divide iv-voo'i-yaios (a com- 
pound like iixirvpL^rjTT)^), 'the earth-god in the water,' cp. Poll. i. 238 yri...v6Tt.os, ^woros, 
€pv6tios, if not also Eur. I.T. 161 f. 7atas ipvoriovs (so A. Kirchhoff for eV vutois) \ ir7]ydi. 
On this showing ivocrix^iov would be a later form due, like eluoai^vWos, to a misconception 
{Class. Rev. 1903 xvii. 176). The occurrence of Zeus Ndtrtos for ^brLo% at Miletos {supra 
i- 733 1^' 6, ii. 317 n. 2) might indeed be held to support the connexion with j/^xios, vorl%, 
etc. and "p&x^^z:^^ Neptunus (Walde Lat. etym. Worterb.'^ pp. 516 s.v. 'Neptunus,' 521 
s.v. 'no'). But the suggestion really makes shipwreck on the sense, which I now see to 
be nonsense. Dr B. F. C. Atkinson improved upon my notion by pointing out to me (Dec. 
1925) that e- might be a prothetic vowel, the epithets e-poal-x^f^f, e-vvo<ri-yaioi denoting 



8 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

follows suit with Ennosidas'^, and coins fresh compounds to express 

the fTod 'that waters the earth.' But, unknown to us both, A. Goebel of Magdeburg had 
already tried that tack fifty years ago. In a remarkable paper ' Ueber den homerischen 
HoaeiSdwv yai-^oxos iwoaiycuos^ {Zeitschrift fiir die osterreichischen Gymnasien 1876 xxvii. 
2^.1 — 252) he had argued that there is in truth no Homeric evidence for Poseidon as an 
earthquake-god, //. 20. 56 ff. being a 'spateres Einschiebsel' and ivvoaiyaios, evoaixQ^v, 
eipoaicpvWos involving prothetic e and the root sna of vonos, votLs, etc. — to be rendered 
'erdenetzend,' ' Erdbewasserer,' ' feuchtlaubig.' 

Another possibility suggested to me by Dr Atkinson (Dec. 1925) is that iuo-ai-x^f^i', ^vvo- 
<T/-7atos, eij/o-<r/-0i'XXos may be related to <7«?^^ < * enos, 'burden' (Walde^/. aV. j-.z/. 'onus'), 
and mean 'burdened with the ground," burdened with earth,' 'laden with leaves.' The suffix 
■cl- is frequent in epic compounds (D. B. Monro A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect 
Oxford 1891 p. iiSf.). 

But against all these fancies must be set the solid fact that the said epithets are 
traditionally interpreted 'shaking the ground,' 'shaking the earth,' 'shaking the leaves' 
(so all lexicons, ancient or modern). And this tradition must be as old as Hesiod, since 
ivo<jL% is applied by him to a 'shaking' of the earth (Hes. theog. 681, 706) or sea {Hes. 
theog. 849). Euripides similarly uses the word of an earthquake [Bacch, 585) or a city's 
overthrow [Tro. 1326) or the whirling of rhdmboi {Hel. 1363). Goebel he. cit. p. 249 of 
course maintains that we have here to do with a learned, or unlearned, misunderstanding 
of (vocri-x^wv. On the whole, it is safer to accept the traditional rendering and to assume 
a verbal stem * iuo- without recognised cognates (L. Meyer op. cit. i. 410). 

* Find. Pyth. 4. 57 ff. (paro 5' Eupi^TriiXos rai|a6xoi' Trats dipdirov 'Evuoalda | ^fx/xevai 
{sc. Eurypylos son of Poseidon), 306 ff. doiol 8' vxj/ixcuraL \ dv^pes, ^^vvoaida \ y^vos {sc. 
Periklymenos son of Neleus, son of Poseidon, and Euphemos son of Poseidon). 

C. T. Damm Novtwi lexicon Graecwn ety??iologiciim et reale Berolini 1765 p. 2867 bis 
connects the second element in the compound 'Evi/ocr^-Sas with *5a dorice pro 777.' That 5a 
was Doric for 7^ is indeed affirmed by ancient scholiasts and lexicographers (Aisch. P.v. 
568 AXeu'w (a ex a factum cod. Med.) 5a with schol. ciXeu* c3 5a : 01 Awpteh ttjv yijv ddu 
Kai TOP yvb(t>ov bv6<pov {rtves ovtojs, aXev a 5a* dXev, dvax^j^p^f-i ^kk\lv€' to 5e a 5a c5 yrj. oi 
yap AcjpieU tt]v yijv drjv /cat ddv (pacriv, /cat rbv yvb(f)Ov 5v6<pov cod. Med.), Aisch. Ag. 1072 
droTOToi irowol 5d, Aisch. £um. 841 01 ol 5a, 0eO with schol. 5a, 0eO :5a 7^ (5a: J 7^ cod. Med.) 
Awpi/ctDs, odeu /cat Aa/xdrrip, Eur. Phoen. 1296 0eO 5a, 0eu 5a with schol. rtf^s 5e dvTi rod 
<p€V yrj, Kara irddos fJi€Ta^\rj6^VT0S tov ydixfia eh to deXra, cos ev rip Arj/jLrjTrjp, irrjyrj, Trrjdij 
irapd rb rb vddjp irrjddv dvuj, Aristoph. Lys. 198 0eO 5a, et. mag. p. 60, 8ff. aXeu* a 5a (so 
J. C. de Pauw for dXei^dSa) e'lpriTaL (bs rb <pev 5a (so J. C de Pauw for (pevba). oi yap Awpteis 
TTjv yr)v 8dv X^yovai /cat 5aiaj' (so J. C. de Pauw for 5iaj' Arnald cj. /car' idlav H. L. Ahrens 
cj. ws 5tai' cod. Va. has 7611' Kai 8dv but omits /cat 5/ai'), tos /cat tov yvb^ov bv6(f>ov. <p€v 5d 
(so J. C. de Pauw for (pe6da) ovu <pev yrj. ovrcos ovv /cat to dXev' d 8d (so J. C. de Pauw for 
dXeudSa) dXev' w yrj (sic ego. L. Kulenkamp cj. dXeuov yrj for dXeov 8d), rod 8d duTi tov yrj 
/cei/A^vou = Favorin. /ex. p. 112, loff., Theokr. 4. 17 ov Adu [ydv cod. k) with schol. vet. 
p. 139, 12 f. Wendel <ov Aav : > ov fxd ttju Ttjv oi yap Acopieis to 7 els 8 Tpeirovcriv and 
schol. rec. p. 160, 13 Ahrens oO 5aj' : ^id Trjp yiju, Theokr. 7. 39 ov Adv {ydu cod. k) with 
schol. vet. p. 250, 15 f. Ahrens oi) 8dp... : /xd Tr\v yijv [oi) ydv : ov /td ttjv yrjv cod. k), Theokr. 
18. 25 Tdv ov Adv Tts dfxwfxos (so H. L. Ahrens for Tdv oi) 8dv tls d/xw/jios cod. Par. 2833 
Tdv ou5' &v Tts &p.u}fios vulg. H. Kochly cj. Tdv oi) jxdv rts dfjioj/mos A. Meineke cj. Tdcov ou'rts 
a/xufxoi F. Bucheler cj. Tdv offrts Travdfiw/xos J. M. Edmonds cj. Tdv ov8' tjv rts d/xoj/xos), 
Hesych. 5^ (H. L. Ahrens cj. A^)- yrj (M. Schmidt ad loc. cites Kyrill. Alex. lex. cod. 
Dresd. 39 577W {sic) t] yrj and lo. Philop. ToviKa wapayyiXfiaTa 31, 13 8rj), Souid. Arjfx-^Trjp 
iffTlv 7] yv, oiovei Yrip.7}Tr}p rts odaa, Zonar. lex. p. 499 < ArjfjLifjTrjp- ij yrj, > olovel TrjfxrjTrjp 
Ttj oPo-a, Eustath. in II. p. 436, 41 8dTre8ov yiveTai 5e Trapd t6 5a, 6 5r;Xor Aw/ot/cws Ti]v 
yrjv, Kai Tb Tre8ov, p. 765, 21 f. oiaTrep Kai Tb Ar)[x'qTrip, 6 ecXTt yrj fxifjTrjp dXXrjyopiKCjs, Tzetz. 
zn Hes. o.d. 32 Ar]firiTr)p yap i} yrj Awpt/cws. ovtoi yap dvTi tov 7 5 Tidia^i, 8vo<pepbv yvo(pepbv 
Kai ArjfirjTpav Trifir^Tpav X^yovTes, Greg. Cor. p. 373 n. 35 Schaefer (cod. Voss.) dvTi tov 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 9 

the same idea — elasichtho7i^, ' who smiteth the land,' elelzchthon^, 'who 

7 T(^ 5 x/x^'^'Tai, olov ArjjurjTrjp Trj/iiriTrjp (Schaefer transp. V-qfj.-qT'qp Arj/jirjTrjp), yp6<po^ dp6(f)os, 
yvocpepbi' duo^epdv. In c arm. pop. 9 Bergk*, 50 Diehl ap. Prokl. in Hes. o.d. 389 TpiirbXeov 
de (cod. a), where T. Bergk prints rpls woXeovcriv and E. Diehl Tplirokov §77, J. M. Edmonds 
cj. TpcTToXos 7] 8ri). It should, however, be observed that the ancient grammarians in general 
are by no means committed to this view. 

With the dawn of modern philology scholars began to doubt the equation 5a = 777. 
H. L. Ahrens De dialecto Dorica Gottingae 1843 P* 80 f. definitely denied it. He explained 
'Yivvoaiboi^ either as a simple derivative of ipocris, or as a blundered form of * 'Evvoaiyas, or 
as equivalent to 'EvvojiyaLos, Ad being in this case an ancient but unrelated name of the 
goddess r-^ (H. L. Ahrens in Philologus 1866 xxiii. 207 n. 20). Later, on the strength of 
Cypriote f^a = Attic yr\ (W. Deecke and J. Siegismund in the Shidien zur griechischen und 
lateinischen 6^A«;//wa/?X' herausgegeben von G. Curtius Leipzig 1875 ^ii. 221 f., O. Hoffmann 
Die Griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1891 i. 221, A. Thumb Handbuch der griechischen 
Dialekte Heidelberg 1909 p. 292, C. D. Buck Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dialects 
Boston 1910 p. 55, F. Bechtel Die griechischen Dialekte Berlin 1921 i. 411), Ahrens 
admitted 5a as a Doric form of 7^ (H. L. Ahrens in Philologus 1876 xxxv. 21) — an admis- 
sion in which he was followed by J. Schmidt in the Zeitschri/t fiir vergleichende Sprach- 
forschung 1881 xxv. 145 ff. and R. Meister Die griechischen Dialekte GoiimgQn 1889 ii. 221, 
254, cp. G. Meyer Griechische Granunatik'^ Leipzig 1896 p. 268 (' 5a ist wohl bloss fiir die 
Erklarung von Adjua.Tr}p erfunden'). But the normal Doric form of yij was 7a (E. Boisacq 
Les dialectes doriens Paris 1891 p. 48 f.), and no recent philologist — even when confronted 
with Laconian 5l<f)ovpa (Hesych. s.v. dicpovpa (M. Schmidt corr. di<povpa) • ye^vpa. AaKcopes) 
and Gortynian bi(pvpa. (D. Comparetti in the Mojt. d. Line. 1893 iii. 293 ff. no. 154, II 14 ff. 
with facsimile = F. Blass in CoUitz — Bechtel Gr, Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2. 286 f. no. 5000, il /; 
14 ff. rhv hh poav \€t[7r]|ei' ottov /car^xet d (Comparetti reports A, a mason's error) ctt' 
dyopd\L d^(pvpa rj ttXIou, jxeiov bk /M'q)=yi<f)vpa — would support the claim that 5a is a legiti- 
mate Dorism for 777. 

That being so, we must abandon the attempt to make 'Evvoa-ibas a dialect form of 
''EvvoaLyaios. For all that, it may amount to much the same thing. Personally I incline 
to the view that Aa was an ancient name of the earth-mother {supra ii. 584 nn. o, i, 585 
n. i), Aas an ancient name of the sky-father, ultimately related to Zeiys (H. L. Ahrens in 
Philologus 1866 xxiii. 206 f.) and found as second element in the compounds 7rort-Aas, 
'Lord Zeus' {supra ii. 582 ff.), and di-Adas di-Ads, 'Zeus of the Earth' [Class. Rev. 1903 
xvii. 175 f. , Folk-Lore 1904 xv. 280 ff.); and I should interpret evvoai-Ads as 'He that 
shaketh Da, the Earth' rather than as 'Das or Zeus of the earthquake' (cp. Class. Rev. 
1903 xvii. 175). The later accentuation nort5as, 'At5as, 'Ej'j'oa'/5as was due — I conceive — 
to the false analogy of patronymics. 

Others prefer to suppose that in the tragic exclamation 5d we have the vocative and in 
the bucolic abjuration ov 8dv the accusative case of Ads, 'Zeus' (so H. L. Ahrens in 
Philologus 1866 xxiii. 206 f., R. Kuhner — F. Blass Ausfiihrliche Gramniatik der griechischen 
Sprache^ Hannover 1890 i. 144, 459)- 

^ Yvix^.frag. 18 Bergk* ap. Eustath. cofmnent. Pind. praef. 16 {opusc. p. 56, i9f. 
Tafel) KoX ' iXaalxOova Hoaeibuiva' rbv evvoalyaiov. F. G. Schneidewin in his Eustathii 
prooemium commentariorum Pindaricorum Gottingae 1837 p. 7 n. 13 says : ' Hoc quoque 
novum.' But T. Bergk ad loc. adds: 'nisi forte Pyth. VI 50 pro rlv 5' 'EXeXtx^oj' olim 
etiam 'EXdcrix^o'' legebatur.' L. Dindorf in Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. iii. 669 c cp. 
Hesych. s.v. 'EXdri^s-o Iloo-eiSwi', iv 'Mrivais; which, however, J. A. Hartung Die 
Religion und Myihologie der Griechen Leipzig 1866 iii. 219 and O. Jessen in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 2240 would translate 'Rower.' More probably it means ' Driver' 
of horses (so H. Usener in the Rhein. Mies. 1898 liii. 348 i.=id. Kleine Schriften 
Leipzig — Berlin 1913 iv. 278 and Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1161 n. 4, cp. Farnell Cults 
of Gk. States iv. 17) = Poseidon" I TTTrtos, *l7r7r777eT?7S, "IfjLxpios. 

2 Pind. Pyth. 6. 50 ff. 'EXAtx^oj/.., | ... | ...IIoo-a5dz/. 



lo Zeus and the Earthquakes 

maketh the land to reel/ seisicJithon^, 'who maketh the land to 
quake.' Sophokles speaks of him as tindktor galas'^, the 'agitator 
of the earth.' And the poets in general conceive of him as stirring 
both land and sea with his trident ^ 

But behind the poets lay old-world tradition. The Homeric 
epithet gaieochos^ was an actual cult-title of the god in Lakonike at 

^ Pind. 1st km. i, 76 Kpbvov (jeiaixOov vibv {sc. Poseidon), Bakchyl. 16. 57 ff. ei | 3e 
Koi ck {sc. Theseus) Tpoif^ryWa a-eLaixOopt \ 4)VTev(T€v AWpa Uoffetlddvi, k.t.\., 17. ^i f. 
Kpovida Avraiov \ aeLcix^ovos tIkos [sc. Sinis son of Poseidon Airatos (cp. Steph. Byz. s.v. 
Xvral, Xojpiov OeaaaXias, dia to XOcat ra T^/xwrj HocreidQua Kal aKeddcat rb dwb rov Kara- 
KXvfffiov v5u}p, Hesych. s.v. AvTair) > QeTraXri)), Dion. Hal. ar/L Rom. 2. 31 icaXetrat 5^ 6 
Beds, i} ravra iiriTeXovaL, l^Cjvaos vwo "Pcofjiaiojv ■ Sv e^ep/nrjue^ouTes els ttjv j^jxeripav yXwrrap, 
IloaeLdCjpa aeialxdovd <pa<nv elvai tlvcs, Kal 5ta tovto viroydi^ TeTifxriadaL ^(v/x(^ X^yovcnv, 
OTi TTjv yijv 6 deos ovtos ^x"- k.t.X., Cornut. t/ieol. 22 p. 42, i f. Lang etra ivoa-ix^ova Kal 
ivo(xlyaiov Kal aeiaix^opa Kal ripdKTopa yaias k.t.X., Gell. 2. 28. i antiquissimi Graecorum, 
qui Neptunum (reiaixBopa appellaverunt, Amm. Marc. 17. 7. 12 Neptunum humentis sub- 
stantiae potestatem Ennosigaeon et Sisichthona poetae veteres et theologi nuncupaverunt, 
Orph. Ar^. 345 f. avrbv re Kpopidrjv creKxixdopa, Kvavoxo-i-T-qp , \ KiJiaaros iKirpodopbvTa 
fioXeiv iirnappodop opKOjp, Cougny Anth. Pal. Append. 4. 47. i f . = Orph. frag. 2, i f. 
Abel, 285, I f. Kern (ppd^eo 8ri Kal rbvbe Xbyop, t^kos, oinrbTe kcv drj | yaTav Kiv-qcrri 
Seto'^x^wj' /cuai'oxcitTT^s (Cougny and Abel print creio'^X^wi' Kuavoxct/rT/s), | k.t.X., oracL Sib. 
3. 402 ff. (cp. 1. 184 ff.) Geffcken oTnrbTe k€p 'Pe/r/s fiiKpop yivos iv x^'"'^ Kvfxa (so 
Wilamowitz for pevfxa, cp. i. 184) | divaov pi^rjaip d5irl/7]Toi<n TedrjXbs \ avrbirpepLPov diffTou 
ly iv vvktI yivrjrai \ iv irbXei avTdpbpi^ <T€t.<xix6oPos (so Castalio (S. Chateillon) for drlcreLS 
xOovbs cod. ^ and aTrjcreLs x^ovbs cod. ^) ivpo<nyalov, \ rjv iroTe (pTjfxi^ovaiv iirwvvfxiyjv 
AopvXaiov I dpxo-l-V^ ^pvyiris iroXvdaKpvToio KeXaiv7]s (allusion to Kelainai). [But in oracl. 
Sib. 1. 16 ff. Geffcken oirdTav aeicrix^i'^i' dcrrepoirrjTrjs \ eldivXcov i^rjXop dpaixxei Xabv re Tivd^ei \ 
'Fib/xrjs iirTaX6<j)oio the reference is to the supreme Deity of the Jews or the Christians.] 
Cp. et. 7nag. p. 668, 54 aeiaw, aeLalx^^v. 

SchoU — Studemund anecd. i, 267 'ETr/^era HoaeidCovos (10) KLvrjaixdovos perhaps 
originated in a gloss, cp. Hesych. s.v. ivvoalyaios' Kivrjalyaios. iirideTov IlocreLdwvos. 

^ Soph. Track. 500 ff. /cat ottws Y^^povlbav dirdTaaev {sc. how Kypris beguiled Zeus) ov 
Xiyu, I ovde rbv ^vvvxov"At.5ap, \ -^ Uocreiddwva TivdKTopa yaias, Cornut. theol. 22 p. 42, 2 
Lang (quoted in the preceding note) = Eudok. viol. 769 (p, 569, 24 f. Flach) elra ivvo- 
fflx^ova Kal ivvoaiyaiov Kal aeiaix&ova Kal TivdKTopa yaias k.t.X. Cp. Nonn. Dion. 21. 155 f. 
Koi x^ovbs iTrprjvve {sc. Hera) TivdKTopa KvavoxaiTrjv \ yvwTbv ibp Kal Zrjva irbaiv Kal /urjTipa 
'Peirjv, K.T.X. 

^ Aisch. P.v. 924 f. daXacTdiav re 777s TivdKTeipav vbaov, | Tpiatvav, aix/^W tt]p Iloaei- 
Suvos, (TKcdq^ {sc. Zeus) (Wilamowitz, accepting the v6<nov of cod. Med.^, rewrites daXaffaiav 
re 7^s TLvdKTcipav vbcriov \ alxfJ-W, rpiaivav rj IVoaeibGjvos aKedg), Aristoph. e(/. 839 f. tQv 
^vfifxdx^v T dp^eis ^x^^ Tpiaivav, \ rj jroXXd xPVI^c-t' ipydaeL aeiwv re Kal TapaTTcav (of 
Demos as Poseidon), nub. 566 f. Tbv re fxeyaa-devrj TptaivTjs Tafxiav, \ yrjs re koI dXfxvpds 
daXdaarjs &ypiov fioxXevT-qv with schol. ad loc. doKei yap 6 HoaeidQv ov Trjv ddXaa<rav kipciv 
fxbvov dXXd Kal tt]p yrjp, 'Nikephoros progj/mn. 7. 12 (C. Walz Rhetores Graeci Stuttgartiae 
— Tubingae 18321. 498, 15 f.) W.o(xeibOiv ttjp yijv dvefibxXeve, cp. Verg. Aen. 2. 418 f., 
610 ff. 

■* Homer uses this epithet sometimes with (//. 13. 43, 20. 34, Od. i. 68, 3. 55, 8. 322, 
8. 35o« 9- 5^8, /i. Pas. 6), sometimes without the name of the god (//. 9. 183, 13. 59, 
'3-83. 13- 125, 13.677, 14. 355, 15. 174, 15. 201, 15. 222, 23.584, Od. II. 2\\,h.Hervi. 
187), but always of Poseidon. Later poets, misconceiving the second element in the 
compound, applied it to other deities (Aisch. suppL 813 ff. (Ti^i\'^ov 5' iKiTas aidev, 
yai\doxe irayKpaTis ZeO, Soph. O.T. I59ff. Tr/awrd (re KeKXbfJLCvos, OijyaTep Aibs, dfx^pOT 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 1 1 

Therapne^ and Gythion^, in Attike at Athens^, and in the archi- 

Addva, I yaidox^v t d8€\<p€CLv {"Aprefnv, k.t.\.) in the sense of 'holding' or 'guarding 
our land.' Nonnos makes it mean 'dwelling on earth' (Nonn. interpr. ev. lo. 1.5 line 
II f. (xliii. 749 A Migne) iv axKvbevTL 8k k6<7ixi^ \ oi/paviais creXdyt^e /SoXats yai'^oxo^ 017X77) . 
Another and less pardonable blunder in etymology accounts for Bekker anecd. i. -219, 8 
7af^oxos I'ttttos, dirh tov tois oxT^/iacrt %a//3eti'. 

In Hes. theog. 15 i]bk noceiSdwya yat.rjoxov evvoaiyaiov cod. D reads yerjoxop, which 
is accepted by K. W. Goettling — J. Flach and H. G. Evelyn White. But the vulgate is 
defensible as an example of internal shortening (R. Kuhner — F. Blass Aus/ukr/t'cke 
Grammatik der griechischen Sprache^ Hannover 1890 i. 312 f.). 

The supposed derivation from ^x^ gave rise to various forms in -oOxos (Hesych. s.vv. 
7at770i;xV T^ '^W yw ^xovvti, /cat avv^x^^'^'-) y^ovxos' 6 ttjv yrjv '^x^^i yf)ovxoS' 6 ttjv yijv 
avv^X^^i Souid. s.vv. yaiovxoS' 6 ttjv yrjv ox^v, yeovxoi- 6 UoaeidQv, 6 tt)v yrju ^X'*"'> 
Scholl — Studemund anecd. i. 267 'ETrt^era HoaeihGivoz (4) ya.iy]ovxoV' yeo{)xov di, Eustath. 
in Od. p. 1392, 23 ff. (rrifielwo-ai Se cos yatrjoxos fJ-kv fiovax^^^ 8id d^pOdyyov, yeovxos 8k Kal 
yrjovxos Kad* ^UpcpScauov fxep Kal Ai8v/xov Sid e i/'tXoO irapd ttjv xf/i\oypa(povfxkur}i' 7^01/ rjs 
(Twaipe/jLa i] yij' dWoi 8k 5ta rrjs ai 8i<p66yyov irapd ttjv Xoltttju yacav e^ i]s Kal 6 701770x05). 

Scholl — Studemund anecd. i. 267 'Errt^era IlocretSciji'os (3) 7acetoi'. yairjiov 8^ possibly 
preserves a genuine appellative of Poseidon, though the glossator — according to O. Jessen 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. 484 — was thinking of the phrase rat77tos ui6s {Od. 7. 
324, Anth. Fal. 14. 23. i). 

^ Near Therapne was a sanctuary of Poseidon Fatdoxos (Paus. 3. 20. 2 tovto\> 8e ov 
iroXv IIoo'etStDi'OS d(p4<TTr]Kev iepbv etrlKXTjcnv TaLabxov) with a hippodrome, which was visited 
by Epameinondas' cavalry in 369 B.C. (Xen. Hell. 6. 5. 30 €k tovtov 8t) ij/xkpa rpiT-g rj 
T€TdpTTi TrporjXdov ol iTTTrecs els rbv iinrbSpoixov eh Taiabxov /cara rd^ets, ot re Qrf^aToL wdpTes 
Kal ol 'HXetot Kal ocroi ^WKitav •^ GerraXo)?' ■^ AoKpQv linreh Traprja-av) . The festival of the 
god Taidfoxos is mentioned repeatedly on a s/^le of white marble, which was found in 
two portions — the one in the monastery of the A7i0i TeaaapdKovTa or HiapdvTa between 
Sparta and Chrysapha (W. M. Leake Travels in the Morea London 1830 ii. 521 with 
pi. 71 at end of vol. iii, Roehl Inscr, Gr. ant. no. 79, id. Imagines inscriptionum 
Grcecarttm antiquissimarum^ Berolini 1907 p. 100 no. 17, Roberts Gk. Epigr. \. 262 fF. 
no. 264, R. Meister in Collitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2. 10 f. no. 4416, Michel 
Recueil d'' Inscr. gr. no. 946, M. N. Tod and A. J. B. Wace A Catalogue of the Sparta 
Museum Oxford 1906 p. 64 f. no. 440), the other in the ruined temple of Athena XaX/c^- 
oi/fos at Sparta (H. J. W. Tillyard in the Anit. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1906 — 1907 xiii. 174 — 
182 with photographic fig., A. M. Woodward ib. p. 178, W. Kolbe in Inscr. Gr. Arc. 
Lac. Mess, i no. 213). Beneath a spirited, though much damaged, relief of a four-horse 
chariot driven from right to left (M. N. Tod and A. J. B. Wace op. cit. p. 176 no. 440) 
comes a long inscription in Doric, to be dated shortly before 431 B.C. The opening lines 
(i — 5) contain a metrical dedication : Aa/xduop \ dvkdeKc' Adavaia[L\ \ UoXcdxai k.t.X. Then 
follow four lists of victories : (6 — 34) those of Damonon in chariot-races; (35 — 49) those 
of Damonon's son Enymakratidas ; (49 — 65) those of Damonon as a boy ; {66 — 96) those 
of Damonon and Enymakratidas at the same contests. The record includes various events 
€v Faia/^xw, 'at (the festival) of Gaidochos' {Inscr. Gr. Arc. Lac. Mess, i no. 213, 6 ff . 
Td8e evlKahe Aaii6vo\y'\ \ tol avTo TedpLTnro[L] \ avTos dviox^ov \ iv Taiafdxo TeTpaKiv, 49 ff. 
Kal Aajxbvov \ ivUe Trais iov iv \ Vaiafoxo (TTddiov Kal j [8i]avXov, 81 ff. vtto 8e 'Api<rT€ 
^(popov I Td8e iviKe Aa/xSvov \ iv Vaiafdxo ivhe^dhais \ [^]i7r7rois avTos dviox^ov | [/f]ai ho 
KiXe^ fjuds dfxipas \ [h]afjLd ivlKe Kal ho hvios \ CTdSiov Kal 8lavXov Kal \ SoXtxbv fiids dfiipas \ 
cvLkov Trdi'res hap-d, 90 ff. {)ir6 Sk 'Exe/^^ve 'i(f>opov \ rdSe iviKe AafiSvov | ev Taiafdxo 
ivhe^bhais \ hlinrois a^r^s dviox^ov \ [f]a( 6 hvibs aTd8iov /ca[i] | [8iavXov Kal 8oXixbv yUtas] | 
[dfxipas hajxa evt'/ce]). Cp. Hesych. s.v. yaL-fjoxos' 6 t77J' yijv (xwix'^^i ^ ^""2 ttJs 7^5 
oxovp^evo^ (so M. Schmidt for utto t^s 7^5 avvexbfievos cod.)- ^ i-mriKbi, 6 ^7rt rots 
ox'OP'acLv 17 dppacL xcttp'^*' (so J. V. Perger for oxvpaai dp^ovai xatpeti' cod.). AaKcoves. 

^ There was at Gythion a sanctuary of Demeter and, adjoining it, a statue of Poseidon 



12 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

Taidoxos (Paus. 3. 2 i. 8 fat Arf/xrjTpos lepbv dyiov Kal UoffeidQvos dyaXfia Taiaoxov (so codd. 
Va. Ag. Pc. Lb. yaiaouxov codd. Vb. La. R. Pa.)). Both deities figure on coins of the 
town — Demeter seated, holding corn-ears and sceptre, on a bronze coin struck by Geta 
{Nwnismata qucedam cujuscunque forma et nietalli miisei Honorii Arigoni, Veneti Tarvisii 
1 741 i. 9 no. 134, Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner Ntun. Comm. Paus. i. 62 no. 5), 
Poseidon standing, naked, with dolphin in outstretched right hand and trident in raised 
left, on a bronze coin struck by Caracalla (Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner op. cit. i. 62 
no. 6 pi. O, 3). 

^ Athens had a priest of Poseidon PaiTyoxos and 'Epex^ei^s {Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i 
no. 276 = Michel Reaieil cP Inscr. gr. no. 860, 37 = Roberts — Gardner Gk. Epigr. ii. 469 
no. 268 a theatre-seat inscribed shortly before the Christian era iepsojs \ IToaeiScDj'os | 
TaL7)6xov Kal | 'Epex^^ws), otherwise styled Poseidon 'Epex^eus Tac-qoxos {Corp. inscr. Att. 
iii. I no. 8o5 = Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr.'^ no. 790 a base of Pentelic marble, on the 
akropolis at Athens, recording a statue of C. lulius Spartiaticus erected in the time of 
Nero Vd{tov) 'lovKiov S7rapria|Ti«:6j', dpxtcpf'a ^e|[ci;j/] l^/e^aarQu Klai]\[ye]uovs 2€[j8]acrTWJ' ] 
€K Tov Koivov r77[s]| 'Axa'^'cts 5ta ^Lov irpC}\TOV tCov air aidvos, \ 6 iepevs Uoaeidwvols] \ 'Epex^fos 
TaLTjdxov I Ti{j3^pLos) KXavdios Qeoy^vrjls] \ UaLavie^s tov eavTov | (piKov). 

These inscriptions imply a rather half-hearted identification of Erechtheus with Poseidon 
Yatiqoxos. Other available evidence points in the same direction; for, w^hereas in s. iv B.C. 
the tribe Erechtheis is careful to distinguish its eponymous hero from Poseidon {Corp. 
inscr. Att. iv. 2 no. 556 c, i ff. = J. v. Prott and L. Ziehen Leges Graecorwn sacrae ii no. 27, 
I ^. = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. ii — iii. 1 no. 1146, i ff. a decree of the tribe Erechtheis, before 
350 B.C. deoi. I 4>IXrwj' eXirev i[epa(r^at rwt JloaeLbQi\\vi Kal tQl 'Epe[x^ft tov iepia rbv 
del] I Xaxbvra ruxC^Jt dyadrji rrjs ^oXtjs Kal] \ tov 5rj/j.o to[0 'Adrjvaicjv Kal ttjs tpvXyjs] \ ttjs 

'E/)ex^'>;t[5os ] | irdTpia Kal Ka[ dvev 5]|e Tavpov Kal t[ ] ) 

k.t.\.) — a distinction observed as late as s. ii a.d. (Paus. i. 26. 5 iaeXdovaL di {sc. into 
the Erechtheion) eiVi jSwfioi, UoaeidQvos, e<f ov Kal ''Epex^^^ dvovaiv '4k tov (so R. Porson 
and E. Clavier for iK tov codd.) fiavTeij/xaToSt Kal ijpooos Boijtov, TpiTos de 'HcpaicfTov. AeXr. 
Apx- 1889 p. 20 f. no. 18 (a fragmentary marble base inscribed in s. ii (?) a.d. and built 

into a buttress on the southern wall of the akropolis at Athens) [. . . .]a IlocreiSa? [v ] | 

[.]d;/iOJ' IlaLauUa [ ]\ov 'Arepviov " A§pw\yo'i ] | '^pexO^ws [ ] | 

[ ] is indecisive) — , there was, at least from s. v B.C. onwards, a growing 

tendency to equate Poseidon with Erechtheus, the earlier occupant of the Erechtheion 
{supra ii. 793), the result being a syncretistic god called Poseidon 'Epex^^'^J (Lebas — Foucart 
Attique no. 104= Corp. inscr. Att. i no. 2,^'] = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 580 a small column 
of Pentelic marble found near the Erechtheion and inscribed in lettering of s. v B.C. 
'ETTtWXes I Ohoxdpes \ HoLva^To \ Hepyaaedeu | Uoaeidovi | 'Epex^et | dvediTev, Apollod. 
3. 15. 1 Havdiopos d^ dirodavbvTOS 01 iraides to, iraTpifa efxepiaavTO, Kal Tr]v<:fi^u (ins. 
L Bekker) >j3a(rt\e/a»' 'Epex^euy Xa/n^dvei, ttjv de i€poj<T6vrju Trjs'Adrjuds Kal tov Ilo(T€i.dQuos 
TOV 'Epexd^m (so C. G. Heyne, followed by R. Hercher, R. Wagner, Sir J. G. Frazer, 
for ipLxOopLov codd. C. Miiller, A. Westermann, I. Bekker accept "EpLX^oviov) Boi^rTys, 
[Plout.] de vitis decent oratorum 7 Lykourgos 843 B M^Setos, 6s Trjv lepoiaijvrjv Hoa-etSw/'os 
'Epex^^ws eTx^j il^' 843 C Kal AioKXia, 8teTd^aTo 5^ Kal tt}v lepcoavprjv tov HocreLduivos 
'Epex^<^ws {sc. Medeios ii and Diokles iii in the stemma of the Eteoboutadai as given by 
J. Topffer Attische Genealogie Bonn 1889 p. 318. [Plout.] loc. cit. 843 E— f states that 
the insigne of the priesthood was a trident handed on from one man to another, and that 
a group of successive priests was painted by Ismenias of Chalkis kv irlvaKi TeXeiip (on a 
tablet of full-length figures?) and dedicated in the Erechtheion by Plabron son of Lykourgos 
the orator. A. Reinach Textes grecs ei latins relatifs a Vhistoire de la peinture ancienne 
Paris 192 1 i. 305 n. 4 shows that this ancestral group contained seven figures and must 
have been executed between 320 and 310 B.C.), Hesych. s.v. 'Epex^ei/s* IIoo-eiScDi' kv 
'M-qvaLs ( = Favorin. lex. p. 744, 36 f.), schol. Lyk. Al. 158 to bk 'EpexBevs Tives ixkv iirl 
TOV UoaeibQvos, dXXoL d^ iirl tov Aibs iJKOvaau, Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 158 iaTeiXev o'Epex^ei)? 
6 Zei)s ij 6 UocreibQv irapd Tb ipix^u) t6 kcvQ Xeyofieuos (cp. supra ii. 793)) or less often 
'Epex^ei>s Poseidon (Athenag. supplicatio pro Christianis i p. i, 12 f. Schwartz 6 5e 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 



13 



pelago at Thera\ The meaning of the epithet has been the subject 
of much discussion^; but there can nowadays be no doubt that 
it denotes the 'earth-bearer,' just as aigiochos is the *<3:2^/j"-bearer^.' 

'A^Tyj/aZos 'Epex^ei XlocreiSwj'i dv^i k.t.\., A. N. Skias in the'E^ 'Apx- 1897 p. 62 ff. no. 49 
{■=id. ib. 1895 p. 107 f. no. 21 4- P. Foucart in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1882 vi. 436 ff., two 
portions of a marble block, which records the dedication, under M. Aurelius or Corn- 
modus, of a statue representing the granddaughter of Claudius Demostratos, one of the 
enemies of Plerodes Attikos and his accuser before Aurelius), 21 ff. Ovyaripa $[i\t7r]|7r7;j 
K\{av5iov) Arj/JLoarpoLTov 'Adrjuaiov, dp^avros iv tt][i iraTpidi] \ ttju iiribw/Mov dpxv^, (rrpaTriyr)- 
aavTOS iTr[l rot, oTrXa,] | ■yvixva(rLapx'r}(TavTos, KripvKedcravTos ttjs [e^ 'Apeiov] \ wayov ^ovXrjs, 
ayoivoder-qaavTos T\av[adT)vaiwv'\ | /cat 'EXeucreti'twj', i^7)yr)Tov nvcfTripi[^b}v, iep^ws] | 'Epex^^ws 
no(Tet5wy[os]). 

The fact that Poseidon at Athens bore the cult-title FatT^oxos gives special point to 
Soph. O.C. 1070 ff. ot Tav lirirlav \ ri/mQaiv 'Adduav | /cat tov irdvTtov yaidoxov | 'P^as 
<i>l\ov vi6v. 

^ A rough stone, about a foot long, dug up a little below the great wall which supports 
the eastern side of the a£-07'd at Thera, is inscribed in lettering of s. vi (?) B.C. [Pjataoxos 
(F. Hiller von Gaertringen in iheya/zrd. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1899 xiv Arch. Anz. 
p. 183, id. in Inscr. Gr. ins. iii Suppl. no. 1371 with fig, =:my fig. 2, F. Blass in 
CoUitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2. 169 no. 4723). 




5 



10 

L_l_ 



15 

I 



20 



£5 



Cm. 



Fig. 



2. 



On the Poseidon-cults of Thera see Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 575 n. i, Gruppe 
Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 246, 247, 268, 583 n. 7, 1139 n. 2, 1144 n. 2, Farnell Cults of Gk. 
States iv. 90 n. 77, F. Hiller von Gaertringen Thera Berlin 1904 iii. 57 f., 63, 97, 
E. H. Meyer in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 2842 f. 

- Ancient and modern opinions are listed by Welcker Gr. Gotterl. i. 627, Preller — Robert 
Gr. Myth. i. 572 n. i, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1139 n. 2 sub Jin., O. Jessen in Pauly — 
Wissovva Real-Enc. vii. 486. For a fuller discussion leading up to the right derivation, 
though not to the right interpretation, see A. Goebel in the Zeitschrift fiir die oster- 
reichischen Gymnasien 1876 xxvii. 243 — 246. 

^ In view of the form Faia/bxos {supra p. 11 n. i), philologists are all but unanimous 
in deriving the compound from 7a?a + -/bxos and in referring the second element to 
/?X'«' = Lat. veho (A. Bezzenberger in Collitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. i. 367 ff. no. 1267, 
24 (Sillyon in Pamphylia) /ex^rw 'let him bring,' R. yie\s\.QV Die griechischen Dialekte 
Gottingen 1889 ii. 168 f. no. 14^", 2 (cp. p. 244 -/ex- 'darbringen') = 0. Hoffmann Z>/<f 
Griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1891 i. 46 no. 66, 2 (Chytroi in Kypros) ^/e^e 'he brought' 
an offering), o'xos neut. (for */?xo5> cp. Hesych. '^x^'^^P'-^' dpixaffip, with 6- under the 
influence of 6xos masc, ox^tadai). See J. Schmidt in the Zeitschrift fiir vei'gleichende 
Sprachforschung 1895 xxxiii. 456, Prellwitz Etyni. Worterb. d. Gr. Spr.^ p. 88 'die Erde 



14 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

bewegend, erschlitternd,' Boisacq Diet* itym. de la Langue Gr. p. 139 'qui secoue la 
terre,' but ib. p. 735 'qui vehicule la terre,' F. Bechtel Lexilogus zu Hoiner Halle a.d.S. 
1914 p. 17 'der die Erde bewegt,' G. Meyer in Philologus 1923 Suppl. xvi. 3. 71 n. i 
'erdbewegend,' Walde — Pokorny Vergl. Worterb. d. indogerm. Spr. i. 249 'der die Erde 
bewegt.' The history of o'xos, ox^to'^cii is— pace the pundits — decisive for the meaning 
'earth-carrier' as against 'earth-shaker.' 

P. Kretschmer ploughed a lonely and fruitless furrow, when he sought to take the 
epithet as the equivalent oiTatav oxei^wi' 'mating with Gaia' [Glotta 1914 v. 303 and 1924 
xiii. 270). 

Poseidon appears as 'earth-carrier' in ceramic illustrations of the Gigantomachy 
(Overbeck Gr. Kunstinyth. Poseidon pp. 328 — 331 Atlas pi. 4, 6, 8, 12 b, pi. 5, ib, i c, 
pi. 12, 25—27, pi. 13, I, B. N. Staes in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1886 p. 88 pi. 7, 2, M. Mayer Die 
Giganten und Titanen Berlin 1887 pp. 316 — 319, H. Dibbelt Quaestiones Coae mythologae 
Gryphiswaldiae 1891 p. 14 f., Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 70, 584, Gruppe Gr. Myth. 
Rel. p. 258 n. 16, Frazer Pausanias ii. 48 — 50, E. H. Meyer in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 
2815 f., H. Bulle ib. iii. 2867, O* Waser in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. Suppl. iii. 659, 
669, 686, 754 f., J. Six in the Ath. Mitth. 1925 1. 117 ff. pi. i). According to the oldest 
accessible form of the myth 'Polybotes, chased through the sea by Poseidon, came to 
Kos; whereupon Poseidon, breaking off a piece of that island now called Nisyros, hurled 
it upon him' (Apollod. i. 6. 2, cp. Strab. 489, Eustath. in Dionys. per. 525, Plin. nat. 
hist. 5^ 133 f.). A variant version tells how Polybotes, when struck by Zeus, started to 
swim, and how Poseidon flung a trident at him but failed to hit, the missile becoming the 
island Nisyros or Porphyris (Steph. Byz. s.v. 'Nlavpos ( = Eudok. vio/. 764, Favorin. kx. 
pp. 131 1, i4f., 1536, 18 ff.)). Black-figured vases regularly show Poseidon moving from 
left to right and bearing on his left shoulder the mass of rock with which he is about to 
overwhelm his opponent (Overbeck op. cit. p. 328 ff. enumerates fourteen such vases). 
But only one vase, an Ionian amphora, adds the name Polybotes {supra ii. 713 pi. xxx). 
Red-figured vases of the strong style {c. 500 — 460 B.C.) give Poseidon in the same 
attitude, but further characterise his rock as the island by representing on it an assortment 
of land- and sea-creatures (Overbeck op. cit. p. 330 f. lists eight such vases. Typical 
are (1) an amphora from Vulci, now in the Vatican, referred by J. D. Beazley Attic Red- 
figured Vases in American Museums Cambridge Mass. 19 18 p. 52, Attische Vasenmaler 
des rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. iii no. 2 and by Hoppin Red-Jig. Vases i. 206 f. 
no. 4 to 'the painter of the Diogenes amphora^ a contemporary of Myson and of 'the 
Eucharides painter' {Mus. Etr. Gregor. ii pi. 56, i a ( = ii^ pi. 60, i a), Overbeck op. cit. 
p. 331 no. 8 Atlas pi. 12, 25, W. Helbig Fiihrer durch die offentlichen Sammlungen 
klassischer Altertiimer in Roni^ Leipzig 191 2 i. 308 no. 489, with photographs by 
Moscioni (no. 8572) and Alinari (no. 35754 = my pi. ii)) : (2) a kylix from Vulci, now at 
Berlin (Furtwangler Vasensamml. Berlin ii. 589 ff. no, 2293), attributed to *the Brygos 
painter' {supra ii. 777 n. 2, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen Stils 
Tubingen 1925 p. 176 no. 6. R. Zahn in Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasenmalerei \\\. 
257 f- pl* 160 (part = my fig. 3) supersedes E. Gerhard Griechische und etruskische 
Trinkschalen des koniglichen Museums zu Berlin Berlin 1843 pi. 10 — 11 (part = Overbeck 
op. cit. p. 330 no. I Atlas pi. 4, 12 b)) : (3) a kylix from Vulci, now at Paris, assigned by 
Hoppin to 'the Brygos painter' (Hoppin Red-fig. Vases i. 136 no. 80), by Beazley to 
a dexterous but mechanical imitator of his style (J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des 
rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 189 no. i) (De Ridder Cat. Vases de la Bibl. Nat. ii. 
429 ff. no. 573, P. Milliet — A. Giraudon Vases peints du Cabinet des Midailles <Sr= Antiques 
{Bibliotheque Nationale) Paris 1891 vi^ classe, xi« serie ii. pi. 70 interior, pis. 71, 72 
exterior, Overbeck op. cit. p. 330 no. 2 Atlas pi. 5, i a, ib ( = my fig. 4), ic. My pi. iii is 
from fresh photographs. The rock on (i) shows a scorpion, a polyp, a hedgehog, and 
two fronds; on (2) a running fox (so Furtwangler and Zahn: Overbeck represents it as a 
galloping horse surrounded by a fringe of seaweed (?) etc.); on (3) exterior a hedgehog, a 
scorpion, a snake, and a goat (?) ; on (3) interior a snake (?), a fox, and tertiuvi quid). 

Only one of the red-figured vases names the Giant, and this calls him not Polybotes 



Plate II 




Amphora from Vulci, now in the Vatican : 
Poseidon, shouldering the island, attacks a Giant. 

See page 14 n. o (i). 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 15 




bJ3 



i6 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 





Kylix from Vulci, now at Paris : 

{A) Poseidon, shouldering the island, attacks a Giant. 
{B) Apollon(?), Dionysos, and Ares(?) attack Giants. 
(C) Hephaistos, Poseidon, and Hermes (?) attack Giants. 



See page 14. n. o (3) and page 16 Jig. 4. 



Plate III 




B 




C 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 



17 







C. III. 



1 8 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

It implies the ancient cosmological idea that the earth rests upon 
water^ — an idea perpetuated on the one hand by the popular belief 
in floating islands^ on the other hand by the philosophic belief that 
the world^ or the earth is a ship* and that earthquakes are due to 
waves of the nether sea^ 

but Ephialtes (a kratir at Vienna published by J. Millingen Ancient Unedited Monuments 
London 1822 i. 17 — 20 pis. 7 ( = my fig. 5) and 8, Lenormant— de Witte El. mon. cdr. 
i. 10 f. pi. 5, A. de La Borde Collection des vases grecs de M. le comte de Laniherg Paris 
1813 — 1824 i. pi. 4i = Reinach R^p. Vases ii. 188, i, Overbeck op. cit. p. 330 no. 3 Atlas 
pi. 13, I. The rock shows a polyp, a dolphin, etc., a prawn (?), a goat, a snake, and 
a scorpion). The change of name is ingeniously explained by O. Benndorf in the 
Arch.-ep. Mitth. 1893 xvi. 106 (followed by O. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 2784 f.), 
who conjectures that, just as Nisyros was believed to have been broken from Kos 
(probably from Cape Chelone: see Paus. i. 2. 4) and flung by Poseidon at the Giant 
Polybotes, so Saros was believed to have been broken from Cape Ephialtion (Ptol. 5. 2. 
33) in Karpathos and flung by Poseidon at the Giant Ephialtes. It is noteworthy that 
Nisyros occurs, not only as the name of the island off Kos, but also as that of a town on 
Kalydna (Plin. nat. hist. 5. 133) and as that of a town on Karpathos (Strab. 489, cp. an 
inscription from Tristomo in Karpathos published by M. Beaudouin in the Bull. Corr. 
Hell. 1880 iv. 262 f. no. i, i ^.=Inscr. Gr. ins. i no. 1035, i ff". M.e\dvdios \ M.eveKpdr- 
eu$ I 'RpvKovvTLOs, I 'ETra/'j'eros 'PdSios | Ntcru/aios, | Sojcr^TroAts | 'Apxi-Kparevs | BpvKo6vTios, j 
aiped^uTes lepay(ji}\[y]oL virb rod a6u7rau\[Tos] 8d/j,ov IloT[ei8a]\[vL Uopldjuilojc]). A. Fick 
Vorgriechische Ortsnajuen Gottingen 1905 pp. 51, 119 (Carian), 164 (Hittite, perhaps 
Lelegian). 

^ So in the cosmogonies of (i) Babylonia (P. Jensen Die Kosmologie der Babylonier 
Strassburg 1890 pp. 253, 254 f., 257 with pi. (3) (= R. Eisler VVeltemnantel und 
Himmelszelt Munchen 1910 ii. 628 fig. 80, cp. G. Maspero The Dawn of Civilization'^ 
London 1901 p. 542 f. with fig.), F. Lukas Die Grundbegriffe in den Kosmogonien der 
alten Volker Leipzig 1893 pp. 4, 43, M. Jastrow The Religion of Babylotiia and Assyria 
Boston etc. 1898 p. 430, id. Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and 
Assyria New York and London 191 1 pp. 87 — 91, F. Hommel Die Insel der Seligen in 
Mythus und Sage der Vorzeit Munchen 1901 p. 37 fig., A. H. Sayce in J. Hastings 
Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 191 1 iv. 128 f., A. Jeremias Handbuch 
der altorientalischen Geisteskultur Leipzig 191 3 p. 61 f.) ; (2) Palestine (J. Skinner 
A critical and exegetical Commentary on Genesis Edinburgh 19 10 pp. 17, 164, S. R. Driver 
A critical and exegetical Co?timentary on Deuteronomy'^ Edinburgh 1896 p. 406, C. A. 
Briggs and E. G. Briggs A critical and exegetical Comfuentary on the Book of Psalms 
Edinburgh 1906 i. 215, F. Lukas op. cit. p. 43 f. : see Gen. 7. i r, 8. 2, 49. 25, Ex. 20. 4, 
Deut. 4. 18, 5. 8, 33. 13, Job 38. 16, Ps. 24. 2, 136. 6, Prov. 8. 28, Am. 7. 4, etc.); 

(3) Egypt (?) (E. A. Wallis Budge The Gods of the Egyptians London 1904 i. 288 fi^., 
F. Hommel Ethnologic und Geographic des alten Orients Munchen 1926 p. 844 n. 4); 

(4) India (L. de la Vallee Poussin in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics 
Edinburgh 191 1 iv. 131 Buddhist cosmogony, H. Jacobi 2(^. iv. i^^j Brdh7nana2ix\<l Upanisad 
cosmogony, id. ib. iv. 158 ff. epic and Purdna cosmogony, id. ib. iv. 161 Jain cosmography. 
See also A. A. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 p. 14, supra ii. 1035 f.); 

(5) Japan (M. Revon in J. Hastings op. cit. iv. 162 f.). 
^ Infra Append. P. 

^ For the cosmic 6X/cds of the Pythagoreans see Philolaos /ro^. 12 Diels {supra i. 358 
n. 3, ii. 44 n. 2). Cp. Philolaos ap. Stob. eel. i. 21. 6<i p. 186, 27 ff". Wachsmuth = H. Diels 
Doxographi Graeci Berolini 1879 P- 33^ b 19 ^.=id. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker^ 
Berlin 191 2 i. 306, 26 f. ro Be i]yefiovLK6v iu rip fxecratTdTip irvpl, oirep rpdireus dlKrju Trpovrre- 
pdXero ttjs tov iravTos < (Xipaipas {suppl. A. H. L. Heeren) > 6 8r]iJ.iovpybs debs. Miss H. 
Richardson in an important paper on 'The Myth of Er (Plato, Republic, 616 b)' makes it 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 19 

probable that Platon's picture combining a straight axis of light with a curved periphery 
of light {supra ii. 44) was derived from the Pythagorean doctrine, which combined a fire 
at the centre of the universe with a fire girdling the sphere of the universe, and further 
that Platon's phrase olov ra VTro^dbfiara rwv Tpi-qpiav presupposes the Pythagorean 6\/cds 
{Class. Quart. 1926 xx. 113 — 133). 

Georgios the Pisidian, who was deacon of St Sophia and record-keeper at Byzantion 
under the emperor Herakleios (6ro — 641 A.D.), has introduced the same conception into 
his i^arjfiepov 7} Koa/xovpyia, a philosophico-theological poem in iambics on the creation of 
the world (K. Krumbacher Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur von Justinian bis zuni 
Ende des Ostrdniischen Retches'^ Mlinchen 1897 p. 710). The passage is as follows: w 7^5 
VTTOCTTrjpiynaTopuevoou vdojp, \ lctQiv beTT)v ^pldovaav aaraTij) ^dcret, \ y ^ddpovavrrj 7rpo(TX€(^v 
rbv d^pa, \ ovk ol5a irolav edpdaas dWrju ^dcriv, \ irolov bk Tadrr} drj/xLovpyQu irvdixiva, j cbs jxt] 
derjdy tou tier avrbv TrvdfjL^vos, \ creLpals de fxdWov rjyi/oTjfi&ais oXois | ttolQv KpefiacTTTju ttjp 
irdvopfxov 6\Kdda \ {i] yijydp 6\Kdi icrriv els vdojprdxo. \ earCxxa. Kal<p€povaaTriv olKOVjx^vriv),\ 
-if/dpLfiov bk relxos rrj daXdaay avW^yoiv, \ koL Xeirrbv dvTl((>payixa tt? ^oKrj ttX^kojv, | ktL^wv 
dk ^povTTjv, daTpairriv de deffTricras | iK tQv iv6ypoov eKrp^x^'-^ irvpeK^bXwv (Georg. Pisida 
hexaevieron 498 — 512 Hercher (printed in R. Hercher's ed. of Ail. var. hist. ii. 618 f.), a 
better text than xcii. 1474 a — 1475 a Migne). 

^ Thales held that the earth was afloat like wood upon water (Aristot. de caelo 2. 13. 
294 a 28 fif. 04 5' e0' CSaros Keiadai {sc. ttjv yrjv (paai). tovtov yap dpxo-ibTaTov TrapeLX7]<pafj.eu 
Tov Xbyov, 6v ^aaiv eiirelv QaXrjv tou MiXricriov, cos did to TrX(ar7)v eluai fxeuovcrav (joairep 
^vXov 7] TL roLOVTOv €Tepov {Kal yap tovtcou iir d^pos ixkv ovdev iri(f>vKe jxeveiv, dXX' €(p' vdaTos), 
(jjairep ov rbv avrbv Xoyov 6vTa trepl rijs yijs Kal tov vdaros tov oxovutos t7]v yrjw k.t.X., 
Simpl. in Aristot. de caelo p. 522, 14 ff. Heiberg eV avrr} hk tt\v GaXou rov M-LXijalov 
TidrfaLv {sc. bb^av) i(f> vdaros XiyovTos dxetcr^at t7}v yijv (xxnrep ^6Xov rj dXXo tc tQu iTnvr]X'^<^daL 
Ti^ OSari irec^vKOTuiv. irpbs raiJTTju 8e ttjv bb^av b ' Api(XTOTiXT)S dvTCXiyei jxdXXov icruis 
iiTLKpaTOvaav bid rb Kal trap AlyvTrTiois oOtws eu jxijdov crxVP'^'^^ Xiyeadai. Kal rbv QaXTJv 
iaias (KeWeu rbv Xbyov KCKo/jLLK^vai, cp. Aristot. met. i. 3. 983 b 20 ff. dXXd QaXijs fxev 6 rijs 
T0LavTT]s dpxvybs <piXo<TO(f)ias iibup eXvai (ftrjaLv {bib Kal ttju yrjv i(f) vbaros direcpaiveTO eluai), 
Simpl. in Aristot. //^jj/j. p. 23, 28 f. Diels bib irdvTOJU dpxw vir^Xa^ov (codd. D. E. have 
vireXa^ev but the reference is to Thales and Hippon) eXvai rb vbcop Kal ttjv yijv i(j) iibaros 
dire<f>rivavTO Keicrdai). 

Artemidoros of Ephesos, who c. 100 B.C. issued his Ve(aypa<po{>p,eva in eleven books, 
utilising the results of the Peripatetic Agatharchides and others (H. Berger in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 1329 f., W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur-^ Munchen 
1920 ii. I. 423), seems to have described the earth as floating on the ocean (Plin. nat. hist. 
2. 242 pars nostra terrarum, de qua memoro, ambienti, ut dictum est, oceano velut 
innatans longissime ab ortu ad occasum patet, hoc est ab India ad Herculis columnas 
Gadibus sacratas | LXXXV | . LXXVIII p., ut Artemidoro auctori placet, etc., Dicuilus 
liber de mensura orbis terrae 5. i (ed. G. Parthey Berolini 1870 p. 18, i ff.). Jdem dicit 
in tertio (Letronne cj. secundo) : pars nostrarum terrarum de qua commemoro, ambienti 
ut dictum est oceano velut innatans, longissime ab ortu ad occasum patet, hoc est ab Jndia 
ad Herculis columnas Gadibus sacratas, centum mil. sexagies et sexies et XXXta 
[simpliciter triginta {uncis inclusi A.B.C.)] milia passuum, ut Artemidoro auctori placet). 
But it is not quite certain that the phrase 'floating on the ocean' goes back beyond Pliny 
to Artemidoros, nor, if it does, that we should see in it more than a rhetorical flourish. 

Somewhat similar in expression, though diverse in origin, is lo. Chrys. horn, in Genes. 
12. 2 (liii. 100 Migne) raiTtiv avrrju t7]v ^apeiav, Kal tov to(Xovtov Kba/xov iirl tCov olKeiiov 
vuTwv (p4pov(Tav iwl tQv vbdriav idepieXicoffe, Kadds 6 TrpotprjTrjs ^r]crivj * 6 de/neXnocras iirl tCjv 
vbdrojv T7]v yijv' (Ps. 135. 6). 

^ Sen. nat. quaestt. 3. 14. i quae sequitur Thaletis inepta sententia est. ait enim 
terrarum orbem aqua sustineri et vehi more navigii mobilitateque eius fluctuare tunc, cum 
dicitur tremere. non est ergo minim, si abundet humors (so F. Haase. H. Diels Die 
Fragmente der Vorsokratiker^ Berlin 1912 i. 11, 7 follows Gercke in xt2i^\n^ si abundat 
humor) ad flumina profundenda, cum in humore sit totus. 



20 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

Now we have already seen reason to suppose that Poseidon was 
but a specialised form of Zeus^, his trident being originally the 
lightning-fork of a storm-god^. We should therefore expect to find 
at least some traces of the conviction that earthquakes were ulti- 
mately caused and controlled by Zeus. 

In point of fact, the earliest extant description of an earthquake 
attributes the phenomenon, naively enough, to the action of Zeus, 
who nods his head, shakes his hair, and thereby makes the mighty 
mass of Mount Olympos to trembled That is pure magic* and 
none the less magical because the magician was a god. Later epic 
writers imitate the scene^ which must have appealed to folk-belief 
of a deep-seated and permanent sort. Indeed, the same belief still 
lurks in the background of the peasant's brain. B. Schmidt^ pointed 
out that in Zakynthos, an island peculiarly liable to seismic vibra- 
tions', people explain them by saying 'God is nodding his head 
towards the earth' or *God is shaking his hair^' — both expressions 
being virtually identical with those used in the Homeric episode. 

Other poets, classical and post-classical, associate the most awe- 
inspiring of nature's moods with the anger of the greatest nature- 



^ Supra i. 717 n. 2, ii. 31 n. 8, 582 ff., 786 f., 846, 850, 893 n. o. 

'^ Supra ii. 789 ff., 850. 

^ //. I. 528 ff. ij, KoX Kvapirjaiv eir' o^p^ai vevffe Kpoviuiv \ d/x^p6<TiaL S" apa Xttirat 
cTreppibaavTO (Eustath. in Od. p. 1885, 60 has iireppdoovro) dvaKTos (cod. E*^ reads dvuKTi) \ 
Kparbs dir' adavdroio' ii^yav 8' eX^Xi^ev "OXvfnrov with schol. A. ad loc. cnrh to^tiiJv 5k 
\4y€Tat tQv arixiov ^ecdiav rbv dydXfJLaTOiroLov Troi^aai rbv iv''13.\i5i x^^i^o^^ {^^^) dvdpidvTa 
ovTus KajxTrrbfievov /cat avvujdovixevov and schol. T. (cp. scholl. L.V.) ad loc. lEi^pdvup 5i 
^Adrjvrjai roi/s (i)/3' deovs ypd(f)i>)v iv ttJ ctoS., u>j rjirbpcL trolov dpx^Tvwov Trepideir) Ad, 
TrapLojv ev didacTKaXov twv etrCov ifKovae, KCKpayds re tos ^x^t Tb dpx'^TVirov diridiv ^ypa^peu. 
Lffus o^v TovTO ive^dvLcev ovtQ ij "Upa (cp. Loukian. imagg. 7 6 fih ^ixppdvwp xP^'^^t^ 
rriv Kbfirjv o'iav t^s "Hpas ^ypaxpep). The former anecdote is a commonplace {supra i. 
2 n. i). The latter occurs here only and in Eustath. in II. p. 145, 10 ff., who combines 
the two (C. Robert in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 1193, A. Reinach Recueil Milliet: 
Textes grecs et latins relatifs h Vhisioire de la peinture ancienne Paris 192 1 i. 2845. 
no. 356, E. Pfuhl Malerei und Zeichnung der Griechen Miinchen 1923 ii. 749 f.). 

* Supra i. 14 n. i. 

^ //. 8. 198 f. cSs ^0aT* evxbixevo^' veix^cqce 8h irbrvia "UpVt | ffeiffaro 8' elvl dpbvif, 
eXAt^e 5e /xaKpbv "OXvfxTrov, h. Dion. I3ff. 17, koX Kvavirjatv eir' d(pp^<n vevae Kpovlcov I 
dfi^pdffiai 8' dpa xctiTat iireppibcravTO dvaKTOS \ Kparbs d7r' adavdroio, /xiyav 5' iXiXi^ev 
'OXv/j-Tov. Of these passages //. 8. 198 f. has been condemned as a late interpolation (W. 
Leaf in the argument prefixed to his ed. of //. 8, in his note ad loc, and in his book 
A Companion to the Iliad London 1892 p. 164) and h. Dion. i3ff. as an alternative 
version of h. Dion. 16 c5s d-wi^v iwivevae Kaprjari jx-qrUra Z^is (T. W. Allen and E. E. 
Sikes, D. B. Monro, etc. ad loc). Nonn. Dion. 2. 27 ff. describes the wrath of Typhoeus 
{supra ii. 449 n. 0(2)) in language reminiscent of the Homeric original (29 'OXviJ.ir(p, 
32 ideipais, 35 iXeXL^ero). 

* B. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 187 1 i. 33 f. 

' Supra p. 3 n. o, infra p. 29. ^ rivd^ei rd /naXXid rov. 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 2 1 

god. At the close of Aischylos' Prometheus bound the defiant Titan 
challenges the Almighty and bids him do his worst : 

Let his blast rock the earth, roots and all, from its base^ 

And when the answering thunderstorm bursts, the very first symptom 
of the wrath of Zeus is an earthquake-shock : 

Lo, now in deed and no longer in word 
The earth is a-quake^. 

Similarly in the brilliant exodos of Aristophanes' Birds Pisthetairos, 
who is clearly conceived as the new Zeus^, wields the nether thunders 
and thereby causes an earthquake*. The same feeling that the 
failure of the solid ground can be ascribed to no power lower than 
the highest prompts the Orphic hymn-writer boldly to transfer the 
epithet seisichthon, * who maketh the land to quake,' from Poseidon ^ 
to Zeus^ and the author of a Sibylline oracle to use the like language 
of his supreme Deity''. 

The fact is that, as the centuries went by, Poseidon lost while 
Zeus gained in religious significance. Earthquakes came to be 
connected less and less with the former, more and more with the 
latter. A short series of examples will here be instructive. In 464 B.C. 
a great earthquake laid waste the town of Sparta: the Spartans 
themselves believed that this was because they had once put to death 
certain Helot suppliants, who had fled for refuge to the sanctuary 
of Poseidon at Cape Tainaros^ In 387 B.c.^ the Spartans under 
Agesipolis i were invading the Argolid, when they were overtaken 
near Nemea by an alarming earthquake: they at once raised the 
paean to Poseidon, and most of them were for beating a retreat ; but 
their commander, putting the best construction he could on the 
ominous incident, offered sacrifice to that god and pushed on into 
the territory of the Argives^^. In 373 B.C. Helike and Boura on or 

1 Aisch. P.v. 1046 f. 2 Id. ib. 1080 f. 

•^ I have elaborated the point in Essays and Studies presented to William Ridgeway 
Cambridge 1913 pp. 213 — 221, infra p. 59 f. 

^ Aristoph. av. 1750 ff. c5 fxi-yo. xpi/ceoi' daTepoTri}^ (pdos, \ c3 Aids d/x^porov ^yxos 
irvp<p6poi/ {supra ii. 704), | w x^oj/tat ^apvax^^s ofi^po^dpoL 6' dfia fipovrai {supra ii. 805 
n. 6), I ah ode vvv x^ova aeiei. \ Aia de irdura {8id ak rd irdvra codd. P. P. Dobree cj. 5ta 
(TKTjiTTpa. A. Meineke, followed by B. B. Rogers, cj. 5?a Be trdvTo) KpaTTjo-as \ Kai -rrdpeSpov 
^aaiXeLOv ^x^i Aios. 

^ Supra p. 10 n. i. 

* Orph. h. Zeus 15. 8 f. ffeKrixdojv, av^r^rd, Kaddpcne, iravTorivaKTa, \ dcrrpdine, ^pourace, 
Kcpavvie, <f>VTd\i€ Tiev. 

^ OracL Sib. 2. 16 ff. Geffcken (cited supra p. 10 n. i). 

® Thouk. I. 128, cp. I. loi, 3- 54, Paus. 4. 24. 5 f . 

^ E. Meyer Geschichte des Alterthums Stuttgart — Berlin 1902 v. 271. 
^° Xen. Hell. 4. 7. 4 f. For the sequel see stipra ii. 7. 



22 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

near the coast of Achaia were swallowed in a single night^ by the 
most appalling of all Greek earthquakes : the catastrophe was 
attributed to the vengeance of Poseidon, who was angry because the 
men of these towns had refused to allow their colonists in Ionia to 
carry off or copy their statue of him or even to sacrifice unmolested 
on the ancestral altar^. Apameia in Phrygia was repeatedly devas- 
tated by earthquakes — a fact which, according to Strabon, explains 
the honours grantfed to Poseidon by that inland city^. But Poseidon 
was not the only deity concerned. In the days of Apollonios of 
Tyana {s. i A.D.), when the towns on the left side of the Hellespont 
were visited by earthquakes, Egyptians and Chaldaeans went about 
collecting ten talents to defray the cost of sacrifices to Ge as well 
as to Poseidon*. An interesting transitional case is afforded by an 
earthquake at Tralleis {s. \\ A.D.), which was authoritatively set down 
as due to the wrath felt by Zeus for the city's neglect of Poseidon : 
the Trallians were ordered to make ample atonement to both gods^ 
But when in 1 1 5 A.D. Antiocheia on the Orontes was severely shaken, 
the survivors of the disaster ignored Poseidon altogether and founded 
a temple at Daphne for Zeus Soter^. Again, in or about the year 
178 A.D. Smyrna was overthrown by an earthquake. P. Aelius 
Aristeides^, who was living in the neighbourhood, received divine 
injunctions to sacrifice an ox in public to Zeus Soter. At first he 
hesitated to do so. But he dreamed that he was standing beside the 
altar of Zeus in the market-place and begging for a sign of the god's 
approval, when a bright star shot right over the market and confirmed 
his intention. He carried through the sacrifice, and from that moment 
the dread disturbances ceased. Moreover, five or six days before the 
first shock he had been bidden to send and sacrifice at the ancient 
hearth adjoining the sanctuary of Zeus Olympios (at Dios Chorion in 
Mysia^) and also to set up altars on the crest of the Hill of Atys. 
No sooner were these precautions taken than the earthquake came 
and spared his estate Laneion, which lay to the south of the Hill^. 
Frequently, of course, an earthquake is recorded without explicit 
mention of any deity. Neither Poseidon nor Zeus is named as subject 
of the vague reverential phrases 'He shook ^^' or, more often, 'God 

^ Herakl. Pont. {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 200 n. 2 MLiller) ap. Strab. 384. 

2 Id. ib. 385, Diod. 15. 49, Paus. 7. 24. 6 with slight divergence in detail. 

' Strab. 579. ■* Philostr. v. Apoll. 6. 41 p. 252 Kayser. 

^ Supra ii. 959 n. o. ^ Supra ii. 1191. '' Stipra ii. 127. 

8 L. Blirchner in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xii. 677. 

** Aristeid. or. 25. 3170". (i- 497 ff. Dindorf). 

^^ Thouk. 4. 52 ^(xeiaev, cp. Aristeid. or. 25. 318 (i. 499 Dindorf) irpbrepov ^ creto-at to 
i^ dpxvs. 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 23 

shook ^.' Scholars have assumed that the god in question was 
Poseidon^. But the analogy of similar expressions relating to the 
weather points to the possibility that the name suppressed was that 
of Zeus^. And certainly in late times earthquakes were reckoned as 
a particular variety of Zeus-sign {Diose7nid)\ 

The Romans exhibited, on the whole, a more marked tendency 
towards cautious anonymity. They said that once during an earth- 
quake a voice was heard from the temple of luno on the Capitol 
directing them to sacrifice a pregnant sow — a direction which earned 
for the goddess the title of Moneta^. A pregnant sow was on other 
occasions sacrificed to Tellus^ or Terra Mater^ or Ceres^ or Maia^ 

^ Xen. Hell, 4. 7. 4 'iceiaev 6 Beds, Paus. 3. 5. 8 ^a-eia-e re di] 6 deos, cp. Aristoph. Lj/s. 
1 142 xa> dcos creiojv a/xa, Paus. i. 29. 8 AaKedaLfxovioi^ tt]v ttoKlv tov deov aelaoLVTOi, 3. 5. 9 
OX) irapiei cdiav 6 6e6s, 3. 8. 4 tov deov (reicravTo^, Dion Cass. 68. 25 aeiovTos tov deov. 

^ Schol. Aristoph. Lys. 1142, cp. Aristoph. Ac/i. 510 f. KavTois 6 IloaeidQv ovwi Taivdpc^ 
{TaLvdpov v.l. in Souid. s.v, Taivapov) Oeos \ aeiffas diraciv iix^aXoi tcls oiKias. 

^ Supra ii. iff. * Supra ii. 5. 

^ Cic. de div. i. loi (cp. 2. 69) with a useful note by A. S. Pease ad loc. The deriva- 
tion of Moneta from moneo (Cic. ib. 2. 69, Isid. ori^. 16. 18. 8, cp. Souid. s.v. Moi''>7Ta. 
Hence also Moneta as Latinised Mnemosyne in Livius Andronicus ^ra^. 25 ap. Priscian. 
inst. 6. 6 (i. 198 Hertz), Cic. de nat. deor. 3. 47, Hyg. fab. praef. pp. 10, 4 and 12, 7 
Schmidt) is merely folk-etymology. The attempt to connect it with the Semitic niachanat, 
'camp,' a legend found on silver Carthaginian coins current in Sicily and Italy before the 
Punic wars (E. Assmann 'Moneta' in Klio 1906 vi. 477 — 488, V. Costanzi 'Moneta' ib. 
1907 vii. 335 — 340, G. F. Hill Historical Roman Coins London 1909 p. 8, A. W. Hands 
'Juno Moneta' in the Num. Chron. Fourth Series 1910 x. i — 12) is more ingenious than 
probable. Relation to Gothic menops, Old High German mdnot, 'month,' implying that 
Moneta was a moon-goddess (K. F. Johansson Beitrdge zur griechischen Sprachkunde 
(= Upsala Universitets Arsskrift 1890 Abh. iii) Upsala 1891 p. 129 f.), does not adequately 
account for her 0. Walde Lat. etym. Worterb.'^ p. 493 concludes: 'Wohl vielmehr eine 
Bildung vom Namenstamme, der in Monnius, Monianitis usw. (Schulze Eigenn. 195) 
vorliegt, vgl. zum Suffix Orata, etr. m^ata, Lepta, Vahitius: Val{l)ius (ibd. 195, 396), so 
dass eine Sondergottin einer etrusk. gens Moneta vorliegt im Sinne Otto's Rh. Mus. LXiv, 

449 ff-' 

® Fest. p. 238 a; 28 f. Mtiller, p. 274, 6 Lindsay plena sue Tellu<ri sacrilicabatur 
{suppl. J.J. Scaliger)>, On. fast. i. 671 ff. placentur frugum matres, Tellusque Ceresque, | 
farre sue gravidae visceribusque suis. | officium commune Ceres et Terra tuentur : | haec 
praebet causam frugibus, ilia locum, Arnob. adv. nat. 7. 22 Telluri, inquiunt, matri scrofa 
inciens (sic vet. lib. Ernstii, marg. Ursini. ingens codd.) immolatur et feta, etc. 

' Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. 32323, 136 f. = Dessau Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 5050, 136 f. {acta 
sacroriim saecularium for June 2, 17 B.C.) Terra mater! uti tibi in ill[is libjris scriptum 
est, quarumque rerum ergo quodque melius siet p. R. Quiritibus,] | uti tibi sue plena 

propri[a sacrum fiat : te quaeso precorque ; c]etera [uti supra.] Cp. oracl. Sib. ap. 

Phlegon frag. 29. 4 {Frag. hist. Gr. iii. 611 Mtiller) and ap. Zosim. 2. 6 (p. 70, 2 f. 
Bekker) = Cougny Anth. Pal. Append. 6. 214. 10 f. 0.W1 hk Tairj \ irXridofxivr} xol^pois ?'? 
ipe^otTO iifKaiva (so Dessau after Mommsen. The MS. of Phlegon has Tr'Krjdoy^vrj x'^P^'-^ 
ol's iepeijoLTO fieXaLua, Zosimos gives TrXrjOo/jL^vr} x^^P^^ "^^ "^^tt 5s lepocTO /x^Xaiva). 

^ Verg. georg. i . 34 5 ff. terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges, | omnis quam 
chorus et socii comitentur ovantes, | et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta, Serv. m Verg. 
georg. I. 345 'felix hostia' id est fecunda. dicit autem ambarvale sacrificium, quod de 
porca et saepe fecunda et gravida fieri consueverat, Macrob. Sat. 3. 11. 10 notum autem 



24 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

as a means of communicating fertility to the ground ^ so that it had 
probably come to be regarded as a victim suited to the earth-goddess 
and therefore appropriate to a grave disturbance of the earth. Again, 
in 268 B.C., when Rome was waging war in Picenum, the battlefield 
was shaken by a seismic crash ^, whereupon P. Sempronius Sophus, 
the Roman general, vowed a temple to Tellus and in due time paid 
his vow^ But such cases were exceptional. As a rule the Romans 
were studiously vague and non-committal. Aulus Gellius, who 
brought out his Attic Nights in 169 A.D.*, has some interesting 
remarks on the point ^: 

THAT IT HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED TO WHAT GOD SACRIFICE SHOULD BE 
MADE ON THE OCCASION OF AN EARTHQUAKE. 

The ostensible cause of earth -tremors has not been discovered by the 
common experience and judgment of mankind, nor yet satisfactorily settled by 
the various schools of natural science^. Are they due to the force of winds pent 

esse non diffitebere, quod a. d. duodecimum Kalendas lanuarias Herculi et Cereri faciunt 
sue praegnate, panibus, mulso. Cp. supra n. 6. 

^ Macrob. Sat. i. 12. 20 adfirmant quidam, quibus Cornelius Labeo (on whom see 
G. Wissowa in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iv. 1351 ff.) consentit, banc Maiam cui mense 
Maio res divina celebratur terram esse hoc adeptam nomen a magnitudine, sicut et Mater 
Magna in sacris vocatur : adsertionemque aestimationis suae etiam hinc coUigunt quod sus 
praegnans ei mactatur, quae hostia propria est terrae. 

The connexion of Maia with magnus, maioi'^ etc. is philologically sound ( Walde Lat. 
etym. Worterb? \>. 455, Muller Altital. Worterb. p. 249 f.) and accords with the cult of 
lupiter Mains at Tusculum (Macrob. Sat. i. 12. 17 sunt qui hunc mensem ad nostros 
fastos a Tusculanis transisse commemorent, apud quos nunc quoque vocatur deus Mains 
qui est luppiter, a magnitudine scilicet ac maiestate dictus. The inscription from Frascati 
published by R. Garrucci I piombi antichi raccolti dalV eniinentissimo . . . Cardinale L. Altieri 
Roma 1847 p. 45 = Orelli — Henzen Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 5637 lovi | Maio | sacrum and by 
R. Garrucci Sylloge inscriptioniini Latinarum aevi Romanae rei publicaeTxxrm 1877 p. 174 
under no. 564 lovi | Maio | sacrum | P. Mucius pater is now held to be of doubtful 
authenticity: see H. Dessau in the Co7p. inscr. Lat. xiv no. 216* and in the Ephem. epigr. 
1892 vii. 383 no. 1276). 

^ Arnob. adv. nat. 7. 22 Telluri gravidas atque fetas ob honorem fecunditatis ipsius... 
et quod Tellus est mater... gravidis accipienda est scrofis — an explanation knocked down 
by Arnobius, but set on its legs again by Frazer Worship of Nature i. 334. 

2 lul. Obseq. 26, Oros. 4. 4. 5 ff . In Frontin. strut, i. 12. 3 the consul is wrongly 
called T. Sempronius Gracchus. 

^ Flor. epit. i. 14. For the aedes Telluris on the western slope of the Mons Oppius 
see O. Richter Topographic der Stadt Ro7?i'^ Miinchen 1901 pp. 323 — 325, H. Jordan — 
C. Huelsen Topographic der Stadt Rom im Alterthum Berlin 1907 i. 3. 323 — 326, 
H. Kiepert et C. Huelsen Formae urbis Romae antiquae'^ Berolini 19 12 p. 33, Frazer 
Worship of Nature i. 336—339, S. B. Plainer— T. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary 
of Ancient Rome Oxford 1929 p. 511. 

^ M. Schanz Geschichte der romischen Litteratur^ Miinchen 1905 iii. 188, K. Hosius 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. 993. 

fi Gell. 2. 28. X— 3. 

« See VXowi.de plac. philos. 3. 15 = H. Diels Doxographi 6^ra^« Berolini 1879 P- 379^ 
8 ff., Sen. nat, quaestt. 6. 5 ff., Suet./ra^. 159 Reifferscheid ap. Isid. de natura reruin 46. 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 25 

in caverns and clefts of the ground? Or to the pulsation and undulation of waters 
that surge in subterranean hollows, as the ancient Greeks, who called Poseidon 
seisichthon^ seem to have supposed? Or to any other specific cause, or to the force 
and will of another deity? As I said, belief does not yet amount to certainty. 
Accordingly the Romans of yore, who in all the affairs of life and above all in the 
ordering of religious ritual and the tending of immortal gods displayed the utmost 
propriety and prudence, whenever an earthquake had been perceived or reported, 
proclaimed by edict a solemn holiday on account of it, but refrained from fixing 
and publishing as usual the name of the god for whom the holiday was to be kept, 
lest by naming one in place of another they might bind the people in the bonds 
of a false prescription. If the said holiday had been polluted by any man and 
need for a piacular sacrifice had therefore arisen, they slew the victim 'to god or 
to goddess' {si deo^ si deaeY', and this regulation was strictly observed in accord- 
ance with the decree of the pontiffs, as M. Varro^ states, because it was uncertain 
to what force and to which of the gods or goddesses the earthquake was due. 

Two centuries later Ammianus Marcellinus, a propos of a devast- 
ating earthquake at Nikomedeia in 358 A.D., observes that, when 

I — 3 (Ixxxiii. 1015 B — c Migne) and orig. 14. i. 2f., Amm. Marc. 17. 7. 9 — 12, Serv. in 
Vexg. georg. 2. 479 ( = Isid. oHg. 14. i. 2 f.), and the section 'Die wissenschaftliche Seis- 
mologie der Griechen ' in the valuable article on 'Erdbebenforschung' by W. Capelle in 
Pauly — Wissowa Keal-Enc. Suppl. iv. 362 — 374. 

^ The usage ofthis/ormu/a may be illustrated from Cato cfe agricult. 1 39 lucum conlucare 
Romano more sic oportet. porco piaculo facito, sic verba concipito: 'si deus, si dea es, 
quoium illud sacrum est,' etc., Macrob. Sat. 3. 9. 7 est autem carmen huiusmodi quo di 
evocantur, cum oppugnatione civitas cingitur : ' si deus, si dea est, cui populus civitasque 
Carthaginiensis est in tutela,' etc., Corp. inscr. Lat. i^ no. 632 =vi no. no {ib. no. 30694) = 
Orelli Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 2135= Wilmanns Ex. inscr. Lat. no. 48 = Dessau Inscr. Lat. 
set. no. 4015 sei deo sei deivae sac(rum). | C. Sextius C. f. Calvinus pr(aetor) | de senati 
sententia | restituit (on a large altar now standing at the southern angle of the Palatine 
(H. Jordan — C. Huelsen Topographic der Stadt Rom im Alierthum Berlin 1907 i. 3. 47 
ri- 3i^))> Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. iii=Orelli op. cit. no. 2 136 = Dessau op. cit. no. 4018 
sive deo | sive deae, | C. Ter. Denter | ex voto | posuit (formerly in the church of St Ursus 
at Rome), Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. 2099, ii 3 f. = Orelli op. cit. no. 2 2 70 = Wilmanns op. cit. 
no. 2884 = Dessau op. cit. 5047 sive deo sive deae, in cuius tutela hie lucus locusve | est, 
oves II, Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. 2099, ii 10 = Orelli op. cit. no. 1798 = Wilmanns op. cit. 
no. 2884 = Dessau op. cit. 5047 sive deo sive deae oves 11 (from the acta fratrwn Arvalium 
for 183 A.D.), Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. 2104, a 2 sive deo sive deae ov(es) n(umero) li (from 
the actafratrum Arvalium for 218 A.D.), Corp. inscr. Lat. vi no. 2107, « + 3 9 = Orelli op. 
cit. no. 961 = Wilmanns op. cit. no. 2885 = Dessau op. cit. no. 5048 sive deo sive deae ver- 
b(eces) 11 (from the actafratrum Arvalium for 224 a.d.), J. Schmidt in the Ephem. epigr. 
1884 V. 480 i. no. 1043= Corp. inscr. Lat. viii Suppl. 3 no. 21567, ^ 7 ff . Genio summ[o]| 
Thasuni et dejo sive deae [nu]|mini sane [to] | etc. (found at AJIH in Mauretania Caesariensis 
and referable to the date 172 — 174 a.d.), Corp. inscr. Lat. i^ no. iii4 = xiv no. 3572 = 
Orelli op. cit. no. 2 137 = Orelli — Henzen Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 5952 = Dessau op. cit. no. 4017 
sei deus \ sei dea (found at Tibur on a cippus of local stone), G. Gatti in the Not. Scavi 
1890 p. 2i8 = Dessau op. cit. no. 4016 si deo si deai, | Florianus rexs (found at Lanuvium: 
Florianus was presumably rex sacrorum). 

See further D. Vaglieri in Ruggiero Dizion. epigr. ii. 1726 and Wissowa Rel. Kult. 
Rom.^ p. 38. The '' sive... sive..? invocations are discussed by E. Norden Agnostos Theos 
Leipzig — Berlin 1913 p. 144 ff. 

^ Varr. antiquitatum rerum divinarum lib. 8 de {^Yusf^'ag. i (in R. Merkel's ed. of Ov. 
fast. Berolini 1841 p. cliiif.). 



26 Zeus and the Earthquakes 

such things happen, the priests prudently abstain from mentioning 
any deity by name, lest they should indicate some god not really 
responsible and so incur the guilt of sacrilege ^ 

While the clash of creeds was in progress, pagans of course 
blamed Christians^ and Christians blamed pagans^ for all the horrors 

^ Amm. Marc. 17. 7. 10 unde et in ritualibus et pontificiis observatur obtemperantibus 
sacerdotiis caute, ne alio deo pro alio nominato, cum, quis eorum terram concutiat, sit in 
abstruso, piacula committantur. 

Libanios, who composed a special and somewhat hysterical lamentation for the down- 
fall of Nikomedeia {or. 61 nionodia de Nicomedia (iv. 322 ff. Foerster)), appeals in primis 
to Poseidon (3, 6), but also to Helios (16), etc. 

^ Euseb. hist. eccl. 9. 7. i ff. cites in extensor, letter of Maximinus ii (305 — 313 A.D.), 
copied from a st^le at Tyre, in which he congratulates his eastern subjects on having 
returned to the faith of their forefathers and, after a characteristic (cp. supra ii. ii94ff.) 
laudation of Zeus {hist. eccl. 9. 7. 7 iKeivos roiyapovv eKeivos 6 v\J/l(ttos koL /xeyta-Tos Zei^s, 6 
TrpoKadrifieuos rrjs 'KafXTrpoTa.Trjs vfiQv 7r6Xews, 6 rods irarpipovs vfxQv deovs Kai •yvvaiKas /cat 
T^Kva KoX iffrlau Kal o'ikovs awb TrdcrTjs oKedplov (pdopds pvbjxevoi, rats v/merepaLS xj/vxcu^ to 
aoiTT^piou iu^wpevae PovXrj/xa, eindeiKvvs kul ^ix(f>aLV(j)v 'dirias e^alperbv eari, Kal \ap.irpov Kal 
ffiOTTjpiQdes ixera rod 6(f>€CKop.4vov cre^dcrfiaTOs ttj dprj(XKela Kal rats lepodpycTKeiaLS tCov ddavdroou 
deQv Trpoffi^tfai), explains drought, hurricane, earthquake, etc. as due to divine anger called 
down by the spread of the new religion {id. 9. 7. 8 ff.). 

Arnob. adv. nat. i. 3 had recently met, and refuted, a whole string of similar charges. 
Soc. 252 A.D. hadCypr. ad Demetrian. 2 — 5 (i. 352, 7 ff. Hartel). The calumny crystallised 
into a proverb (Aug. enarrat. in psalm. 80. i (iv. 1225 D ed.^ Bened.) non pluit deus, due 
ad Christianos (variants ibP' p. lii), de civ. Dei 2. 3 pluvia defit, causa Christiani sunt). In 
this connexion earthquakes played a large part (TertuU. apol. 40 si Tiberis ascendit in 
moenia, si Nilus non ascendit in arva, si caelum stetit, si terra movit, si fames, si lues, 
statim Christianos ad leonem ! adclamatur^ao' ;?a/. i. 9, Orig. in Matth. comment, series 
39 (xiii. 1654 A — B Migne) cum haec ergo contigerint mundo, consequens est quasi 
derelinquentibus hominibus deorum culturam, ut propter multitudinem Christianorum 
dicant fieri bella et fames et pestilentias. frequenter enim famis causa Christianos culparunt 
gentes, et quicumque sapiebant quae gentium sunt ; sed et pestilentiarum causas ad Christi 
ecclesiam rettulerunt. scimus autem et apud nos terrae motum factum in locis quibusdam, 
et factas fuisse quasdam ruinas, ita ut qui erant impii extra fidem causam terrae motus 
dicerent Christianos, propter quod et persecutiones passae sunt ecclesiae, et incensae sunt, 
non solum autem illi, sed et qui videbantur prudentes, talia in publico dicerent, quia 
propter Christianos fiunt gravissimi terrae motus, Firmillianus in Cypr. epist. 75. 10 (ii. 
816, 17 ff. Hartel: the letter is of 256 A.D. (A. Jiilicher in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
vi. 2379)) volo autem vobis et de historia quae apud nos facta est exponere ad hoc ipsum 
pertinente. ante viginti enim et duos fere annos temporibus post Alexandrum imperatorem 
multae istic conflictationes et pressurae acciderunt vel in commune omnibus hominibus vel 
privatim Christianis : terrae etiam motus plurimi et frequentes extiterunt, ut et per Cap- 
padociam et per Pontum multa subruerent, quaedam etiam civitates in profundum recepta 
{leg. receptae) dirupti soli hiatu devorarentur, ut ex hoc persecutio quoque gravis adversum 
nos nominis fieret, quae post longam retro aetatis pacem repente oborta de inopinato et 
insueto malo ad turbandum populum nostrum terribilior effecta est. Serenianus tunc fuit 
in nostra provincia praeses, acerbus et dirus persecutor, in hac autem perturbatione con- 
stitutis fidelibus et hue atque illuc persecutionis metu fugientibus et patrias suas 
relinquentibus atque in alias regionum partes transeuntibus (erat enim transeundi facultas 
eo quod persecutio ilia non per totum mundum sed localis fuisset), emersit istic subito 
quaedam mulier quae in extasin constituta propheten se praeferret et quasi sancto spiritu 
plena sic ageret. ita autem principalium daemoniorum impetu ferebatur ut per longum 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 27 

of a quaking world. But ultimately men in general and moralists in 
particular settled down to the belief that an earthquake as such was 
a divine visitation meant to vindicate the power of the Creator-"- or 
to chasten and reform his erring creatures ^ 

Painters and poets, who from time to time personified the 
Earthquake, naturally reverted to earlier mythological conceptions^. 
Raphael in one of the marvellous tapestries designed by him (151 5 — 
1516)^ for the Sistine Chapel at Rome and woven by Pieter van 
Aelst of Brussels^ represented the imprisonment of St Paul at 

tempus sollicitaret et deciperet fraternitatem, admirabilia quaedam et portentosa perficiens 
et facere se terram moveri polliceretur : non quod daemon! tanta esset potestas ut terram 
movere aut elementum concutere vi sua valeret, sed quod nonnumquam nequam spiritus 
praesciens et intellegens terrae motum futurum id se facturum esse simularet quod futurum 
videret. etc.). See further J. E. B. Mayor's notes on Tertull. apol. 40. 

^ Obviously two could play at that game, and of the two the Christians were likely to 
compile the bigger score. Cp. the leges novellas ad Theodosianum pertinentes ed. adiutore 
Th. Mommseno Paulus M. Meyer Berolini 1905 p. 10 de lud. Sam. haer. et pag. 3. 8 an 
diutius perferemus mutari temporum vices irata caeli temperie, quae paganorum exacerbata 
perfidia nescit naturae libramenta servare? unde enim ver solitam gratiam abiuravit...nisi 
quod ad inpietatis vindictam transit legis suae natura decretum ? 

^ E.g. lo. Chrys. in terrae motum etc. i (xlviii. 1027 Migne) et'Sere Qeov d^jva/jLti/, 
eidere QeoO (piXavOpojiriav ; ddvafxiu, on, iriua^e ttju olKOVjxivqv (piXaudpioTTLav, 6tl irlTTTovcrav 
avT7)v ^ffTTjae' k.t.X. (perhaps in allusion to the earthquake which shook Antiocheia 
on the Orontes in 396 A.D. : W. Capelle in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. Suppl. iv. 356). 

^ E.g. lo. Chrys. ad popuhim Antiochenum horn. 3. 7 (xlix. 57 Migne) /at) 7ap ovk 
r)d6paT0 KOjXvaai ra yeyevrjixiva 6 Geos; dXX' d(f>rjK€v, 'iva rods KaracppovoOvTas avrov kv t<^ 
Tov (TvvboiiXov (f)6^op <TO}(ppoveffTipovs ipyd(jr)Tai, id. in acta Apost. hom. 7. 1 (Ix. d^ Migne) 
et ix^fivqade Cos, ore ttjv iroXiv ■r)fxiv ^(xeiaev 6 Geos Kal Trdvres rjaav (XwearaXixivoL, ovtoj t6t€ 
eKelvoL di^KeivTO • ovdets vwovXos rjv, ovbels irovqpos. Kal yap tolovtov (p6^09, tolovtov tj dXlrJ/LS. 
K.T.X. (during the earthquake at Constantinople in 400 or 401 A.D.), id. in Acta Apost. 
ho7n. 41. 2 (Ix. 291 Migne) etVe yap yu,ot, ov irepvaLv iriva^ev 6 Qeds tt]v ttoXlv irdaav ; ri 
5ai; oi/xl TravTcs iiriTO (pibrifffxa ^dpa/xou; k.t.X. (at Constantinople in 399 A.D.) , Philastrius 
diversarum hereseon liber 102. i — 3 Fabricius (74. i — 3 Marx) alia est heresis quae terrae 
motum non dei iussione et indignatione fieri, sed de natura ipsa elementorum opinatur,... 
quod etiam in huiusmodi rebus indignatio dei et potentia operatur et suam commovet 
creaturam conversionis causa et utilitatis quippe multorum peccantium ac redeuntium ad 
dominum salvatorem atque creatorem (written c. 385 — 391 A.D. : M. Schanz Geschichte 
der rdmischen Litteratur Mlinchen 1904 iv. i. 359), Philostorg. eccl.hist. 12. g (Ixv. 617 c 
Migne) Kal &XXa de TOiovrbTpoira irddr] TTjuiKavra et'ewx/xw^r;, deiKv^jVTa /ult] (pvcrtK-^ tlvl Tavra 
irpoeXOe'iv aKoXovdiq., ws 'EXXt^j/wj/ iralbes Xr)pov(Ttu, dXXd delas dyavaKTifjixews fidaTiyas 
eira(()edrivaL, id. ib. 12. 10 (Ixv. 620 A Migne) on 8La<f)6pois eirix^Lprifiaai KaraaKevd^etv 
jreLpaTai rovs aeLcr/jiovs firjTe 5id TrX7)iJ,/j.vpav vddroju avi'lcrraadai, ix'qre Truev/ndTcju evairoXafx^- 
avoixivujv TOLS /c6X Trots tt^s 7'^s, dXXd firfd^ yrjs rivos {an leg. nvi?) 6X(as irapeyKXiffet, fJ,6v7) 
8k TT} deia yvdbfXTj Trpds i'7ri(rTpo4>W /^ct^ diSpdojaiu twv dfiapTavofi4vo)v (published c. 425 — 
433 A.D. : W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur'^ ii. 2. 1433). 

^ Not so Chrysostom, who in purely rhetorical vein personifies the Antiochene earth- 
quake as a herald announcing God's anger (lo. Chrys. i>i terrae motum etc. i (xlviii. 1027 
f. Migne)) and even makes him on another occasion quote Ps. 103. 8 (lo. Chrys. hom.. 
post terrae motuvi (1. 714 f. Migne)). 

^ H. Knackfuss Raphael ixoxis. C. Dodgson Bielefeld — Leipzig 1899 p. 102. 

^ H. Strachey 7?a/>^«^/ London 1900 p. 30. 



28 



Zeus and the Earthquakes 




Fig. 6. 



10 






Zeus and the Earthquakes 29 

Philippoi (fig. 6). Above we see the gaol and the gaoler about to 
kill himself; below, the earth cracking as a gigantic nude bearded 
figure emerges breast-high with scowling forehead and uplifted fists ^. 
In the Second Part of Goethe's Faust (1827 — 1832) an earthquake 
suddenly disturbs the peace of the upper Peneios. Seismos, ' rumbling 
and grumbling down below,' groans out : 

Heave again with straining muscle, 
With the shoulders shove and hustle, 
So our way to light we justle, 
Where before us all must fly'"^. 

He is however conscious that he makes the mountains picturesque, 

and claims that by so doing he benefits the very gods : 

Apollo now dwells blithely yonder, 

With the blest Muses' choir. 'Twas I 

For Jove himself, with all his bolts of thunder. 

That heaved the regal chair on high^. 

Less intelligent, but more intense, and quite refreshingly direct 
is the attitude of the modern Greek peasant in regions where the 
earthquake is no theme for artistic representation* or academic 
interest. Natives of Zakynthos, when the shock is felt, will cry out 
in deprecation *My God, cease thine anger !^' And the inhabitants 
of Arachova on Mount Parnassos fancy that God in rage and fury 
'rolls his eyes and is minded to ruin the world, only the Blessed 
Virgin beseeches him and stays his wrath*.' 

^ E. Mlintz Les iapisseries de Raphael au Vatican Paris 1897 p. 20 fig. ( = my fig. 6), 
P. Oppe Raphael "LiOwAon 1909 p. 160 f. pi. 115, 2. The cartoons are now in the South 
Kensington Museum, the tapestries themselves in the Vatican. 

2 Goethe's Faust trans. A. G. Latham London 1908 Part ii. 138. 

^ lb. Part ii. 139. See further F. Piper Mythologie und Symbolik der christlichen 
A'wwi-/ Weimar 1851 i. 2. 481 — 489 ('Erdbeben'). 

* A small marble frieze found on the base of a lararium in the house of the auctioneer 
L. Caecilius lucundus at Pompeii (J. Overbeck — A. Mau Pompeji^ Leipzig 1884 p. 69 f. 
fig. 31 = my fig. 7, C. Weichardt Pompeji vor der Zerstoerung Leipzig s.a. 8i f. fig. 102) 
has a relief representing the north side of the Forum. We see \}c\&fa(^ade of the temple of 
lupiter, flanked by two equestrian statues, with a commemorative arch to the left and an 
altar etc. to the right. The slanting forms of the temple and arch have been supposed to 
show the dire effects produced by the earthquake of 63 A.D. (M. Neumayr Erdgeschichte 
Leipzig 1886 i. 139 cited by C. Weichardt op. cit. p. 82 n.*, W. H. flobbs Earthquakes 
New York 1907 p. 9 fig. 3), but are of course merely due to a careless craftsman who 
stood too far towards the right in carving the relief (J. Overbeck — A. Mau op. cit.^ p. 70 
'ein ungliickliclier Versuch, die perspectivische Verschiebung wiederzugeben ' does him 
too much honour). 

^ B. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 187 1 i. 34 (0^ joou, Trdi/'e ry\v 
opr^'f) aov !). 

® Id. ib. i. 34 n. i {^dvpKihv^i ra. fidria tov k-tj diV vol xaXdci; tovv k6(T(j.ov, dXX' 17 liava-yia 
Tovv Trapa/caXet Krj -kwo tv ovpyrj r'). 

D. H. Kerler Die Patronate der Heiligen Ulm 1905 p. 86 f. gives a list of saints 



30 Zeus and the Clouds 



§ 6. Zeus and the Clouds. 

(a) Zeus and the Clouds in Literature. 

One of Homer's favourite epithets for Zeus is nephelegereta, *the 
cloud-gatherer.' This arresting compound, which occurs eight times 
in the Odyssey^ and twenty-eight times in the Iliad'^, is in reality 

whose business it is to protect their votaries against earthquake. They include: (i) St 
Agatha of Catania (Feb. 5), during whose martyrdom in 251 a.d. a fearful earthquake 
occurred. (2) St Emygdius of Ascoli (Aug. 5), whose father, a prominent citizen of 
Augusta Trevirorum, tried to make him forswear his faith before a heathen altar till the 
very ground gave way beneath his feet. Others said that the saint averted an earthquake 
from Ascoli, where he was martyred in 303 or 304 a.d. (3) St Justus of Catalonia 
(May 28), bishop of Urgel from before 527 until after 546 a.d., whose body was found 
uninjured beneath the ruins of a wall that had collapsed above his grave. (4) St Petrus 
Gonsalez, better known to Spanish sailors as Sant Elmo (April 15), who died in 1240 a.d. 
He was once preaching in the open air near Bayonne, when an earthquake threatened. 
The congregation was for fleeing into the town; but the preacher detained it, and all 
ended well. (5) St Petrus Paschalis (Dec. 6), bishop of Jaen, who was martyred by the 
Moors at Granada in 1300 a.d. Soon after his death the town was plagued with famine, 
pestilence, earthquakes, and storms. (6) St Alberlus of Trepano (Aug. 7), who died at 
Messina in 1307 a.d. and is reckoned as patron of all Sicily, an island much given to 
seismic shocks. (7) St Francesco Borgia (Oct. 10), duke of Gandia, who died in 1572 a.d. 
In 1625 a.d. he was chosen as a recent and popular saint to protect the new realm of 
Granada against earthquakes. (8) St Philippus Neri of Rome (May 26), who died in 
1595 A.D. When, on June 5, 1688 A.D., an alarming earthquake visited Beneventum, 
Pope Benedict xiii escaped by lying directly under the saint's reliquary. (9) St Franciscus 
Solanus of Lima (July 24), who died in 16 10 a.d. Seven years before his death he pre- 
dicted the downfall of the town Truxillo. It was destroyed by earthquake on Feb. 14, 
1618 A.D. 

1 Od. I. 63, 5. 21, 9. 67, 12. 313, 384, 13. 139, 153, 24. 477 ve(t)e\ri'y€piTa ZeM (always 
at the end of the line). Of these passages two have a noteworthy context : 9. 67 ff. v't]V(Ti 
5' eTTUjpa' &u€fxov Bop^rju vecpeXrjyepeTa Zei/s \ XaiXairi deaireairi, ai)V bk vecpieaat KoXvxpe \ 
7ata»' bixov koL irbvTov dpuipei 5' ovpavbdev vij^=i2. 313 ff. copaev 'iin ^arjv dveixov vecjieX-q- 
yep^ra Zei>5 | XaiXaTn decnrecriri, aijv 8k ve(f)iea(n KaXvxpe \ yaiav ojmov Kai irbvToV' dpdopei 5' 
oipavbdev vv^. Much the same is said of Poseidon in Od. 5. 291 ff'. u)s eiTrthv (Ti^vaYcz/ 
V€<p^Xas, erctpa^e de TrbvTov \ x^P'^'- Tpiatvav eXJjv • Trdcras 5 bpbdvvev d^XXas \ TravToioju 
dv^fxoiv, ax)V de fecpieaai KdXv\pe \ yatav b/xov /cat irbvTov opdpet 5' ovpavbdev vv^, on which 
Eustath. til Od. p. 1538, 7 ff. remarks deojprjreov on to ai}vaye ve(peXas veipeXrjyep^Trjv Kai 
rbv UoffetdQva eluat VTrodrjXol. iireLdrjirep vdojp vXrj toTs vi(pe<TLv, eh S fxeraXajJi^dveTaL b 
HoaeibGiv. dKvel be 8/iius b TroirjTTjs rbv Tas ve(peXas avvdyovra IloaeLbCbva koI ve(f)eX'r]yepiT7}v 
cvvdiru}^ elireiv. dTreKXrjpwdr) yap tovto Ad t(^ TTon}TiKi^ tG}v V€(pe\Qv airiip. 

2 //. T. 511, 517, 560, 4. 30, 5. 764, 888, 7. 280, 454, 8. 38, 469, 10. 552, II. 318, 
14- 293, 312, 341, 15. 220, 16. 666, 17. 198, 20. 19, 215, 22. 182, 24. 64 ve(peXriy€p^Ta 
Zei/j (always at the end of the line and, except in 7.280, 11. 318, 14. 293, 17. 198, 20.215, 
preceded by 7rpo(T^<pr]). So A. Dem. 78, h. Ap. 312, also Hes. o.d. 53, theog. 558. 

//. 5. 631, 736, 8. 387, 15. 154, 20. 10, 21. 499 Aios ve<^eXyiyepiTao (always at the end 
of the line). So too h. Ap. 96, Hes. o.d. 99, theog. 730, 944. 

Nonnos alone places the word in the first half of his hexameter {Dion. 27,. 228 f. 
(Dionysos to Hydaspes) e/c ve(pku}i' ^Xdar-rjcras ifiov Kpovidao tok^os, \ Kai vecpeX-qyepirao 
Aios pXdcrTTjfxa 5ta»/cets; 38. 202 f. 01) ve<p^Xas "Rcpaiaros eov yeverijpos dyeipei, | ov ue(/)eX7)- 
yepirrjs KiKXriffKerai ola Kpovlcjv). 



Zeus and the Clouds 31 

a pre-Homeric tag^ originally descriptive of Zeus as a rain-making^ 
magician ^ In Greece, as elsewhere*, the primitive rain-maker, 
probably clad in a sheep-skin to imitate the fleecy vapours^, mounted 
some neighbouring height and did his puny best to allay the mid- 
summer heat by calling the clouds to draw their welcome veil across 
the sky. This at least seems a plausible inference^ from one curious 
Greek custom, the procession of men clad in thick sheep-skins which 
on the very hottest day of the year toiled up the slopes of Mount 

^ Supra i. 444 n. 6. 

^ Hesych. s.vv. vecpeXriyepera' vecpeXrjyep^TTjs, 6 rds v€(p^\as aydpiov, 6 ecTi awadpoi^uv 
6 Tovs o/x^povs TTOiQv. K\rjTiK7] olvtI €v6eias, vecpeXoyep^rrjs (M. Schmidt cj. vecpeK'qyepeT-qs (?). 
Cp. Tzetz. alleg. II. 17. 35 Zei)s 6 vecpeXrjyepeT-rjs)- tcl avrd, et. Gud. p. 406, 46 vecpeXrj- 
yepirao' tov ras ve<pi\as adpol^ovTos, et. mag. p. 601, 55 vecpeXrjyepeTrjs' 6 tQv vecfiCov 
adpoKJTLKOs Zeiys, Favorin. lex. p. 1066, 38 ff. KXrjTLKas eKtp^peiv olvtI evdtiQv tQu 'AttlkQv 
€(XTLV, olov vecpeXrjyepera Zeus avrl rod veipeXrjyeperiqs. 

^ Supra i. 14 n. i, 758, ii. 258 n. 3, 694 n. o, 695 n. o, ii46f. Cp. Medeia in Ov. 
met. 7. 201 f. nubila pello ] nubilaque induco. 

* Frazer Golden Bough^: The Magic Art i. 249 f., 256 f., 260 fF., 275, 323. 

^ Theophr. de signis tempest, i. 13 koX orav vecpeXat. ttokols eplcov o/xoLaL (2aiu vdojp 
ffrjfxaiveL = Arat. pAaen. 206 f. iroXXaKi 5' epxofJievuv verQv u^tpea irpoirdpoLdev \ ola fxaXiara 
ttSkolctlv ioLKora tV5dXXoi!'Tat = Plin. nat. lust. 18. 356 si nubes ut vellera lanae spargentur 
multae ab oriente, aquam in triduum praesagient, Apul. de deo Socr. 10 atque ideo 
umectiores humilius meant aquilo[nis] agmine, tractu segniore[s] ; sudis vero sublimior 
cursus e<s {ins. P. Thomas) >t, cum lanarum velleribus similes aguntur, cano agmine, 
volatu perniciore. Accordingly the Latin poets speak of fleecy clouds as vellera (Verg. 
georg. I. 397, Varr. K\.2.z. frag. 21 Baehrens ap. anon. brev. expos. Verg. gear g. i. 397 (in 
the ed. of Servius by G. Thilo and H. Hagen iii. 2. 265, 3 f.), Lucan. 4. 124 f., cp. Mart. 
ep. 4. 3. if., Prosp. Aquit. in psalm. 147. 16 (li. 420 c Migne)) — a usage hardly to be 
paralleled in Greek. 

It is possible that the dappled fawnskin of the Bacchant, trimmed with tufts of white 
wool (Eur. Bacch. 1 1 1 ff. (Xtiktu}]/ r iudvTd ve^piduv \ (xr^cpeTe XevKOTpix^^v irXoKafJiiou \ 
fxaXXoTs and Sir J. E. Sandys ad loc), was intended as a rough imitation of the starry, 
cloud-flecked sky, just as the fawnskin of Dionysos himself, bespangled with pearls 
(Claud, de quarto cons. Honor. 606 f. talis Erythraeis intextus nebrida gemmis | Liber 
agit currus), seems to have borne a cosmic character (R. Eisler Welten7nantel und Him- 
melszelt Miinchen 1910 i. 76, 256 n. 4, who cites Nonn. Dion. 40. 577 f. 'Hpa/cX^T/s hk \ 
dffTpaiif Aiovvaov dvexXaiuwae xtTWft and cp. the vase-painting figured supra ii. 262 
pi. xvii). 

Attic vases signed by the potter Brygos {c. 505 — 475 B.C.) or attributed to his painter 
(lists in Hoppin Red- fig. Vases i. 106 fif., J. D. Beazley Attische Vasen^jialer des rotfigtcrigen 
Stils Tiibingen 1925 p. 175 ff^.) often show garments decorated with dots (O. S. Tonks 
* Brygos: his Characteristics' in Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
1908 xiii. 69, 95, Pfuhl Malerei u. Zeichnung d. Gr. i. 460). In view of Brygos' name 
with its northern connexions (6^1^706, Bpi77es = <E>pi/7es: see W. Pape — G. E. Benseler 
Worterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen^ Braunschweig 1875 i. 231, E. Oberhummer 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 920 f.) it is just conceivable that this craftsman was 
popularising at Athens a custom which originated in Thraco- Phrygian ritual. But the 
hypothesis would be risqu^e, since dotted garments are not strictly confined to the output 
of Brygos (P. Hart wig Die griechischen Meisterschalen der Bliithezeit des strengen roth- 
■igurigen Stiles Stuttgart — Berlin 1893 p. 310 n. 4). 

^ Supra i. 420 n. 3, where I was perhaps unduly sceptical of O. Gilbert's conclusions. 



32 Zeus and the Clouds 

Pelion to the sanctuary of Zeus Aktaios on its summit^. And the 
sheep-skin of the human magician would be readily transferred to 
his divine counterpart ^ — witness the title of Zeus Melosios, Zeus ' Clad 
in a sheep-skin' {inelote)^. It is, however, reasonable to suppose that 
already in Homeric times the word nephelegereta had lost something 
of its early import and had taken on a meaning half-religious and 
half-picturesque. But worse was in store, for in the fifth century B.C. 
it was frankly travestied. Perikles* as the greatest man of his age 
was dubbed Zeus by the comedians^and figures in a brilliant fragment 
of Kratinos, not as 7iephelegereta, 'the cloud -gatherer,' but as kepha- 

^ Supra i. 420, ii. 869 n. 2. ^ Supra i. ir ff. 

3 Supra i. 164 f. The boundary-inscription of Zeus M7;\a»o-tos is more accurately 
published by F. Hiller von Gaertringen in the Inscr. Gr. ins. v. i no. 48 opos Aios 
M.7j\o}\(7lov. To the literature there cited add E. Preuner in the Ath. Mitth. 1924 xlix. 144. 

4 Folk- Lore 1904 xv. 302. 

^ Kratin. Thressae frag, i {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 61 f. Meineke) ap. Plout. v. Per. 14 hio 
KoX TrdXiJ' KpaTii'os h Qpq,TTais irai^ei irpbs avrdv *6 <rxi-voKi<pa\os ZeuJ ode j wpocrepx^Tac 
(so M. Fuhr and F. Blass, after C. G. Cobet, for 6 ax^voK^^aXos Zei>s ode (I. Bekker and 
F. A. Gotthold, followed by A. Meineke, cjj. 651) irpoaipx^TaL \ HepiKX^rjs (A. Meineke 
cj. 6 UepiKX^rjs)) T(^5ecop i-jri rov Kpaviov | 'ix^^i ^TreidT] TOvaTpaKov irapoix^Tai.^ 

Kratin. Nemesis frag. 10 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 85 Meineke) ap. Plout. v. Per. 3 rOiv dk 
K(i}/JiiKU)v 6 fi^v KpaTLPOS...Kai iraXiv iv l^efxiaeL- ^ fidX, c3 Zev^^uie Kal KapaU {fiaKapie vulg. 
Koipie libri H. Stephani. K. H. F. Sintenis cj. Kapaie. A. Meineke cj. /capaie).' 

Telekleides/a;^. incert.frag. 6 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 373 f. Meineke) ap. Plout. v. Per. 3 
T77Xe/cXet5r;s 5e -Korrh p.ev virb tG}v irpayfrnroju rjiroprjfxivov Kadrjcdai (fyTjaiv avrbv iv r^ 7r6\et 
^ KapTf^apovvTa' (cp. Poll. 2. 41 Kal Kaprj^apLKOv to Trddos TrjXeKXeidrjs), iroTe de ^ /xovov iK 
K€(Pa\rjs evdcKaKXivov \ dopv^ou ttoXvv i^avareXXeiv.' 

Aristoph. Ach. 530 f. evrevdev opyy UepiKXiris ovX^fiinos \ rjarpairT (so R. Bentley, 
K. W. Dindorf, etc. cp. Plin. ep. i. 20), i^pdvra, ^vveKVKa TTjp'EXXdda — a passage to which 
later writers make frequent allusion (see F. H. M. Blaydes ad /oc.) . 

Com. anon. frag. 307 {Frag. com. Gr. iv. 677 Meineke) ap. Plout. v. Per. 8 at ixivroi 
KW/JUfidiai tG)v Tore 5L5acrKa.Xo)u awovdy re iroXXas Kai /xerd yiXojTos d<peiK6Tuv (pcavas els aiiTbv 
iirl T(^ Xbyip ixaXicrTa ttjv irpoauuvfjLiav (sc. Tov'OXvfXTriov) yeviadai drfKovffi, ^ ^povTo.v'' pih 
avTbv Kai 'diTrpaTrTeti',' Sre drjfirjyopolT}, ^deivbv' 5^ ^ Kepavvbv...iv yXcbaffrj (pipeiv^ XeybvTiav. 
F. H. M . Blaydes restores * 8eLvbv Kepavvbv ovtos iv yXdjaari <f>ipeL.^ A. Meineke prints yXihrTrf. 

Similarly Aspasia was styled Hera by Kratinos {Chirones frag. 4 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 
1 48 Meineke) ap. Plout. v. Per. 24 iv di rais /cw/it^Smis 'OfKpaXr] re via Kai Arjidveipa Kal 
7rdXiJ'"Hpa irpocrayope6eTaL. KpaT^vos 5' dvTiKpvs TraXXaKTjv avrijv eip-qKev iv toOtois' ^"Upav 
Ti oi 'Aairaffiav rlKTei KaTairvyoavvq (/cat KaTaTrvyo(x6vr]v codd. T. Bergk del. Kal. 
A. Emperius cj. KaraTrvyoavvri) \ iraXXaK'r)v Kwuirida,^ schol. Plat. Menex. 235 E 
p. 923 b 37 ff. K/)aTt;/os 5e 'OfX(f>dXr]v avTrjv KaXeT Xeipoiaiv, Tijpavvov {7 Tvpavvodaifiova cp. 
Hesych. s.v.) di Ef^TroXts 4>tXots (so A. Meineke for KpaTivos di 'OfKpdXrj rijpavvov avTTjv 
KaXei, x^'-P^" Ei}iroXLS 4>iXois. T. Bergk cj. KpaTlvos di ripavvov avTrjv /caXei Xeipojffiv, 
'OfKpdXrjv EiiiroXis ^LXois)- iv de Upoa-iraXrioii'EXivqv ai/TTjv KaXe7' 6 8i Kparlvos KaV'Rpav, 
iffojs OTL Kal UepLKXrjs 'OXvp-Tnos TrpoarjyopeveTo) and perhaps by Eupolis (Hesych. s.v. 
jSowTTis- fxeyaX64>daXij,0Sy ev6(p6aX/xos. iJ.eyaX6(pu}vos. EijiroXis 8i ttjv "Hpav (Eupol. fad. 
incert. frag. 81 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 571 Meineke))), possibly also by Aristophanes (yet 
schol. Hermog. irepl tQv ardaecov 72 (C. Walz Rhetores Graeci Stuttgartiae et Tubingae 
1833 iv. 186, 14 flf.) Kal TO. io-xvt^°-Ti-<Tfxiva- iv oh dec rbv fieTaxeipi^bixevov &XXo fiiv XiyeiVy 
dXXo di did Tov TJdovi ifi^aiveiv olov rod UepiKXiovs 'OXvpLwiov KXrjdivros, eiarjyeiTat 
Api<rT0<f>dv7)s"Hpav ttjv 'Aairaaiav KaXeiv may be a mere slip). 



Zeus and the Clouds in Literature 33 

legereta, 'the crowd -gatherer^.' Truth to tell, a parody of the old 
appellative can still raise a laugh. Does not Clough in the immortal 
Bothie speak of his cheery, cigar-loving friend Lindsay as 'the 
Piper, the Cloud-compeller?^' 

Of course, on occasion, magic might be employed, not to collect 
the clouds, but to scatter them. If for example hail threatened, old- 
fashioned farmers had recourse to magicians who chased the clouds 
away^ and were known as nephodioktai^. Nowadays magic or ancient 
science has joined hands with science or modern magic, and on 
many a Swiss hillside may be seen the mortar from which maroons 
are fired when hail-clouds are gathering above the vineyard. 

Less magical but more majestic is a second stock epithet of the 
epic minstrel — kelainephes Kronion, Kronos' son * of the dark clouds ^' 
For, though sundry scholiasts and lexicographers attempt to render 
it 'he who gathers the black, or dark, clouds together^' and expound 

^ Kratin. Chirones frag. 3 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 147 f. Meineke) ap. Plout. v. Per. 3 tQiv 
5^ KcafxiKO)]/ 6 jxkv Kparivo^ iv ILeipiijcn' ' Sracrts 5e' {(f)'q(rl) '/cat Trpecr^vyevrjs Kpduos (so anon, 
for xpofos vulg.) dWr)\oi(TL fxiy^vTe ix^yiarov \ riKTerov T\jpavvov, \ 8v 8r) KecpeXrjyep^Tav deoi 
KokiovcL (A. Meineke prints /caXoutrij').' I have assumed that Kratinos meant 'collector 
of heads, crowd-collector,' but there is of course a further hint at the peculiar shape of 
Perikles' cranium, as is clear from the context. With Kratinos, as with Aristophanes 
{e.g. supra ii. 2 n. 4, 118 n. 3, 1166 n. 3), word-play tends to produce harmonics. 

2 A. H. Clough The Bothie of Tober-na-VMolich 3. 83. 

^ E. Fehrle Studien zu dett griechischen Geoponiketn (2T0IXEIA iii) Leipzig — Berlin 
1920 p. 8 cites a text parallel to Geopon. i. 14 from cod. Parisin. 2313 (Anatolios) Trepi 
XaXd^7;s dTroTpOTrr)u. i. irKeiffTa jxh Kal &\\a Trapd roh dpxo-l-ois evpiffKerai ^orjdrjfiaTa' 
17 re dia rijs ixi-^^V^ depairda' Kal rj 5ia rod dcr(pd\aKos' /cat r) 8id tQv dvdpdoTroju tQjv 
bLO}KbvT(j}v rd v^(pri ttjs x^^^tv^' '^^tt &\\a ttoXXo, Trapd TroXXots diridava' d 8e eu/coXwrepa 
/cat irdyKOLva Kal evKaTdXrjTrTa 8oKei eivai, ffvudyofxev. 

* Pseudo-lust. Mart, quaestt. et responss. ad orthod. 31 (vi. 1277 c — D Migne) Et 
vedfian deii^ ai ve<p^\aL rov verbv rrj yrj KaTaTrifxirovcTL, did tL ras v€(p^\as ol KoKovixevoL 
ve<po8iC)KTaL eTraotStais rial KaracTKevd^ouTai, 'ivda ^oijXovraL, xaXd^as Kal d/xirpovs veroi/s 
dKOvri^eiv; ^ovto iireidr] Kara ras d7ias Tpa(f>ds fMaprvpeh, tovs veroi/s elvat iK tQv eiraoidQv 
dirL<7Tov. Kal yap avrbs 6 raiJTTjv irepl to6tov ipwrrjaas ttjv epdoTTjcnu, ovk d(f (Sv ededacj 
yivofxivwv T7]v epdbrrjcnv TreiroirjKas, dXX' dcp' u>u iJKovcras. Clearly the vecpodiQKrai claimed 
the ability to divert the clouds from their course and to precipitate them as hail or 
drenching rain in any desired direction. Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. iv. 1466 a quotes 
from the Synod, in Triillo can. 61 /cat ot T{)Xf)v Kal ei^apix^vr^v Kal yevedKoyiav (pcovovvres 
Kal ol XeydfievoL v€(podt.QKTaL, from which we conclude that in s. vii a.d. the superstition 
was yet living. More, from Latin sources, in Ducange G/oss. med. et inf. Lat. s.v. 
'tempestarii, tempestuarii.' 

^ The word is a syncopated form of Ke\ai[yo'\-ve<f>'qs, as was clearly perceived by 
Herodian (Trept iradCov frag. 261 (ii. 259, 14 ff. hentz) ap. et. mag. p. 501, 48 fif. , c^.et. Gud. 
p. 313, 43 ff.), though he erroneously regarded the first element in the compound as a verb 
K€\aivo) = fX€\atv(a instead of the adjective KcXaivos (yet see Herodian. irepl wadQv frag. 595 
(ii. 363, 25 f. Lentz) ap. et. mag. p. 59, 61 f.). On the etymology of /ceXa<j/6s consult 
Prellwitz Etym. Worterb. d. Gr, Spr? p. 214 f., Boisacq Diet. dtym. de la Langue Gr. 
p. 430, Walde Lat. etym. Worterb.'^ pp. 113 f., 179. 

^ Hesych. s.v. KeXaivecpes' ...6 (M. Schmidt cj. w (?)) KeXacud (xvvdyuv rd p^iprj, schol. D. 
//. 2. 412 K€Xai.v€(f>is' iJieXavov€<ph, fx^Xava v4(pr} avvdyoju irpos KaTdirXr)^iv. 

C. III. .•? 



34 Zeus and the Clouds in Literature 

it as meaning 'the rain-maker\' yet the title itself calls up no such 
primitive picture, nor has it quite the same claim as nephelegereta 
to be recognised as a poetic heirloom of fixed and unalterable pattern ^ 
A point deserving of notice is its constant association with Kronion 
or Kronides. It is seldom, if ever, used of Zeus pure and simple till 
long after classical times. Normally Zeus is kelainepJies as being the 
son of Kronos; or, more rarely, both the divine names are dropped 
and kelainephes stands as an independent appellative. It looks as 
though this particular title had been attached to Zeus in early 
Homeric days as affiliated successor of the 'Minoan' storm-god 
Kronos ^ 

According to the Iliad, the three sons of Kronos divided the 
world between them and 

Zeus' portion was 
Broad heaven in the aither and the clouds'*. 

Zeus sits on the peak of Mount Olympos and, when he is visited by 
Hera and Athena, the Horai fling wide a cloudy portal to admit 
them: 

Then Hera with the lash swift smote the steeds, 

And of their own accord the gates of heaven 

Groaned, held by the Horai. These are they who keep 

Great heaven and Olympos ; theirs the task 

To ope the thick cloud or to close the same. 

So through the gateway guided they their steeds 

Patient o' the goad, and Kronos' son they found 

Sitting apart from all the other gods 

On the topmost peak of many-ridged Olympos^. 

^ Schol. D. //. I. 397 Ke\aive<f)€C' tc^ rds ve<pe\as /xeXaivouTL, o/M^poTTOK^. Cp. Orion 
p. 83, 12 f. K€\aiv€<prjs' 6 Zeus. 6 to. u^(p7) kKovCjv kolI klvCov, rj /neXavoTroiQv iu t(^ veiv. 

2 At the end of a hexameter we find Ke\aLve(f>i'C Kpovliavi {II. 1. 397, 6. 267, 24. 290 
(cp. Tzetz. alle'g. II. 24. 162), h. Dem. 91, 468, h. Herakl. Leont. 15. 3, h. Diosk. 17. 4, 
h. Diosk. 33. 5, lies. sc. Her. 53), /ceXatve^^a Kpovicova {II. 11. 78, h. Aphr. 220), 
Titivl K€\aiv€(p€l' KpoviojvL {/i. Dem. 316), iraTpi KeXaivecpel' Kpopiuui {h. Dem. 396). 

At the beginning of a hexameter ihe formula is Ziyvt KeXaivecpe'C Kpovidr] {Od. 9. 552, 
13. 25, but never in the Iliad). Kpovidy is not omitted except by late authors (Maximus 
Trepi KaTapxOjv 605 Ti-qvl KeKai.ve(f>i'C refers to the planet Zeus and is followed immediately 
by a lacuna (see A. Ludwich ad loc). Tzetz. alleg. Od. 9'. 118, 13. 7 (in P. Matranga 
Anecdota Graeca Romae 1850 i. 277, 293) Tirivl Ke\aLV€(f)iih more ad rem). 

After the caesura KeXaive(f)es occurs either in conjunction with other vocatives (//. 2. 412 
Zeu KijdLCTTe, /xeyiare, KeXaiue(ph, 22. 178 w irdrep dpycKepavve, KeXaivecp^s) or standing 
by itself (//. 15. 46, Od. 13. 147 where Nikanor read diorpetpes of Artemis (schol. L.T. 
y/. 9. 538), Anlk. Pal. 6. 332. 7 (Adrianos) cited supra ii. 982 n. o). //. 21. 520 /cd5 
5' X^ov irapa Trarpi K€XaLV€<pei (with variants trap Zrjul K€Xaiv€<p€L and K€Xaiv€<p€i Trap Zrjvl) 
is an isolated dative. 

^ Supra ii. 554 ff., 601, 845. 

^ //. 15. 192 (cited supra i. 25 n. 5), cp. //. 15. 20 {supra i. 25 f.). 

^ //. 5. 748 fif. The first half of the passage is repeated in //. 8. 395 ff. 



Zeus and the Clouds in Literature 35 

Similarly ApoUon and Iris, when sent by Hera to Mount Ide, discover 
Zeus seated on the summit of Gargaron^ — 

And ringed about him was a fragrant cloud 2. 

It was on the same mountain-top that Zeus, succumbing to the wiles 
of Hera, promised privacy within a cloud : 

Hera, fear not : nor god, nor man shall see it ; 
So thick the golden cloud that I will wrap 
Around us, Helios himself could ne'er — 
Though keen his radiance beyond all — espy us^. 

And Zeus was as good as his word. The sequel tells how 

o'er them spread a cloud magnificent 
And golden : glittering dew-drops from it fell'*. 

Clearly cloudland is characteristic of the sky-god. Later poets 
harp on the theme. Aischylos says simply 'the clouds of Zeus^' 
Pindar tnore suo mints fresh and ringing epithets for Zeus himself — 
orsinepkes, 'he that causeth the clouds to rise^' hypsinephes, 'he of 
the towering clowds'^' poly nephelas, 'the many-clouded' ruler of the 
sky^. There is a would-be return to Homeric naivete m the Birds of 
Aristophanes, when the Chorus of songsters chant: 

Then take us for Gods, as is proper and fit, 

And Muses Prophetic ye'll have at your call 

Spring, winter, and summer, and autumn and all. 

And we won't run away from your worship, and sit 

Up above in the clouds, very stately and grand. 

Like Zeus in his tempers : but always at hand 

Health and wealth we'll bestow, as the formula runs, 

On yourselves, and your sons, and the sons of your sons 9 — 

or when Prometheus, much in awe of his Aeschylean persecutor, asks 

in a scared tone: 

What's Zeus about? 
Clearing the clouds off, or collecting them^^? 

1 Supra ii. 950 n. o. 

'^ II. 15. 153 dfJLfpi bi fJLLV dvdeu P^<pOS i(TT€(f)dv(iJTO. 

^ 11. 14. 342 ff. * //. 14. 350 f. {supra \. 154). 

^ Aisch. suppl. 780 fx4\as yevoijxav Kairvos v4(p€(TL yeirovQu Alos. 

^ Pind. Neni. 5. 62 ff. 6 5' ei5 ^pdffdr) Ka.Ti\vev(rev re oi 6pcrive(j)7]^ i^ ovpavov \ Zei>s 
ddaudruv /SacriXeus. 

'' Pind. 01. 5. 39 f. croJTTjp v\pLve<l)ks \ Tied. 

^ Pind. Nem. 3. 16 f. ovpavov Tro\\vve<pe\a Kpiovri Ovyarep. 

^ Aristoph. av. 723 ff. trans. B. B. Rogers. Lines 726 ff. run kovk dwoSpdvTes \ Kade- 
do^fied' dvii) aefxvvudfievoL | irapd rats vecfyiXai'i wcTTrep x'^ Tievs. 

^^ Aristoph. av. 1501 f. tI yap 6 Zei)s Trotet; | dwaidpLd^ei rds ve<pi\as 17 ^vvvi(p6L; 

3—2 



36 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 



Latin poets likewise associate the clouds with the sky-god — Statius 
for instance speaks of 'cloudy lupiter^' — and the notion passed into 
the common poetic stock. 

(b) Zeus and the Clouds in Art. 

This canonical conception of the sky-god sitting among his clouds 
can be illustrated from early imperial art. A fine fresco from 
Herculaneum, now in the Museo Nazionale at Naples (pi. iv, fig. 8)^ 




Fig. 8. 

shows a fair-haired^ Zeus reclining amid the clouds. He wears an 
oak- wreath on his head, a reddish* himdtion round his left shoulder 
and both legs, and a sandal on his foot. His right hand grasps a double 
lotiform thunderbolt, his left a long sceptre. His face, backed by 
a whitish^ nimbus^ expresses serious thought, and a small winged 

^ Stat. Theb. 12. 650 f. qualis Hyperboreos ubi nubilus institit axes (axe cod. P) | 
luppiter et prima tremefecit sidera bruma, | etc. 

2 Guida del Mils. Napoli p. 289 no. 1259, Helbig Wandgem. Camp. p. 32 f. no. 113, 
B. Quaranta in the Real Museo Borbonico Napoli 1834 x pi. 23 with text pp. i — 3, 
E. Braun Vorschule der Kiinstmythologie Gotha 1854 p. 10 pi. 15 (= my fig. 8), Welcker 
Alt. Denkm. iv. 104 f. ('Jupiter im Wolkenrevier'), O. Benndorf 'Zeus und Eros' in the 
Rhein. Mus. 1864 xix. 442—449 with pi., Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 189 ff. (17) 
Atlas pi. I, 43, Reinach Rip. Feint. Gr. Rom. p. 9 no. 7, Herrmann Denkm. d. Malerei 
pi. 186 ( = my pi. iv) Text p. 253. 

3 This detail I owe to Miss P. B. Mudie Cooke (Mrs E. M. W. Tillyard), who kindly 
inspected for me all the frescoes representing Zeus that are in the Naples collection. 

* B. Quaranta loc. cit. 'un pallio di color bianco livido,' but W. Helbig loc. cit. 'Ein 
rothlicher Mantel.' 

5 H. W. Schulz in the Bull. d. Inst. 1841 p. 104 'col nimbo bianco,' L. Stephani 
Nimbus und Strahlenkranz St Petersburg 1859 p. 13 (extr. from ih.Q Mi??ioires de V Acadimie 
des Sciences de St.-Pitersbourg. vi Serie. Sciences politiques, histoire, philologie. ix. 361 ff.) 
'weiss,' W. Helbig loc. cit. 'einen weisslichen Nimbus um das Haupt.' 



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Zeus and the Clouds in Art 37 

Eros appearing behind his right shoulder points downwards to some 
cause of interest, not improbably to Ganymedes or some other of 
the god's numerous flames^. Above the pair stretches the arc of 
a rainbow, beyond which, half-hidden by the clouds, is perched an 
eagle looking towards its master. So much is certain. But further, 
a comparison of this fresco with ^Apulian' vase-paintings^ or with 
the relief by Archelaos of Priene^ raises a suspicion that here, as 
there, Zeus is really couched on a mountain-top, say the cloudy 
summit of Olympos. Be that as it may, the painter has managed 
to combine a variety of Hellenistic motifs — the recumbent Zeus* the 
prompting Eros^, the expectant eagle ^ — in a fairly consistent and 
effective whole. 

Somewhat similar is the design that adorned the central medallion 
in the barrel -ceiling of Room 60, the famous Volta Dorata, of Nero's 
Golden House (fig. 9)'. Here against a circular field of blue is seen 

^ F. G. Welcker loc. cit. p. 104 held that Eros is directing attention to the sceptre of 
Zeus, O. Benndorf loc. cit. p. 444 that he is indicating the heart as the seat of the god's 
malady. E. Braun loc. cit. had come nearer to the truth, when he assumed that Eros is 
pointing downwards to some human fair. 

2 Supra i. 127 fig. 96, i. 128 f. pi. xii. 

^ Supra i. 131 fig. 98 pi. xiii. 

* With the works of art recorded in the two preceding notes cp. a numismatic type 
supra i. 116 fig. 85. See further Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 161, supra i. 125 ft". 

^ The history of the type is worth tracing. Its several stages are enumerated and 
exemplified infra Append. Q. 

^ Supra i. 34 Frontispiece and pi. i, 35 pi. ii, 42 pi. vi, 131 pi. xiii and fig. 98, 598 n. i 
fig- 461. 752 fig. 552, ii. 15 f. figs. 4— 6, 285 n. o fig. 184 f., 400 n. 11 fig. 303, 575 fig. 481, 
576 fig. 484, 705 fig. 635, 707 figs. 639, 640, 754 n. 2 fig. 694, 771 fig. 735, 798 fig. 761, 
833 fig- 793» 895 n. I fig. 821, 956 n. o fig. 846, 1125 n. i fig. 951, 1143 fig. 964, 1161 
fig. 969, 1230 fig. 1024, 1232 tailpiece. Sometimes the eagle hovers (ii. 708 fig. 643), 
or is perched on a cornu copiae(\\. 1225 fig. 1023) or grape-bunch (i. 596 fig. 457) or tree 
(ii. 282 n. 2. pi. xix) or on the reins of a car (ii. 285 n. o fig. 180) or in the pediment of 
a temple (ii. 285 n. o fig. 186) or on a globe (ii. 95 fig. 54, a, 578 n. i fig. 491 (?)) or holds 
a wreath (i. 42 fig. 12, 276 fig. 202 (?), ii. 232 n. o fig. 160 (?), 754 n. 2 fig. 695), or is 
duplicated to flank a throne (ii. 754 n. i fig. 693, cp. 1102 n. o fig. 939), or mounts guard 
over the regalia (ii. 811 fig. 778), or appears in relief on an altar (i. 713 fig. 528). The 
same bird attends upon Sarapis (i. 188 fig. 137) and lupiter Dolichenus (i. 611 f. figs. 480, 
481), and upon emperors who play the part of Zeus, e.g. Domitian (ii. 811 n. 5 fig. 777), 
Commodus (ii. 1185 fig. 987), Geta (ii. 1185 f. fig. 988), Caracalla (ii. 1186 fig. 989). 

See further K. Sittl Der Adler und die Weltkugel ah Attribute des Zeus (Besonderer 
Abdruck aus dem vierzehnten Supplementbande der Jahrbiicher flir classische Philologie) 
Leipzig 1884 pp. 3 — 42. 

' P. S. Bartoli — G. P. Bellori Le pitture antiche del Sepolcro de Nasonii Jtella Via 
Flaminia Roma 1680 p. 6 ('/w un foglio si rappresenta la testudine di una Camera 
divisata in ripartimenti di va^'i colori, nel cui mezzo in una sfera celeste sono dipinte le 
Nozze di Giove, il quale sopra una nubbe, abbraccia Giunone con Amore che scocca verso di 
lui uno strale. Evvi incontro Pallade, e Mercurio col vaso delP ambrosia^) ^ G. TurnbuU 
A treatise on ancient painting \.ovAon 1740 p. 176 pi. 10 {^Jupiter on his Eagle caressing 
Juno^ probably, because Minerva is there; yet he was wont to receive his Daughter 



38 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 



Zeus seated on a cloud with a crimson himdtion wrapped about his 
legs. He turns to embrace the naked and rather effeminate form of 
Ganymedes\ who wears turban-wise his Phrygian cap (?) and has 




Fig. 9. 

a wind-swept chlaviys fluttering from his shoulder. The great eagle, 
which has just arrived with the beauteous boy, is already nestling — 

Venus very kindly, according to Virgir {Aen. i. 254 ff.)) from a drawing by Bartoli in 
the Massimi collection = my fig. 9, F. Weege in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 
1913 xxviii. 176 col. pi. 6 ('Auf einer Wolke sieht man Zeus, von dem Adler getragen, 
mit einer nackten Frau (oder Ganymed?), vor ihm links die bewaffnete Athena und 
Hermes mit einer Schale. Von oben schwebt ein Eros auf das Liebespaar zu'), Reinach 
Rip. Peint. Gr. Rom. p. 15 no. 2 ('Jupiter, Ganymede, Minerve, Mercure, Eros'). 

^ Other identifications (see the preceding note) are much less probable. luno would 
not have been represented as a naked woman, and Venus could at most claim a parental 
kiss. Besides, the eagle spells Ganymedes. 







;, Tritons, etc. 

Seepage i(^. 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 39 

its wings still spread — beneath the left foot of Zeus, to serve him as 
a living footstool. Eros hovers near at hand with welcoming arms. 
Hermes in winged petasos and loosely draped chlamys holds up, from 
a lower level of cloud, 2.phidle — possibly that from which Ganymedes 
had fed the eagle^. In the background to the left Athena, equipped 
with helmet, spear, and Gorgon-shield, turns her head to address 
another goddess imperfectly seen behind her. The painting no doubt 
has merits. The choice of subject suits its position of central impor- 
tance. The blue circle overhead suggests the sky and helps the 
spectator to realise that this is no mountain-top but the heaven above 
it^. Hermes' gesture secures uplift^. Detachment from earth is 
complete. Yet the composition in general is not very well adapted 
to fill the circular space. The fusion of three types — Zeus enthroned, 
Zeus on the eagle*, Ganymedes on the eagle — is decidedly awkward. 
Hermes' action after all is a little meaningless. And the two 
goddesses, perhaps intended for those of the Capitoline triad, are 
obviously de trop. 

These weaknesses disappear in a third fresco, which again formed 
the ceiling-decoration in a room of the Golden House (pi. v)^. 
The circular design, according to a sketch of it made by that con- 
sistently careful draughtsman P. S. Bartoli, depicts Zeus seated on 
a cloudy throne with a Jmndtion wrapped about his legs, a thunder- 
bolt brandished in his right hand, and an eagle perched at his side. 
The medallion was surrounded by a triple row of gods and goddesses 
with, beyond them, a series of sportive Tritons. 

An engraved onyx in my collection (fig. lo)^ represents the 
whole company of heaven as conceived in Roman imperial times. 

^ Infra Append. P. ^ Supra i. 115. 

^ Cp. the attitude of Ganymedes himself, not to mention the eagle and the dog, in the 
Vatican group after Leochares {supra ii. 281 n. 4). 

* Supra ii. T02 f. n, o figs. 59 — 64, ii. 462 n. o. 

^ J. P. Bellorius et M. A. Causseus Picturae antiquae cryptaruni Romanarum, et 
sepulcri Nasoniim Romae 1750 p. 89 Append, pi. 6 ('Juppiter nubi insidet, proxime 
adstante Aquila, dextraque fulmen minax in hominum exitium torquere videtur : circum- 
stant triplici ordine Deorum, Dearumque imagines : quartumque ordinem implent 
Tritonum lusus') = my pi. v, Reinach Rip. Peint. Gr. Ro??i. p. 9 no. 5. 

^ The stone, which is circular and plano-convex (here figured to a scale of f), possibly 
served as a pendant or ear-ring. On such purely ornamental phalerae see E. Saglio in 
Daremberg — Saglio Did. Ant. iv. 427. This one is from the Wyndham Cook and Sir 
Francis Cook collections. It does not appear in the privately printed Catalogue of the 
Wyndham Cook Collection, but was in the Sale of Humphry W. Cook (July 1925), who 
inherited from Sir Francis Cook. There is an impression of the same intaglio in the 
Museum of Classical Archaeology, Cambridge, no. 472 in the Impressions of Engraved 
Gems (Ancient and Modern) got together by John Wilson (1790 — 1876). It is described 
in the MS. Catalogue as 'Jupiter between Juno & Minerva to witness a Chariot Race' I 







ij,-tffroxim^- ^iifl.iiifcyi.fwl,i^ejctra!fu 



A frescoed ceiling from a room in the Golden House ; Zeus enthroned in heaven, surrounded by gods, goddesses, Tritons, etc. 

Seepagt 39. 



40 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 



The convex circular field is admirably suggestive of a cosmic scene. 
Above a thick stratum of cloud sit the Capitoline three. lupiter in 
the centre, with a himdtion draped round his knees and over his left 
shoulder, has a small twisted thunderbolt in his right hand^ and 
a long sceptre in his left. At his right side Minerva, in chiton, 




Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

himdtion, and helmet, holds a short sceptre in one hand and raises 
the other as if she grasped a spear ^. At his left side is luno, in 

^ The thunderbolt, though present in the position indicated supra ii. 754 fif., is 
minimised and liable to confusion with the lines of the arm and hand. 

^ Cp. e.g. a terra-cotta lamp of s. ill. a.d., which figures the Capitoline deities all 
seated and puts a spear in the raised right hand of Minerva {Brit. Mus. Cat. Lafnps 
p. 167 no. mo fig. 234). The motif is normal in the standing type of the Capitoline 
Minerva {e.g. supra i. 44 fig. 13, 45 fig. 14). The omission of the spear on the onyx may 
imply that the pose was modified into a gesture of entreaty or the like (C. Sittl Die 
Gebdrden der Griechen und Romer Leipzig 1890 pp. 51, 188 ff.). 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 41 

chiton, himdtion, and veil. She too holds a short sceptre in one hand 
and with the other extends a patera towards lupiter. The triad is 
flanked by a pair of nude beardless wind-gods blowing conch-shells^ 
as they emerge from the cloudy band. Beneath the clouds Sol in 
a quadriga pursues Luna in a biga\ he is distinguished by his 
chlamys and radiate crown, she by her arched drapery and crescent. 
Lowest of all reclines Oceanus portrayed as an elderly river-god 
with water flowing from his urn^. The Capitoline group as here 
represented resembles so closely — even to the modified gesture of 
Minerva's hand — the same group as it appears on bronze medallions 
of Antoninus Pius (fig. ii)^ and of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius 
Verus (fig. 12)* that we may fairly attribute the intaglio to a period 
not much later than the middle of the second century A.D. Similar 
in age and motif diVQ two, if not three, gems in our national collection ^ 
Ultimately the deities, seated or standing, are accompanied by their 
favourite birds — graphic labelling of the usual sort (figs. 13, 14).^ 
It is interesting to observe that the whole subject was used with 
happy effect in the decoration of a terra-cotta lamp, now at Berlin 
(fig. 15)'', which — to judge from its heart-shaped nozzle — can be 
referred to the third century A.D.^ 

^ F. Piper Mythologie und Symbolik der christlichen Kunst Weimar 1851 i. i. 437, 
H. Steinmetz in the [ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst, 1910 xxv. 37 ff. 

''^ P. Weizsacker in Roscher Lex, Myth. iii. 817 f. fig. i, O. Navarre in Daremberg — 
Saglio Diet. Ant. iv. 144. 

'^ Frohner Med. emp. rom. p. 49 fig. (Paris) = Cohen Monn, emp. rom.^ ii. 380 f. no. 
1 134 fig. (=my fig. 11) (Paris) (Minerva 'porte la main droite a sa tete') = E. Aust in 
Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 758 fig., Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. ii. 16 no. 6^ pi. 50, 5 a bronze 
medallion of Antoninus Pius (140 — 143 a.d.) with obv. legend ANTON in vs avg pivs p p 
TR p cos III (Milan). 

^ Cohen Monn. emp. rom.^ iii. 130 no. 5 {^ Autrefois M. Carpentier'') (Minerva *porte 
la main droite a sa tete') = Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. ii. 43 no. 6 pi. 71, 6 (= my fig. 12) 
a medallion, in two bronzes, of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (161 — 165 a.d.) with 
obv. legend imp antoninvs avg cos ii[i] imp vervs cos ii (Berlin). 

^ (i) a sapphirine chalcedony {Brit. Mus. Cat, Gems'^ p. 143 no. 1257 pi. 18, 
Furtwangler Ant. Gemmen i pi. 44, 48, ii. 215, H. B. Walters Art of the Romans London 
1911 pi. 48, 21), (2) a sard {Brit. Mus. Cat. Gems"^ p. 143 no. 1258 pi. 18). (3) a frag- 
mentary sard, minus the upper part of Minerva {Brit. Mus. Cat. Ge?ns'^ p. 143 no. 1259). 

^ Nos. 7228 and 8889 in the Wilson Collection of Gem-impressions {supra^. 39 n. 6). 
Scale f. 

'' In the Berlin Museum terra cotta no. 871 figured by L. Beger Thesauri Regii et 
Electoralis Brandenburgici vol. iii (Colonise Marchicse s.a. ) p. 439 f. fig. H, P. S. 
Bartoli — G. P. Bellori Le antiche lucerne sepolcrali figurate Roma 1704 Pt. ii. p. 4 f. pi. 9 
( = my fig. 15), H. Moses A Collection of Vases... London 1814 pi. 81 (after Bartoli), cp. 
O. Jahn Archdologische Beitrdge Berlin 1847 P* 83, F. Piper op. cit. i. 2. 435. 

^ J. Fink in the Sitzungsber. d. kais. bayr. Akad. d. Wiss. Phil. -hist. Classe 1900 
p. 685 ff. ' Formen und Stempel romischer Thonlampen' (Class iv), Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Lamps pp. xxv, 167 ff. 



42 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 



In Greece and Italy the belief that the gods were enthroned above 
the cloud-belt goes back, through a long line of literary tradition, to 
Homer and the Homeric Olympos^ Further east even earthly 




Fig. 15- 



monarchs laid claim to a like exaltation. Thus Kushana kings of 
the Kabul valley, during the first two centuries of our era, issued 
numerous gold coins on which their supramundane position was duly 
indicated. V'ima Kadphises, son of Kujula Kadphises and conqueror 



^ Supra i. loi f. pi. ix, i and 2. 



Zeus and the Clouds in Art 



43 



of northern India, whose reign ended in y8 A.D.^ appears either half- 
emergent from a pile of clouds (fig. 16)2 or sitting cross-legged 
upon them as on comfortable cushions (fig. lyy. Kanishka, his 
successor from yS A.D. onwards ^ raises his head proudly above a 
thick mass of clouds (fig. 18)^. Huvishka, who probably followed 
Kanishka on the throne c. 1 1 1 — 129 A.D.^ repeats the types of V'ima 
Kadphises and either emerges half his height above the clouds 
(figs. 19, 2oy or sits cross-legged on the top of them (fig. 21)^. 

Finally, in mediaeval times, the cloud-stratum was stylised into 
the nebuly of ecclesiastical^ and heraldic^^ art. 






Fig. 16. 



Fig. 17. 



Fig. 18 






Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. 

^ E. J. Rapson in T/ie Cambridge History of India Cambridge 1922 i. 581 ff,, cp. 
L. D. Barnett Antiquities of India London [913 p. 43. V. A. Smith The Early History 
of India^ rev. by S. M. Edwardes Oxford 1924 p. 271 makes Kadphises ii reign c. 78 — 
c. 110 A.D. 

2 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Greek and Scythic Kings p. I24f. pi. 25, 8 and 9 ( = my 
fig. 16), L. D. Barnett op. cit. p. 213 f. pi. 5, i. 

"^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Greek and Scythic Kings p. 124 pi. 25, 7 ( = my fig. 17), 
C. J. Brown The Coins of India Calcutta 1922 p. 35 pi. 4, 3 ('the king seated cross-legged 
on a couch'). 

^ E. J. Rapson loc. cit. V. A. Smith op. cit.^ pp. 274, 286 makes Kanishka succeed 
Kadphises ii and reign c. 120 — c. 160 A.D. L. D. Barnett op. cit. p. 42 had placed 
Kanishka's reign 58— £•. 34 B.C. 

^ Brit. Mtcs. Cat. Coins Greek and Scythic Kings p. 132 pi. 26, 16 ( = my fig. 18) 
and 17. 

*^ Supra ii. 791 n. 2. V. A. Smith op. cit.^ p. 286 ff. dates Huvishka's reign c. 160 — 
c. 182 A.D. L. D. Barnett op. cit. p. 42 had placed it ^. 25 B.C. — c. 2 A.D. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Greek and Scythic Kings p. 136 ff. pi. 27, 9 ( = my fig. 19), 
II, 16, pi. 28, 9, V. A. Smith op. cit.'^ p. 76 coin-pl. figs. 4, 5. Fig. 20 is from a specimen 
in my collection. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Greek and Scythic Kings p. 145 pi. 28, 10 ( = my fig. 21). 

'^ Supra ii. 137 n. o pi. viii. 

^^ O. Barron in The Encyclopcedia Britannica^^ Cambridge 19 10 xiii. 317, A. C. Fox- 
Davies A complete Guide to Heraldry London 1925 pp. 79 f., 91 f. fig. 47, G, H, 94. 



44 Nephelokokkygia 

(c) Nephelokokkygia^ 

It remains to consider in greater detail the most famous con- 
ception of Cloud-land bequeathed to us by classical antiquity, the 
Nephelokokkygia of Aristophanes' Birds. That remarkable drama 
raises many problems, some of which we must attempt to solve. 
Why did the poet choose Birds for his theme? Why lay such stress 
on the Hoopoe, the Woodpecker, the Cuckoo? Who is Pisthetairos? 
Who is Basileia? And what light does the v^holG. fantasia throw on 
the relation between Zeus and the Clouds? I begin by passing in 
review the relevant incidents of the play. 

Two typical Athenians, Pisthetairos and Euelpides, tired of 
Athens and its perpetual lawsuits, set out, under the guidance of a 
crow and a jackdaw, to seek the hoopoe Tereus. They would learn 
from him, since he too had been a man and suffered like troubles, 
where they may find peaceful quarters — 

Fleecy as a rug and soft to lie upon 2. 

They want something more comfortable than their own Rock Town, 
but scout his suggestions of the Red Sea in the east, Lepreos down 
south, Opous up north. Euelpides thinks there is much to be said 
for staying where they are, with the Birds. And Pisthetairos is 
struck by a grand idea. If Tereus and the Birds would but hearken 
to him, they might take possession of the Clouds — why not? — and 
transform the very polos into a polis. This would enable them to 
starve out the gods, who could receive no savoury sacrificial smoke 
without first paying tribute to them! Hereupon Tereus and his mate, 
Prokne the nightingale, summon an assembly of the Birds, a sus- 
picious and hostile crowd^. 

To allay their fears, Pisthetairos in a persuasive speech develops 
his scheme*. He tells them that the Birds were formerly lords of 
creation, being of older lineage than Kronos, the Titans, or Earth 
herself — witness Aesop's fable of the Lark which, before earth existed, 
had to bury her father in her own head^ Clearly then the Birds are 

^ The first draft of this section appeared as 'Nephelokokkygia' in Essays and Studies 
presented to William Ridgeway Cambridge 19 13 pp. 213 — 221 with pi. It is here re- 
published with considerable alterations and additions. 

2 Aristoph. av.\i\i. 3 /^^ ^-^ j — ^^q 

■* ^d- ib. 451—538. 

5 This fable, which is of a type still common in the Balkans (cp. M. Gaster Rumanian 
Bird and Beast Stories London 1915 p. 236 f. no. 78 ' Why has the lark a tuft ? ', p. 238 f. 
no. 79 'Why is the tuft of the lark dishevelled?'), is not found in any ancient collection 
of Aisopika. F. de Furia (Lipsiae 1810) fab. 415 and C. Halm (Lipsiae i860) fab. 211 



Nephelokokkygia 4 5 



more ancient than the gods, and Zeus ought to relinquish his sceptre 
to the Woodpecker^. Again, the Birds are the rightful rulers of 
mankind. The Cock with his upright tiara was once king of Persia, 
and still summons men to their labours^. The Kite lorded it over 



merely paraphrase or transcribe Aristophanes. Galen de swipliciiim medicamentorum 
temperamentis et facultatibiis ii. 37 (xii. 360 f. Kiihn) likewise cites Aristophanes and 
rightly cp. the eTrirvfji^idiaL KopvdaWides of Theokr. 7. 23 (see O. Crusius on Babr. 72. 20 
KopvdaWbs ovv Td<pois irai^oov). Ail. de nat. an, 16. 5 (copied by the paroemiographers 
Apostol. 7. 74, Arsen. viol. p. 239 Walz s.v. ^iroiros'Ivdov CTopyf)) thinks that the Greeks 
got their story of the Lark from one told by the Brachmanes about the Hoopoe, a bird 
which the Indians deem the right pet for royalty. The story is as follows. A certain Indian 
king had a son, whose [two ?] elder brothers grew up lawless and violent. They scorned 
their brother as too young and scoffed at their father and mother as too old. So the 
parents took their youngest boy and fled. Their journey was too much for them and they 
died. But the boy, far from despising them, split his own head with a sword and buried 
them in it. The Sun, who sees all, amazed at this remarkable instance of filial piety, 
turned the boy into a beautiful and long-lived bird. On his head is a crest, which keeps 
his exploit in memory.... An Ogygian length of time has elapsed since the Indian Hoopoe 
was a boy and treated his parents thus. A. Hausrath in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 
1727, r73of. makes it probable that the simple Greek tale is not actually derived from 
the more rhetorical Indian tale. Nevertheless the two are so similar that they cannot be 
regarded as wholly unrelated. There is of course a superficial resemblance between the 
crested lark {e.g. R. Lydekker The Royal Natural History London 1894 — 95 iii. 420 f. 
with fig. on p. 418) and the hoopoe {id. ib. 1895 iv. 57 ff. with col. pi.), and it is reason- 
able to suppose that Greeks and Indians, distant cousins by race, elaborated analogous 
stories to account for parallel features. But D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of Greek 
Birds Oxford 1895 p. 97 is in danger of going too far when he says: 'The Kopv86s and 
^troxf/ (both crested birds) are frequently confused : the very word Alauda is possibly an 
Eastern word for the Hoopoe, Arab, al hudhud.'' This etymology, first found in, or rather 
implied by, the Pandectarius Arabicus Matthaei Sylvatici (an Arab commentator on the 
Pandectae of Matthaeus Sylvaticus, physician of Salerno, published at Naples in 1474) 
quoted by S. Bochart Hierozoicon rec. E. F. C. RosenmilUer Lipsiae 1796 iii. 115, is 
nowadays commonly rejected in favour of a Celtic origin (Plin. nat. hist. 11. 121 Gallico 
vocabulo, Suet. lul. 24 vocabulo... Gallico, Marcell. de medicamentis 28. 50 p. 299, i 
Helmreich Gallice) : see L. Diefenbach Origines Eicropaeae Frankfurt am Main 1861 
pp. 219 — 222, C. W. Gllick in the Jahrb. f. class. Philol. 1866 xii. 166 f., A. Holder 
Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz Leipzig 1896 i. 75 f. , Walde Lat. etym. Worterb!^ p. 23. 

^ Supra ii. 697 n. o. May we infer that the woodpecker, like the wren (first in 
Aristoph. av. 569 ^aaiXevs ear opx^^os opi'ts, cp. its later names ^aaiXiffKos (Aisop. ap. 
Plout. praec. gerend. reipubl. 12, alib.), Tvpavuos (Aristot. hist. an. 8. 3. 592 b 23), 
regaliolus (Suet. lul. 81 regaliolum with vd. regaviolum, on which see De Vit Lat. Lex. 
s.v. 'regaliolus'), regulus {carm. de philomeL 43 in Poet. Lat. min. v. 366 Baehrens), 
'kinglet' (C. Swainson The Folk Lore and Provincial Na?nes of British Birds London 
1886 p. 25)) and sundry other birds (Plin. nat. hist. 10. 203 dissident... aquila et 
trochilus, si credimus, quoniam rex appellatur avium, cp. 8. 90 parva avis, quae trochilos 
ibi vocatur, rex avium in Italia, with the remarks of D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary 
of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 171 f.), was popularly held to be a king? Keleos the Green 
Woodpecker [supra i. 226) was one of the 'kings' at Eleusis {supra i. 211). 

^ F. Baethgen De vi ac signifcatione galli in religionibus et artibus Graecoj-um et 
Romanorum Gottingae 1887 pp. 6, 8, 1 1 (somewhat slight). The best account of the cock 
in Persian religion is still that of K. Schwenck Die Mythologie der Perser Frankfurt am 
Main 1850 pp. 304 — 307. See also F. Orth in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Etic. viii. 2521 ff. 



4 6 Nephelokokky gia 

Hellas: Hellenes grovel yet at the sight of him ^ The Cuckoo was 
sovereign of Egypt and Phoinike, and his cry sent the circumcised 
to reap their plains: young stalwarts still follow their example^. 
Tracredy-kings bear a bird-tipped sceptred Zeus himself has an 
eagle on his head, Athena an owl, Apollon a hawk*. No wonder 
men swear 'by the Goosed' 

^ The kite was in general a bird of ill omen (L. Hopf Thierorakel und Orakelthiere in 
alter und neuer Zeit Stuttgart 1888 p. 94 f. (' Weihen')), whose advent shortly before the 
vernal equinox (Gemin. calendarium : Pisces p. 228, i f. Manitius kv 8e ry t^ (March 9) 
'Evd6^(i} X^i-f^f''''-^^'- ' 1^^'- ^KTivos (jjaiveTai, 6 f. ev d^ rrj Kfi (March I4) ^vkt-^ixovl iKTivos<paiv€Tai' 
dpvLdiai TTviovffL fM^xP'-^ iafjfjiepias, lof. ev de rrj \ (March 22) KaXXtTTTTC;; tQv 'Ix^viov 6 vqtlos 
eTTtrAXcDV X-qyei- iktivos KpaiveraL- jSopeas TTvet with the observations of D'ArcyW. Thompson 
A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 68 f. Cp. Aristoph. av. 713 f.) might well be 
greeted by the superstitious with grovelling prostration (schol. Aristoph. av. 501 irpoKv- 
'KivSeladai- ^apos dpxofJ-evov {ipxo/J-evov cod. R.) lktlvos (paberai els tt]u 'EWdSa. i<p' ip 
i)86fX€voi KvKlvbovTaL (ws eirl yovv. irai^as odp cbs ^aaCkei 07?cri to KvXiudeicrdaL). idiov yap 
^aaiXews TO yovvireTeladai viro dvdpibTTOJV. dWcos. {tovs dudpcoTrovs drjXovoTi. to 5td yuera/SoXrjJ' 
d^ Kaipov yivd/xepov els ^acrtXiKijv ^ireTpexpe tl/xtju. ) oi yap lktlvol t6 iraXaibv 'iap ia-qixaivov. 
ol irevrjTes ovv dvaXXayevTcs tov xei/x.wj'os eKuXtpdovPTO /cat TrpoaeKVVovv avTOVs. Souid. s.v. 
tKTivoi merely copied this scholion, prefixing the words /cat irapoLfxia' irpoKvXivbeLadaL 
cktIuois. No such saying, however, appears in the paroemiographers). There is no doubt 
that Aristophanes has here preserved for us a genuine scrap of ancient folk-custom. 
W. Mannhardt Wald- und Feldkulte'^ Berlin 1904 i. 483 adduces an interesting parallel: 
*Beim ersten Kukuksruf walzt sich der Meininger, hessische, westfalische Bauer ein 
paarmal auf der Erde, um das Jahr hindurch frei von Riickenschmerzen zu bleiben-^. (^ Zs. 
f. D. A. Ill, 362, 13. XII, 400. Zs. f. D. Myth, iv, 447. Kuhn, Westfal. Sag. 11, 74, 221.) 
Gradeso warf sich im alten Griechenland riicklings (OTrrtos) nieder und walzte sich auf dem 
Boden, wer zum erstenmale im Friihling eines Weihen (I'/crtj'os) ansichtig ward^. 
(^ Aristophan. av. 498 ff. c. schol.)' See further Seemann in the Handworterbuch des 
deutschen Aberglaubens Berlin — Leipzig 1933 v. 713, 721 n. 170. 

*^ We have no reason to think that Egyptians and Phoenicians were specially devoted 
to the Cuckoo. But it is likely enough that they regarded his cry in the spring-time as a 
signal for returning to work in the fields (cp. J. Hardy 'Popular History of the Cuckoo' 
in The Folk-Lore Recoi-d 1879 ^^' 5^ ^•)' Aristophanes uses words with a double meaning : 
KfiKKv suggests at once 'cuckoo' and 'cuckold' (W. Mannhardt 'Der Kukuk' in the 
Zeitschrift fur deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde 1855 iii. 246 ff. 'Vor allem stand der 
kukuk den functionen der zeugung vor. ' Etc.) ; xl/ojXoi means both circumcisi and verpi ; 
irediov is not only 'plain' but 2X^0 pudendum (schol. Aristoph. av. 507 dXXws. t6 aldoioy, 
cp. XcLfjuhv, Krjiros, hortus, and the like). 

^ E.g. supra i. 251 pi. xxii (Kreon). 

^ The type is so unusual that the scholiast ad loc. is reduced to saying Mov eiveiv eirl 
TOV ffKrjTTTpov elirev iiri ttjs K€<paXijs ! His alternative explanation iireLdr) eiibdecrap Ta d0te/)w- 
fiiva eKa^Tip dec^ 6pvea iirl K€(paX^s idpveadaL is simply untrue. Hieratic effigies of the sort 
are all pre-Hellenic, e.g. the faience goddesses surmounted by snake and lioness (? leopard) 
from the temple-repository of ' Middle Minoan iii' date at Knossos (Sir A. J. Evans in the 
Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1902 — 1903 ix. 74 ff. figs. 54 — 57, id. The Palace of Minos London 
1921 i. 500 ff. with col. Frontispiece and figs. 359—362, H. T. Bossert Altkreta^ Berlin 
1923 PP« 22, 72 ff. figs. 103 — 106) or the terra-cotta goddess with a dove on her head from 
the small shrine of 'Late Minoan iii' date on the same site [supra ii. 536 fig. 406c). We 
need not suppose that such archaic forms had survived into classical Greece. If a bird on 
the head was modified into a bird on the helmet, that would lend point enough to 
Aristophanes' lines. And of this usage we have some few traces. There was a chrysele- 



Nephelokokkygia 47 



phantine statue of Athena with a cock on her helmet, said to be the work of Pheidias, on 
the akropolis of Elis (Paus. 6. 26. 3, cp. Plin. nat. hist. 35. 54 where the same (?) statue 
is attributed to Kolotes the pupil of Pheidias: see further H. Hitzig — H. Bliimner on 
Paus. loc. cit.). A bronze formerly in the cabinet of St Germain des Prez represents 
Athena wearing a helmet the crest of which is supported by a cock (Montfaucon Antiquity 
Explained \.x2ins. D. Humphreys London 1721 i. 82 f. pi. 39, 19 (^ Hermathetia'' ^) ^Reinach 
Rdp. Stat, ii, 276 no. 10). Another bronze at Agram makes her crest-support an owl 
(J. Brunsmid 'Monuments du Musee d'Agram' in the Viestnik 1914 \_Vjesnik N. S. xiii 
1913/1914] p. 212 cited by Reinach Rep. Stat. v. 120 no. 9). A third, in the Bammeville 
collection, repeats the motif {y^. Frohner Collection de feu M. Joly de Bammeville Paris 
1893 pi. 19 = Reinach R^p. Stat. ii. 278 no. 9). 

^ E. von Lasaulx Der Eid bei den Griechen Wurzburg 1844 p. 27 f. and R. Hirzel Der 
Eid Leipzig 1902 pp. 96 n. 2, 100 n. 3 collect most of the passages that bear on this 
curious practice. From them we learn {a) that Rhadamanthys would not suffer his 
subjects to take an oath by the gods, but bade them swear by goose, dog, ram, etc., and 
{h) that Sokrates conformed to the same usage, swearing by dog, plane-tree, etc. Cp. 
Plat. apol. 21 E, Gorg. 466 C, Phaedr. 228 B, rep. 399 E, Phaed. 98 E vy\ rov K^pa, Gorg. 
461 A /id. rov Kvva, Gorg. 482 B fxa rbv K6va rbv AlyvirTLOjv debv, Phaedr. 236 D — E o/livv/xl... 
TTjv irXdravov ravrrjvi. 

Sosikrates (on whom see Laqueur in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii A. 1160 — 1165) 
K/)?7rt/cd frag. 5 [Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 501 Miiller) ap. schol. Aristoph. av. 521 Ad^aTrwv 
5' ofjivvai: [tQu etKij daLfxovojv. on (F. Dubner cj. ov) irpCoTOL ol liCJKpaTLKol iireTr}bev<jav 
oOtus ofxvvvaL. ^oiaiKpdTrjs (so J. Meursius and L. Kiister for Sw/cpdrT^s) yap iv t(^ j3' (so 
W. Dindorf for t/3') tQv KprjriKdov ourws (prjcri ^^'Fa8d/j.avdvs be boKel biabe^afxevos ttjv 
^aaiKeiav St/catoraros yeyevrjadat iravruv dvdpdoTrcjv. Xeyerac bk avrbv wpQrov ovbeva idv 
opKOvs Troi€i(rdaL Kara tQv deQv, d\\' ofivvvac /ceXeOcrai XW*^ '^c-' Kijva /cat Kptbv /cat rd 
6/xota") (goose, dog, ram). This is abridged by Souid. s.v. Kdixiroiv ofivvaL rbv XW ■> 
brav i^aTrarq, Tiva (goose, dog, ram) and s.v. XW^ ofxvijvaL (goose, ram). 

Schol. Plat. apol. 21 E vi] rbv k6va' 'Fabap-avdvos opKos outos 6 /card Kwbs 77 xv^os 
rj KpLou 7] TLvos aWov TOLOVTov " ols r)v p^eyLcrros opKos cLTravTi Xbyip kvojv, | ^Treira XW ' 
deovs b' i(rLy(i}v," Kparivos Xetpwct [frag. 11 [Frag. com. Gr. ii. 155 f. Meineke, who with 
T. Gaisford would divide the lines \by(jp \ kvuiv, not k^ojv, \ ^Tretra)). /card to{/to)v be 
v6p.oi bpivvvai, tva p,7} Kara deQv ol bpKoc yiyviovTai. tolovtoc b^ /cat oi Sw/c/jdrofs opKot 
(dog, goose, ram). This is copied by the schol. V.G. Loukian. vit. auct. r6 (dog, 
goose, plane, ram). Phot. lex. s.v. 'Fabapdvdvos opKos (goose, dog, plane, ram), 
Souid. s.v. 'Pabap-dvdvos 6'p/cos (goose, dog, plane, ram), Apostol. 15. 17 (goose, dog, 
plane, ram), Arsen. p. 423 f. Walz (goose, dog, plane, ram), and in part by Zenob. 
5. 81 (goose, dog), Hesych. s.v. 'Fabap.dvdvos 'opKos (goose, dog) and s.v. XW^ bp.vtj€Lv 
(goose), Makar. 7. 49 (ram, swan, vegetables), cp. Append, prov. 2. 91 EuptTrtSetos 
6p/cos • IVojs 6 /card Kvvb% 17 xt^j/qs (where E. L. von Leutsch notes : ' Euripides Socraticus 
hoc imitatus est') (dog, goose). 

Further allusions in Loukian. vit. auct. 16 20. Kat p.y]v op^vijo} ye (xol tov Kvva /cat ttjv 
irXdravov ovtoj ravr ^x^'-^' ^NHTHS. 'Hpd/cXets rijs droTrias twv deQv. 212. ri av XeyeLS ; 
ov boKeX aoL kvojv eTvai debs; ovx bpS-s rbv "Avov^iv ev Aiyvimp ocros ; /cat rbv iv ovpavc^ 
2etpioJ' /cat rbv irapd rots /cdrco Kip^epov ; (dog, plane), /carom. 9 ol be /card kvvQv /cat 
Xfj^a^v /cat irXardviav €Tr(Jbfjt.vvvTo (dog, goose, plane), Theophil. ad Aictol. 3. 2 p. 152 
Humphry ri (h(f)iX7jffev . . ."ZiUKpdTrjv rb bp.vvetv rbv Kvva /cat rbv xi^^ k^'^'- '^W TrXdravov /cat 
rbv Kepavvudivra 'AaKXrfTrtbv /cat rd baipibvia a iireKaXeiro ; (dog, goose, plane), Tert. 
apol. 14 taceo de philosophis, Socrate contentus, qui in contumeliam deorum quercum et 
hircum et canem deierabat (oak, goat, dog) = ad nat. i. 10 taceo de philosophis, quos... 
nonnullus etiam afflatus veritatis adversus deos erigit : denique et Socrates in contumeliam 
eorum quercum et canem. et hircum iurat (oak, dog, goat), Athen. 370 a — c [l^ik. frag. 
II a description of the KpdpL^r]) "^i/ p.dvrLv XaxdvoLcn -rraXatbyovoL iviirovaLv.'' /nrjirore be 
6 Nt/cavSpos p^dvriv KiKXrjKe r7]v Kpdp.^r]v, lepdv ovaav, eirel /cat Trap' "^ImrdbvaKrc iv to?s 
idpi^OLS [frag. 37 Bergk^, 40 Diehl) icrri ri Xeybp-evov roioOrov "6 5' e^oXtcrduv iKireve ri]v 



4 8 Nephelokokkygia 

Kpdix^rjv I TTjv eTrTd<pv\\ov, rj d^eaKe Uavdibpri \ QapyTjXLoLaiv (T. Bergk prints -^v ddeaKe 
Uavdtbprj from his own cj. and TapyrjXioiatu from that of F. W. Schneidewin) ^7x^x01/ wpo 
(pap/iiaKou (so Schneidewin for (papp.dKov).'" koI 'Avdvios 54 (prjcn {frag. 4 Bergk^, 3 Diehl) 
"/tai ak iroWov dvdpdjirujv \ 4y(b (ptX^ui /ndXiffra, val jud ttjv Kpdfx^rju.^^ /cat TrjXeKXeidrji 
UpvTdveai. {frag. 4 {F^'ag. cotn. Gr. ii. 368 Meineke)) ''■val /ad rds Kpdfi^as" ^(prj. /cat 
'ETrlxo-pfxos iv Tq. /cat GaXdcro-^ iffo-g- 25 Kaibel) " val fxd rdv Kpap-^av.'' Ei^iroXcs BdvraLS 
{frag. 13 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 451 Meineke) ap. Priscian. de metr, Ter. 23 (ii. 427, 25 f. 
Hertz)) "/'at p.d t7]v Kpd/j.^r}v." ^56/cet de 'Icjvikos ehai 6 opKos. /cat ov irapdbo^ov el Kara 
TTJs Kpd/x^7ii TLvh ujpvvov, oTTOTe Kol TiT/vwu 6 Kltuvs 6 TTjs Srotts KTiarcop {apophthegm. 
48 Pearson, de vita testim. 32 a von Arnim) /j.ifjio{>fj.euos tov Kara r^s Kvvb^ opKov ZuKpdrovs 
Kal avrbs uifivve tt/v Kdirirapiv, tI)s"E/x7re56s (so Kaibel and J. von Arnim, after C. Miiller, 
for "E/iTToSos cod.) (t>'q(nv iv ' A7ro/MV7]fxovevp,a(nv {Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 403 f. Miiller) (cabbage ; 
dog; caper), Diog. Laert. 7. 32 oofxvve 54 {sc. Zenon), ^aai, Kal Kdirirapiv, Kaddirep 
ZojKpdrrjs rdv K^va (dog; caper), Philostr. v. Apoll. 6. 19 p. 232 Kayser -rrpos raOra 
6 QeaTreaiixiv, ^'eyiverd rts," ^0??, ^^ 'SiUJKpdTr/s ' A6r]vaios dvdrjros, (xxxirep rjfieh, yipujv, 6s tov 
Kvva Kal rbv XW^ "^^i' ^W TrXdravov deoijs re TjyetTO Kal iofxvv.'^ ^^ oi)K dvorjTOS,^^ etTrei' 
{sc. Apollonios), " dXXa deios Kal drexj/cos (X0(p6s, (ijLivv yap ravra ovx tbs deoijs, dXX' tVa /xij 
deovs o/j-vvol'' (dog, goose, plane), Porph. de abst. 3. 16 XooKpdrrjs 5e Kal cofivvev 
/car' avTUiV {sc. tQv ^<^u}v), Kal ^tl irpb avrov 'Faddfiavdvs ... Kprj(rl 5^ vbfxos rjv 'Fadafidvdvoi, 
opKov iTrdyeadat wdvra rd ^(^a. ov5k H^cjKpdTrjs rbv Kijva Kal rbv XW^ ofxvi/s '^irai^ev, dXXd 
Kara rbv tov Aibs Kal AIktjs iraWa {sc. Rhadamanthys) eTrotetro tov opKov, ov5e irai^oov 
6fjLo5oijXovs avTov fkeyev tovs kvkvovs (dog, goose, swan?), Lact. div. inst. 3. 20 p. 247, 
10 f. Brandt verum idem {sc. Socrates) per canem et anserem deierabat (dog, goose)^ 
Lact. inst. epit. 32 p. 708, 7 f. Brandt quam {sc. religionem) quidem Socrates non modo 
repudiavit, verum etiam derisit per anserem canemque iurando (goose, dog), Aug. de 
vera religione 2 (i. 1207 B ed.^ Bened. ) Socrates tamen audacior caeteris fuisse perhibetur 
iurando per canem quemlibet, et lapidem quemlibet, et quidquid iuraturo esset in 
promptu, et quasi ad manum occurrisset (dog, stone), Prokop. of Gaza epist. 63 p. 554 f. 
Hercher vvvl 5k ofxvvfiL ov ttjv irXdTavov ttjv Sw/cpdrofs dXXd toi)s Xdyovs avTovs, firjTrci} ye 
TeTvxyjKivai. tov KT-qpcaTos (plane), Eustath. iti Od. p. 1871, 4 ff. 'PaSdyOtai'^us 54, (paaiv, 
iiirkp TOV p.ri debv ovop^d^eiv ewl Trdaiv iK4Xev(r4, (paai, /card xv^os Kal Kvvbs Kal Kptov opLvivai. 
Cojxvve 54, (paai, XW^ '^^tt ^ojKpaTrjs ' dXXos 6^ rts Kpa/x^rju ' ov ^T}X(i3<xas vaTcpov 6 x^^^'-^^'" 
oxXos Sio/JivvTaL xard Xaxdvoov (cp. the late glosses in Souid. s.v. Xaxdvots' 6'rt TroXXr)v 
evopKiav ewiSeLKviJiJievot Trpbs Xdxo-va o/xvvovaL, yttd rd Xdxava Kal /xd rd /caXd X4yovTes and 
s.v. jxd rd Xdxctfa* (XTjiiieiov tovto irepl opKov 6 Kal vvv iinxf^pi-d^ei. TroXXoi ydp wpbs 
Xdxo-va opLviovaLv, evopKiav eTrL5€iKV}jfxevoL. eTTtxw/otdfet 5' eicf4Ti. Kal tols eXXoyifxoLS 
' App.evtaKols Tb p.d rd KaXd). otl 54 Kal yvvaXKes up-vvov 4irl o'ivifi S,4vapxos irai^cov §77X01 iv 
t<^ ^'bpKov 5' iyii) yvvaiKbs eis oTvov ypdipca'^ {/eg. ypdipu : Xenarch. Tr4vTadXos frag. 3 
{Frag. com. Gr. iii. 620 f. Meineke) ap. Athen. 441 E, cp. Hellad. ap. Phot. did/, p. 530 a 
15 ff. Bekker, Phrynich. praep. soph. p. 95, 16 ff. I. de Borries) (goose, dog, ram; 
goose; cabbage; vegetables; wine?). G. Menage in his note on Diog. Laert. 2. 40 
ends a similar string of extracts with a bon mot : ' Cum autem frequenter ei {sc. Socrati) 
uxor adversaretur, dissidiumque sit feles inter et canes, Italus quidam, cuius excidit mihi 
nomen, Xanthippen per felem iurare scripsit' ! 

But we have yet to determine the origin and significance of the oath by goose, dog, 
ram, etc. No one nowadays is likely to share the view of Tertullian and Lactantius {locc. 
citt.) that Sokrates was deliberately making a mock of the gods by his appeal to some 
trumpery substitute. Nor, on the other hand, shall we rest satisfied with the contention of 
L. Preller (Preller — Plew Gr. Myth. ii. 130 n. 4) that the said substitutes were originally 
sacred trees and animals. The Platonic Sokrates, to be sure, says p.d rbv Kijva rbv 
AiyvTTTLoov debv (Plat. Gorg. 482 b). But then the Platonic Phaidros can retort (Z 2t6/c/)ares, 
p^5iws <xd AlyvTTTiovs Kal 67ro5a7roi>$ dv idiXrjs Xoyovs iroieis (Plat. Phaedr. 275 b). The 
Lucianic Sokrates, who identifies the 'dog' with Anoubis or Seirios or Kerberos 
(Loukian. vit. auct. 16), would presumably have interpreted the 'ram' as Ammon. 
A mantis like Lampon might swear by the 'goose' as a mantic bird (schol. Aristoph. av. 



Nephelokokkygia 49 



521 6 5^ AdyUTTWJ' diJTT^s yiv /cat x/!)i7(TyUoX67os kol fxdvTLS' ... Sfivve 5e /card roO xVf'^^ ^s 
fxavTLKov opv^ov). And a little mythological ingenuity could doubtless discover some spark of 
sanctity in the 'plane-tree,' the 'cabbage,' the 'poppy' (Souid. s.v. /xa /xi^kcjvos x^^V^' 
"I'at vai jULCL firjKUJPos x^orjv" and s.v. vai vai jxa /uLrjKOJvos x^^V^ ' op/cos eTrt x^^^^ckt/a^j), and 
what not? All the same, there was sound sense in the dictum of Apollonios that Sokrates 
swore by these things ovx ws deovs, dXX' 'iva /jlt} deoi/s o/jluvoi (Philostr. /oc. cit.). Finally, 
we shall not subscribe to the well-meant but unconvincing claim of St Augustine, that 
Sokrates' attribution of divinity to natural objects was an expedient intended to deter 
men from the worship of artificial objects and to direct their thoughts toward the one 
true God (Aug. de vera religione 2 (i. 1207 c ff. ed.'"^ Bened.) credo, intelligebat qualia- 
cumque opera naturae, quae administrante divina providentia gignerentur, multo quam 
hominum et quorumlibet opificum esse meliora, et ideo divinis honoribus digniora, quam 
ea quae in templis colebantur. non quod vere lapis et canis essent colenda sapientibus, 
sed ut hoc modo intelligerent qui possent, tanta superstitione demersos esse homines, ut 
emergentibushic esset tarn turpis demonstrandus gradus, ad quem venire si puderet, viderent 
quanto magis pudendum esset in turpiore consistere. simul et illos qui mundum istum visi- 
bilem, summum deum esse opinabantur, admonebat turpitudinis suae, docens esse conse- 
quens ut quilibet lapis tanquam summi dei particula iure coleretur. quod si exsecrarentur, 
mutarent sententiam, et unum deum quaererent, quem solum supra mentes nostras esse, 
et a quo omnem animam et totum istum mundum fabricatum esse constaret. etc.). 

What then, after all, is the explanation of these strange oaths? J. Vendryes Language 
trans. P. Radin London 1925 p. 221 observes: 'In many languages oaths undergo a 
conventional alteration which allows them to be introduced into the best society ; thus, 
for example, big7^e, ox fichtre. The French say : palsambleti, parbleu, pargnieu, pardienne 
instead of par le sang de Dieu ox par Dieu, just as the English turned "By Mary" into 
"Marry," "By God's Little Body" into "Odds Boddikins".' Similarly E. Weekley The 
Romance of Words London 19 12 p. 60: 'In drat, formerly ''od rot., zounds., for God's 
wounds,^ sdeath, odsbodikins, etc., there is probably a deliberate avoidance of profanity. 
The same tendency is seen in Gogs {Shrew, iii. 2), Yx, parbleu, and Ger. Potz in Potztau- 
send, etc' Accordingly W, A. Becker long since conjectured that xvv<^ in this connexion 
was a distorted form of Tirjva (W. A. Becker Charikles^ Leipzig 1854 i. 154 ' Es kann 
fast scheinen, als ob man ausweichend rbv xw^ statt roy Ta^vci gesagt habe, wie auch bei 
uns dergleichen Verdrehungen nicht ungewohnlich sind'). The same view was advocated 
by K. Lehrs Platos Phddrus und Gastmahl Leipzig 1870 p. 142. R. Hirzel Der Eid 
Leipzig 1902 p. 96 n. 2 objects that nobody said vi] tov Tir\va. (despite //. 23. 43 and Od. 
20. 339 ov jxa Zrjv', Soph. Trach. 1188 ofivvfjC ^yijiye, Tativ' ^x^^ i-rrdj/jiOTOv, Phil. 1324 
7ir\va 5' opKiou koXQ, Eur. Hipp. 1025 f. vvv 5' opKiov <xot Tiijua /cat iredou x^ovbs \ ofivvfii 
K.T.X.) and consequently nobody would have altered it into vrj rbv XW^' But this objection 
ignores the fact that in Crete — the very home of Rhadamanthys — oaths were regularly 
taken at Dreros by rbv Aijva (Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr."^ no. 463 {ib.'^ no. 527), 14 tf. 
cited supra i. 729 n. 2), at Priansos, Gortyna and Hierapytna by Trriva {¥. Blass in 
CoUitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2. 301 ff. no. 5024, 59 ff. cited j-w/ra ii. 723 n.o), 
at Hierapytna and one of its colonies by T?7fa (F. Blass ib. iii. 2. 311 f. no. 5039, 11 f. 
cited supra ii. 723 n. o), at Lyttos by Tiji/a (F. Blass ib. iii. 2. 380 f. no. 5147 b., 5 cited 
supra ii. 934 n. o) and by Z^j/a (Michel Recueil d' Inscr. gr. no. 29, 13 f. cited supra ii. 
723 n. o). 

I conclude, therefore, that in Crete, where men swore officially by rbv Arjva or Trijua 
or Trjua or Ztrjva — so many ways of representing the initial Alj- in the name of Zeus 
(E. Boissicq Les dialectes doriens Paris 1891 p. 153, G. Meyer Griechische Gramniatik'^ 
Leipzig 1896 p. 338, C. D. Buck Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dialects Boston 
1 910 pp. 31, 67, 86) — a popular distortion vt] rbv XW"' arose and was in due course fathered 
upon Rhadamanthys. R. Hirzel loc. cit. aptly observes that in Crete people still say 
yiid rb depio, ' by the beast, dragon, giant,' or fia to x^'^Oj 'by the sap,' for fia rb deb, 'by 
God' (A. Jeannaraki [ = A. N. Jannaris] At2MATA KPHTIKA Leipzig 1876 p. 327 '^td 
TO depib, statt fMa rb deb, bei Gott, dudXe/na statt dvdde/xa, verflucht etc.,' ib. p. 379 'Da 

C. III. 4. 



5 o Neph elokokkygia 

The Birds, flattered and fluttered by this speech, are willing to 
accept the plan of Pisthetairos, to build a great wall^ round the air, 

sich das Wort x^^^^ "^i^ ^^"^ Worte Beds reimt, so sagt man sehr oft /ud to x^^o statt fxa 
rd deb um die Gotteslasterung zu vermeiden. Gleichfalls sagt man /xd to depco, [xa to vlo, 
auch did^ovrpos statt did^oXos (vgl. hole mich der Kukuk)'). Perhaps Ktjva in turn was a 
substitute for xv^o-^ i^ "ot Kpiov for Kpovov {supra ii. 548 fF.). But successive links soon 
become impossible to trace, 

^ The notion of a cosmic wall is found in the teaching of Parmenides (Aet. 1. 7. i 
(H. Diels Doxographi Graeci Berolini 1879 P- 335 ^^ 11 ff., b 8 ff.) ap. Plout. de plac. phil. 
1. 7 KoX Tb irepiixov be wdaas {sc. tcls aTccpdvas) tcLxovs biKrju (XTepebv virdpx^i-v and ap. Stob. 
eel. 1, 22. i^ p. 195, 7 f. Wachsmuth = H. Diels Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker^ Berlin 
1912 i. 144, 16 f. KoX Tb irepikx^v be irdaas Telxovs biKrjv arepebv iwapxctv, v(p^ <^ Trvpu}b7}S 
aTetpduT]). It reappears in the Epicureanism of Lucretius (Lucr. i. 73 flammantia moenia 
mundi, cp. r. iro2, 2. 1045, 1148, 3. 16, 5. 119, 454, 1213, 6. 123), and as a Lucretian 
touch in the poems of Ovid (Ov. met. 2. 401 f. at pater omnipotens ingentia moenia caeli | 
circuit) and Manilius (Manil. i. i5of. summaque complexus stellantis culmina caeli [ 
flammarum vallo naturae moenia fecit, 486 f. qui primus moenia mundi | seminibus struxit 
minimis inque ilia resolvit). Hence the imitations of later poets, e.g. Milton Paradise 
Lost 3. 721 'The rest in circuit walls this universe,' R. Browning Easter-Day i^, Jin. 
'Leaving exposed the utmost walls | Of time, about to tumble in | And end the world,' 
Epilogue to Dramatis Personce 3. n 'Why, where's the need of Temple, when the walls | 
O' the world are that ? ' 

Analogous conceptions are found here and there in the religious imaginings of the 
ancient world. R. Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt Munchen 19 10 ii. 627 notes 
that the cosmic wall figures in a cuneiform text (an astronomical document of 138 B.C. 
published by J. Epping and J. N. Strassmaier in the Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie und 
verwandte Gebiete 1891 vi. 243 Sp. i. 131, 30). The Manichaeans recognised a whole 
series of such walls (Epiphan. adv. haer. 2. 66. 31 (iii. 52 f. Dindorf) at 5e Trpo^oXal 
wdcrai, b 'Irjaov^ b ev Tip jxiKpip irXoiip, kuI i) fJ^'^Tiqp r?}? ^w^s, koX oi bcbdcKa Kv^epviJTac, /cat 
i] irapdlvo^ tov (fxaTbs, Kai b wpecr^ijTTjs b TpiTOS b iv Tip /neydXip TrXoiip, kul Tb ^Cov irvevpia, 
Kai TO Telxo^ TOV fieyaXov irvpbs, /cat rb ret^os tov dv^fxov /cat tov depos Kai tov vdaTos /cat 
TOV icrojdev irvpbs tov ^Covtos irpbs Tbv ixiKpbv (pwaTrjpa oiKOVcrtv, d^jOts du Tb irvp KaTavaXibari 
Tbv Kbfffiov 6X0V iv TToaoh wotc '^Teciv, (Su ovk ^fjt,a6ov tt]v TrocroTT^ra = Hegemonios acta 
Archelai 13. 2 (p. 21 f. Beeson) prolationes autem omnes lesus est in modica navi, et 
mater vitae et duodecim gubernatores et virgo lucis et senior tertius. unde et maiori in 
navi vivens spiritus adhibetur, et murus ignis illius magni, et murus venti et aeris et aquae 
et interioris ignis vivi, quae omnia in luna habitabunt, usquequo totum mundum ignis 
absumat; in quot autem annis numerum non didici. On this Latin version C. H. Beeson 
ad loc. remarks ' eine ziemlich ungenaue Paraphrase' and F. Legge Forerunners and 
Rivals of Christianity Cambridge 191 5 ii. 326 n. i 'which appears to be nonsense') — 
five in number, according to the fragments in Estrangelo script from Turfan, which 
mention one of aithir^ one of wind, one of light, one of water, and one of fire, together 
with twelve or fourteen heavenly gates (F. W. K. Muller in the Abh. d. berl. Akad. igo4 
Phil. -hist. Classep. ^'^i. frag. M. 98, 7 ff. 'Sie ferner auf zur Grenze und | dem Obersten 
des Lichtes fuhrte er hinauf und | aus Wind und Licht, Wasser und Feuer, | welches aus 
der Mischung gelautert war, hat er Licht- | Fahrzeuge ? zwei jenes der Sonne aus | Feuer 
und Licht mit fiinf Mauern, | einer atherischen, windigen, leuchtenden, wasserigen | und 
einer feurigen und zwolf Toren und | Hausern funf und Thronen drei und | seelensam- 
melnden Engeln fiinf sc. in | der feurigen Mauer, und jenes [Fahrzeug] | des Mond-Gottes 
aus Wind und Wasser | mit fiinf Mauern, einer atherischen, windigen | leuchtenden, 
feurigen und wasserigen und | vierzehn Toren und Hausern fiinf und | Thronen drei und 
seelensammelnden Engeln | fUnf, sc. in der wasserigen Mauer, | hat er gemacht und 
angeordnet'). Somewhat similar is the vision of 'the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming 



Nephelokokkygia 5 1 

down out of heaven from God' (Rev. ■21. 2, cp. 21. 10), 'having a wall great and high; 
having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels' etc. (Rev. 21. 12). 

Later the church fell to a lower level and was content with would-be scientific 
speculation. So Kaisarios, brother to Gregorios of Nazianzos, in his 7rei^(rets Kai airoKpiaei.^ 
(on which see W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Liiteratur^ Miinchen 1924 ii. 2. 1415 
n. 6) dialogus i iiiterrogatio 99 (xxxviii. 964 Migne) ttws ovv duvei 6 tjXlos, el firj vir6 yrji' 
(piperai; Kai ris tottos 6 rAj (XKTivas avTov (tklcl^wv; respottsio doKvirodrjcras rd o'updvia 
T^pfxara, Kai vird riva roixof, to ^Speiov yevSjUieuov KXlfia, VTrepavecrrQTOs tou KainraSoKQi' 
edd<povs, air 0(T Kidder aL fxku t7)v darpairriv tQ}v aKTivuiv rats X6xiUats Kat rois v8a(n, ry virep-^ 
TepovvTL TTiecr/xcp tov (rrepew/iaros, diaKXojfx^uuu tCjv ixapixapvydv iiri rd 7rXd7ta, Kai rrj 
virepoxv rrjs x^/3(rou ri}P ^avciv elpyofxevos, Kard rijp irpoeKdodeiaav eUdva rijs trap tj/xIv 
Xa/jLirddos and Severianus of Gabala (on whom see Lietzmann in Pauly — Wissowa J?eal- 
Enc. ii A. 1930 ff., W. Christ op. cit.^ ii. 2. 1467 fF.) de mundi creatione 3. 5 (Ivi. 452 f. 
Migne) 17X105 duar^Wwv Kai /xAXwf dvvetv oix ^^^ yw Svvei dXX' i^eXdoJv rd irepara tov 
ovpauov Tp^€L eh rd ^oppivd [^oppivd cod. Vat. Sir H. Savile cj. ^opeia) fxip-q^ wcrirep viro 
Tiva Totxov KpvTTTOfjLeuos, fjii] (Tvyx^j^povvTCov tQv vddTcov (pavrjuaL avToO t6v dpdfiov, Kai Tpex^i- 
/card ^oppLvd {^oppivd cod. Vat. Sir H. Savile cj. jSopeta) /x^pr] Kai KaTaXafx^duei T-qu 
dvaToX-qv. Cp. Kosmas Indikopleustes top. Christ. 4. 189 (Ixxxviii. 188 D Migne) tovto 
ndXiv TO fxipos x'^s 7'^s, t6 eir^Keiua tov ^oppd, eaTi to dotKriTOv, ^vda diaTpexovaiv dwo 
86(Teo}% bid TOV ^oppd iirl dvaToXds, opdov cos iiri Toixov virdpxov • iv (^ yLvbjxevos 6 riXios 
els TO dXXo ixipos avTT)^ to oiKovjxevov v\jKTa direpyd^eTat and the whole structure of the 
world as indicated zd. 4. 187 f. (Ixxxviii. 185 A — C Migne) els Ta^Trjv ttjv yijp t7]v iripav 
rod ^^Keavov Trairax^^ei' d/cpa rois dKpois 6 ovpavbs 6 TrpQros 6 Kafiapoeibqs avvbebeTai, /card 
ixkv TO dvTLKOv fM^pos Kttl dvaToXiKbv To^x^s 6p6[i^os (bs dvit) ifi^aivojp evpiaKCTai, /card 8e to 
v6tlov Kai ^opeiov toixos jxev laoi Tb KdTiadev, eojs (pavepov /card Tbv tvttov ovtos Ka/xapas' 
dvwOev de vxprjXoTaTos eXicrcrbfievos, ws ddXoi Xovrpov fxeydXr), KdTiadev TreXfxa '^x^^^^i auros 
re Totxos Kai Kajxdpa VTrdpxojv. eVra Kai irpib'qv ^(prjfxev TroXXd/cts, Tb <TT€p4u)fxa ixiaa ixiaois 
i^TjTrXoj/x^pov Kara Tb v\pos, ffvvbideTai. avrc^ t(^ o{/pav(f, tva yivwvTai 8^0 xwpoi dvdyaLOv (sic) 
Kai KaTdyaiov . ^(Ttl 8^ 6 X'^pos 6 els tovt^ctti to KaTdyaiov, '^vda eiaiv i] yij Kai Tb v8o}p Kai 
rd XotTrd ffTOLx^ta Kai AcTTpa, 6 k6o"/Uos o6ros d7r6 rijs yijs ^ws tov cTTepeujfjLaTos' yiju jxev ^x^^ 
^8a(pos, Toixovs 8e e/c tov TrpJjTov ovpauov, cTTeyr^v 8e to cxTepiiaixa' Kai dirb tov (TTepeoifxaTos 
'4(j}s TTJs Ka/xdpas tov irpdjTov ovpavov, x^pos 8evTepo$, TovTecTiv t] ^aaiXeia tQv ovpavQv • ^vda 
Kai 6 AeffTrdTTjs Xpiarbs dva<XTds dirb tujv veKpZv dveXriXvde, Kai oi SiKatoc fierd TavTa fx^X- 
Xovffiv dpLevaL- ovpaubp fxev iJTOi Tb (TTep^oj/xa ^x^^ ^8a<pos, Kai ovpapbu top irpGiTov tolxovs 
Kai (TT^yTjp KafxapoeLSr]. See further a valuable section in R. Eisler op. cit. ii. 619 ff. ('Die 
Himmelsmauer,' 'Das Welthaus in der syrischen Kosmographie,' etc.). 

The cosmic walls of philosophy, religion, and so-called science presuppose mythopoeic 
attempts to explain the construction of the visible world. More frankly mythological is 
Pindar's 'road of Zeus' leading up 'to Kronos' tower' {supra ii. 36, 52), which — like its 
Celtic counterpart the 'castle of Gwydion' {supra ii. 52) — appears to be the poetic survival 
of some otherwise forgotten myth. 

It seems possible that in the west, if not also in the east, the belief in a celestial city 
was partly based upon popular interpretations of cloudland. E. H. Meyer Germanise he 
Mythoiogie Berlin 1891 p. 88 f. collects a whole series of relevant folk-names from the 
Germanic area. Thus at Glandorf near Iburg in Prussia a black storm-cloud that rears 
itself above the horizon is called a grommeltorn or 'rumbling tower' (A. Kuhn Sagen, 
Gebrduche und Mdrchen aus Westfalen Leipzig 1859 ii* ^9 "^o- '^11 ^^ cp. eund. in the 
Zeitschrift fiir deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde 1855 i^i- 37^ 'noch heut begegnet 
man nicht selten der bezeichnung grummel- oder grommelthurm fiir gewitter'), while on 
the Moorhausmoor in Thiiringen the witte torn or 'white tower' seen in the sky is a sign 
of bad weather (A. Kuhn — W. Schwartz Norddeutsche Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrduche 
Leipzig 1848 p. 458 no. 428, W. Mannhardt Germanische Mythen Berlin 1858 p. 186). 
In Oldenburg the northern lights are also known as Turm, the 'tower,' and taken to be a 
vivid red cloud (L. Strackerjan Aberglatcbe und Sagen aus dem Herzogthtun Oldenburg 
Oldenburg 1867 ii. 63 f.); in the same locality heavy, white clouds are called Mauern, 

4—2 



5 2 Nephelokokkygia 

and to demand the submission of Zeus. If he refuses, they will 
proclaim a holy war against him and forbid the gods to traverse their 
realm in search of fresh amours. A herald will be sent to inform 
men that in future all must worship birds before gods — the coot^ 
before Aphrodite, the duck^ before Poseidon, the sea-gull^ before 
Herakles, the wren* before Zeus. Birds have wings, good evidence 

'walls' {id. ib. ii. 64). P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1904 i. 128 f. adduces 
French examples. Sailors in the Channel regard certain big black clouds as dangerous and 
speak of them as les Chateaux {id. in the Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari 
V. 521). In Provence black clouds brushing past the horizon are called an emparo or 
'wall.' A long stretch of emparo is termed berri, 'ramparts.' A small coloured cloud 
rising above these 'ramparts' is dubbed tourello, a 'turret.' A big cloud may tower up 
charged with thunder and hail; it is then called tourrougat a 'keep.' Finally, when black 
threatening clouds begin to break up, with their towers and ramparts, they are known as 
casteu, 'castles' (G. de Montpavon 'Mistral' in Armana Prouven^au 1877 p. 45). 

This was at least one reason for the first element in Aristophanes' Nephelo-kokkygia — 
atypical 'castle-in-the-air.' 

^ 4)a\r)pis, though a derivative of 0aX6s, 'white' (Prellwitz Etym. Wbrterb. d. Gr. 
Spr? p. 481, Boisacq Diet. Hym. de la Langue Gr. p. 1013 f.), hints at <paW6s (Athen. 
325 B Kai 'Acppodirr] <pa\api8a, u>s ' ApLaTO(pdur]i ev "Opvicn {av. 565), /caret. <rvve(x<pa(nv rod 
(paXXoO, schol. Aristoph. av. 565 eo'X'7AiaTi(Te d^ irapa top (paXXdv) or ^aXijs (J. van Leeuwen 
ad loc. cp. Aristoph. Ach. 263): D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds 
Oxford 1895 p. 176 is unusually obtuse. 

^ This is not religion, but common sense. Athen. 325 B Ka\ rrjv urJTTau de KoXov/uievrjv 
IloffeidQvi rives oiKeioOcn, as is clear from the previous clause (cited supran. i), depends on 
Aristoph. av. 566. 

^ The \dpos is assigned to Herakles merely because of its notorious greed (schol. 
Aristoph. av. 557 rbv \dpov bid ttjp d8r}<payLav 'Hpa/cXet Trpoaavd-rrrei, cp. Aristoph. e^. 
956, mcb. 591). 

* Aristoph. av. 567 fif. kt^v Ad d6ri BaaiXei Kpiov, ^aaiXevs ^crr opxi-Xos 6pvi^, \ i^ irpoTipi^ 
del Tov Albs avrov (Tip(pov ivbpxw cr^ciyid^eiv . | ETEAII. rjadrjv aepcpif acpayia^o/x^vu)' 
''^ ^povrdrw vvv 6 fji^yas ZctJ'" with schol. ad loc. bpx^Xos bpvis' 8id rds yuoixetas tou Aibs 
rbv bpviv irapfXa^ev (the clause 8id — irap^Xa^ev is absent from codd. R.V.). eirXdaaro rb 
ovo/xa rod opvidos. eirei Karcoipep-rjs 6 Zevs /cat [xoixbs, did rovro opxi-Xov TrapeiXrjx^v 8id rods 
6pxets. rb 8^ a^p^ov '4vopx>-v, ws Kpibv ^vopxi-v. This again is not a case of ritual usage, but 
of comic invention. There is no special link between Zeus and the wren beyond the fact 
that, as Zeus was 'BaaiXevs, so the wren was ^aaiXeiJS or ^aaiXiaKos {supra p. 45 n. i). On 
the wren as king of birds see further C. Swainson The Folk Lore and Provincial Names 
of British Birds London 1886 p. 36: 'The tradition of the sovereignty of the wren over 
the feathered race is widely spread. Hence we find the Latin name for the bird to be 
Regulus^ the Greek ^ao-iXlo-Kos, the French Poitelet, Roi des oiseaux, Rot defroidure, Rot 
de guille, Roi Bertaud, the Spanish Reyezuelo, the Italian Reatino or Re di siepe (king of 
the hedge), the Swedish Kungs fogel^ the Danish Fugle Konge or Elle Konge (alder king), 
the German Zaunkonig (hedge king), Schneekonig (snow king).' E. RoUand Faune 
populaire de la France Paris 1879 ii. (Les oiseaux sauvages) 288 ff. , 301 f. collects a vast 
number of such names applied to the wren (both the Troglodytes Europaeus and the 
Regulus cristatus) in the various districts of France. It would seem reasonable to suppose 
that the kingship in question properly belonged to the fire-crest {Regulus ignicapillus) or 
gold-crest {Regulus cristatus). Both species occur in Greece (D'Arcy W. Thompson 
A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 174) and both on the crown of the head have 
a conspicuous streak of reddish orange bordered by bright lemon yellow (good illustrations 
in J. L. Bonhote Birds of Britain London 1907 p. 50 f. col. pi. 15). The flame-coloured 



Nephelokokkygia 5 3 



of their divinity, and are obviously competent to harm or help 
mankind. 

Tereus next invites the two friends into his nest, promising to 
find them a magic root-' which will enable them too to grow wings. 
Meantime his wife Prokne comes out and together with the Choros 
chants the pardbasis, a brilliant vindication of the claims put forward 
by the Birds. It tells the old Orphic tale^, how Eros sprang from the 
wind-egg laid by black-winged Night, the egg which split into 
Ouranos and Ge, primaeval parents of all the gods. Birds declare 
the seasons, birds utter oracles, birds give omens ; birds in short are 
manifestly divine and must be worshipped as such without more ado. 

That conclusion reached, out come Pisthetairos and Euelpides 
in their fine feathers and at once set about naming the new town — 
no Sparta this, but something splendid and sonorous, say Nephelo- 
kokkygia^. Heralds are despatched to gods and men. Euelpides 
must lend a hand in the actual building. Pisthetairos will fetch 
a priest to sacrifice to the newfangled gods. 

The novel foundation of course attracts the usual influx of busy- 
bodies — a needy lyrical poet, an itinerant soothsayer, the astronomer 
Meton, a pompous commissioner, a statute-seller. At last they are 
all got rid of and Pisthetairos quits the stage to sacrifice the goat 
within. 

Then follows a second pardbasis, in which the Birds appropriate 
epithets formerly belonging to Zeus* and justifiably put a price on 
the head of the bird-catcher Philokrates. 



crest at any rate accounts for the belief in the wren as a fire-bearer (E. Rolland op. cit. ii. 
293 f., C. Swainson op. cit. p. 42). 

^ Aristoph. av. 654 '^ari yap tl pl^iov k.t.X. Cp. Ail. de nat. an. i. 35 (many birds use 
magic herbs as prophylactics) oi de '^iroires to ddiavrov, oirep odu Kal KoWirpLxov KoXovcri 
TLves, Horapoll. hierogl. 2. 93 dvOpuirov viro 'aTa^vXyjs j3\a^€VTa /cat eavrou depaireiJouTa 
^ovKbjxevoL crrjfJiTJpac 'iiroTra i;'wypa(pov<n Kal ddiavrov Tr\v ^OTdprjv ovtos yap j8Xa/3eis virb 
(TTatpvXrjs ddiavrov diroTLd^/j.€vos els to eavrov aTojuia irepcodeijeTai, Geopon. 15. I. 19 (birds 
place curative herbs in their nests) ^TroTres dbiavTov (so H. Beckh, after Gronovius, for 
dixiavTov codd.), Philes de an. propr. 724 dypiixxTiv ^iro\j/ (apparently a blundering tran- 
script of Ail. de nat. an. i. 35 or Geopon. 15. i. 19). On the hoopoe liberating its im- 
prisoned young by means of a certain herb (Ail. de nat. an. 3. 26 irdav eKoixtae k.t.X.), sc. 
the springwort, see S. Bochart Hierozoicon rec. E. F. C. Rosenmiiller Lipsiae 1796 iii. 
112 f., D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 56, Frazer 
Golden Bough'^: Balder the Beautiful ii. 70 n. 2. 

2 Supra \\. 1020, 1034, 1050 f. 

» Aristoph. az;. 818 fif. 

■* lb. 1058 ff. •^Siy ''iiol tQ) TravTb-KTa (cp. supra i. 459, 461 f., ii. 1130) | koI iravTapxo- 
(Aristophanes has in mind Soph. O.C. 1085 f. iw irdvTapx^ deCjv iravr\67rTa ZeO) dvrjToi 
Trdj/res | dOaova^ ei^/crat'ats evxch. \ Trdcrav fjikv yap ydv oirreijci}, \ ado^ui 5' evOaXets Kapirovs | 

K.T.X. 



54 N ephelokokkygia 

Pisthetairos announces that the sacrifice has proved to be most 
auspicious, and a Messenger brings word that the great wall is now 
completely built — six hundred feet high and broad enough for two 
chariots to pass. 

After this, enter Iris. She has been sent by Zeus to bid men 
sacrifice to the gods^. But Pisthetairos scares her off with threats 
reminiscent of Zeus himself^: 

Knowest thou this? If Zeus keeps bothering me, 

His halls palatial, yea Amphion's house, 

Will I burn down with eagles bearing fire^, ' 

And up against him to the sky I'll send 

Six hundred stout Porphyrion-gallinules*, 

All clad in leopard-skins. Yet I remember 

When one Porphyrion gave him toil enough^. 

^ Aristoph. av. i23off. Earlier and cruder is the conception of 'the Brygos painter,' 
who on a kylix in the British Museum {Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iii. 87 ff. no. E 65 Mon. d. 
Inst, ix pi. 46, I (coloured and gilded), Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasenmahrei 
i. 238 fF. pi. 47, 2, Perrot — Chipiez Hist, de V Art x. 560 ff. fig. 323, Hoppin Red-fig. 
Vases i. iiof. no. 4 fig., P. Ducati Storia della ceramica greca Firenze s.a. ii. 318 ff. 
fig. 242, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 176 
no. 5) represents Iris ambushed by the Silenoi Echon, Lepsis(Nepsis?), and Dromis (on these 
names see Charlotte Frankel Satyr- und Bakchennatnen aiif Vasenbildern Halle a. S. 191 2 
pp. 23, 25 ff.) just as she has collected an oxtail from the altar of Dionysos. The scene, 
which recurs in abbreviated form on a red-figured shyphos from Nola, now at Berlin 
(Furtwangler Vasensaniml. Berlin ii. 732 no. 2591, Gerhard Ant. Bildw. p. 294 
('Irene' !) pi. 48, Welcker Alt. Denkm. iii. 243 ff. ('Eirene'!) pi. 16, 2, J. D. Beazley 
Attic red-figured Vases in American Museums Cambridge Mass. 19 18 p. 131 (attributed 
to 'the Penthesilea painter'), Hoppin Red-fig. Vases ii. 337 f. no. 4, G. von Liicken 
Greek Vase- Paintings The Hague 192 1 pi. 10, i (cyclographic), J. D. Beazley Attische 
Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 276 no. 58), was presumably taken 
from some Satyric drama, though hardly from the Iris of Achaios (W. Helbig in the Bull. 
d. Inst. 1872 p, 41, F. Matz in the Ann. d. Inst. 1872 xliv. 299 f., C. Robert Bild und 
Lied Berlin 1881 p. 28 n. 29) or the Inachos of Sophokles (K. L. von Urlichs Der 
Vasenmaler Brygos Wuerzburg 1875 p. 5 on the strength of Soph. Inachos frag. 250 
Nauck^, 272 Pearson ap. schol. Aristoph. av. 1203), these plays being of later date 
(Furtwangler — Reichhold op. cit. i. 241, L. Sechan Etudes sur la tragidie grecque dans 
ses rapports avec la ciramique Paris 1926 p. 41). 

^ Aristoph. av. 1 246 ff. 5.^ olad^ 6'ri Zeifs et /xe Xvir'rjaei, iripa, \ fiiXaOpa fxev avrov Kal 
(F. Wieseler cj. Kara) 56fxovs 'A/x^iovos \ KaTaiOoKdab} irvptpdpotciv alerois ; J. van 
LeeuM'en, observing 'alienum hinc est nomen Amphionis, quod ante me sensit qui ddfxovs 
'OXvfnriovs proposuit,' rewrites Kai d^0t/c/oj'as SSfjiovs, cp. Soph. Ant. 285 f. But G. Setti 
in the Rivista di filologia 1903 xxxi. 112 f. justly defends the text in view of Soph. Ant. 
1 1 55 KdS/xou TrdpoLKOL Kai dd/jt-uv 'Afi<pLovos = dwellers in Thebes. Aristophanes, according 
to his scholiast, is quoting Aisch. Niobefrag. 160 Nauck^. Apparently in that play Zeus 
threatened to burn the palace and walls of Amphion, husband of Niobe (H. W. Stoll in 
Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 314, K. Wernicke in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 1946, Gruppe 
Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 509, 1251 n. o), whose house had notoriously come to a bad end 
(Paus. 2. 21. 10 ovTO'i fxkv 87] (sc. Homer) rbv oXkov t6v 'A/z0foj'os ^/c pd$pwv dvaTpairivra 
olbi). Here Pisthetairos threatens to turn the tables on Zeus by burning his 'palace and 
Amphionian walls.' The whole phrase ixe\(idpa...Kal dd/xovs 'Afx<piovos must be taken with 
the possessive auroO, sc. Aids. 



Nephelokokkygia 5 5 

•■' Supra ii. 777. 

^ On the Trop(pvpitov or 'purple gallinule' {Porphyrio hyacinthinus or veterum) see 
D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 150, A. Newton 
A Dictionary of Birds London 1896 p. 591, and the enthusiastic description in O. Keller 
Die antike Tierwelt Leipzig 1913 ii. 209: 'Wenn die wundervoll metallglanzenden 
blauen Hlihner truppweise durch die reifen goldigblonden Ahrenfelder streifen, entsteht 
eine ganz einzige Farbenwirkung.' Dionys. de avib. i. 25 (prose paraphrase in Didot's 
PoetcE Bucolici et Didactici p. in) %cti de koL iropfpvpLwu airo r^s xpo^^^ KaXovfxevov 
opveov ipvdpbv avrcp t6 pdfJL<pos iari, Kai /card /ce^aX^s #x^* oicTrep tlvcl ttiXoj', oiroiovs 
oi To^drai UepatKoi (popovffi' k.t.X. Despite this warlike appearance, the bird is easily 
captured {id. ib. 3. 21 (p. 124 Didot)) — a piquant contrast to the Uopcpvpioov of verse 1252, 
cp. Mart. ep. 13. 78. i nomen habet magni volucris tam parva gigantis? 

^ The villagers of Athmonon (Steph. Byz. s.v."A6fiovov) or Athmonia (Harpokr. s.v. 
'Ad/iiovevs, Bekker anecd. i. 349, 30 s.v. 'Adfiovevs, Souid. s.v. 'Adficovia (sic)), an Attic 
deme, identified with the modern Marousi (from Artemis ' Afiapvaia : see O. Jessen in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 1743, K. Wernicke ib. ii. 1380, 1402 with W. Judeich's map 
/<^. ii. 2204) on the way from Athens to Marathon, declared that Porphyrion, who was king 
in the days before Aktaios,had founded a sanctuary of (Aphrodite) Oypavta in their midst 
(Paus. I. 14. 7). From this local legend C. Wachsmuth Die Stadt Athen im Alterthum 
Leipzig 1874 i. 413 f. inferred that Porphyrion, the prehistoric introducer of an oriental 
cult, was 'identisch mit Phoinix, und gleich diesem Reprasentant der Phonikier.' This 
inference, even if supported by the plea that IIop(pvpi(j}v means the 'Purpurmann' 
(E. Curtius Peloponnesos Gotha 1852 ii. 517), is very precarious and has been definitely 
rejected by U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Aus Kydathen Berlin 1880 p. 134 n. 57. 
There is more to be said for the view (J. Ilberg in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 2779) that 
Porphyrion's connexion with Athmonon points to his pedigree as the son (Nonn. Dion. 
9. 317) or brother (schol. B.L. //. 2. 5 1 1, cp. schol. D. //. 2. 499, schol. Ap. Rhod. 3. 1094) 
of Athamas. It is possible too that Porphyrion's relation to Aphrodite hangs together 
with the belief that she was his opponent in the Gigantomachy (schol. Aristoph. av. 
553» 1252). 

But the outstanding fact is that Porphyrion, like Periphas {supra ii. 1121 ff. ), was 
a very ancient Attic king. If he was son or brother of Athamas, he too was one of those 
kings descended from Aiolos who played the w/i?of Zeus {stipra ii. 1088, 11 22). And his 
name, 'the Purple-clad,' may well have been an epithet of Zeus himself {supra i. 56 ff.). 
Naevius frag. 20 Baehrens, 10 Vahlen ap. Priscian. 6. 6 (i. 199, i Hertz) calls him 
Purpureus (so the second hand in cod. B. pur cod. R. with pureus added in margin by 
second hand, purporeus codd. B.H. porpureus codd. G.L.K.), and we have already met 
with a lupiter Purpurio {supra i. 58, 782). On this showing, Zeus Ilop^vpiioi/ gave rise to 
Zeus versus Porphyrion just as Athena 'E7/fAa5os (Hesych. j'.z/. 'E7/fAa5os' y\ 'Adrjud) 
gave rise to Athena versus Enkelados (Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 69 n. 5 'Nach dem 
Giganten ist angeblich Athena ^7/cAa5os genannt' inverts cause and effect). 

If Porphyrion was thus ab origine a prehistoric king who claimed to be Zeus incarnate, 
we can understand better the curious tradition that in the Gigantomachy Zeus inspired 
Porphyrion with love for Hera and slew him with a thunderbolt when he made an 
amorous attempt upon her (Apollod. i. 6. 2 IIop(pvpicov 5^ ' Hpa/cXet /cara /mdxv^ icpibp/j.rjffe 
KaV'Hpg.. Zei>j 5e aurc^ wodov "Upas evijSaXev, tJtls Kai KaTappriyvivros avrou tovs WTrXofS 
Kai ^id^ecrdaL diXovros iSorjdovs e7re/caXe?To • Kai Aids KepavpwcravTOi avrbv 'Hpa/c\77S ro^evcras 
dir4KT€LV€, Tzetz. in Lyk. A/. 63 Ilop<f>vpiioPL de Zei)? "Hpas eiridvfxiav efx^dWei Kai tovtov 
'HpaxX^s ev t^j Karapp-qyvijeLv "Hpas to, iriirXa {tovs ir^irXovs codd. sec. class., sc. Johannis 
Tzetz.) To^eijo-as Kai tov At6s Kcpavvc^ irX-q^avTos dvaipeX). We can understand also Pindar's 
description of Porphyrion as king of the Giants (Pind. Pyth. 8. 12 Wopcpvpiwv, 17 ^acrCkevs 
Yi.-ydvT(av. But see Welcker Gr. Gotterl. i. 793 n. 18) : Typhos and he 'were laid low by 
the thunderbolt and by the bow of Apollon' {id. ib. 16 ff. Cp. Claud, carm. min. 52 (37) 
Gigantomachia 34 f. , 1 14 ff.). 

Representations of the Gigantomachy from the close of the fifth century onwards 



5 6 Nephelokokkygia 



make Porphyrion the main antagonist of Zeus : (i) a kylix by the potter Erginos and the 
painter Aristophanes, found at Vulci and now at Berlin (Furtwangler Vasensamml. Berlin 
ii. 709 flf. no. 2531, E. Gerhard Trinkschalen und Gefdsse des Konigliche^i Museums zu 
Berlin und anderer Sanwilungen Berlin 1848 i. 3 ff . pi. 2 — 3 (coloured), Overbeck Gr. 
Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 363 f. no. 16 Atlas pi. 5, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, F. Hauser in Furtwangler— 
Reichhold — Hauser Gr. Vasenmalerei \\\. 38 — 41 pi. 127 ( = rny pi. vi), Hoppin Red-fig. 
Vases i. 50 f. no. i fig., P. Ducati Storia della ceramica greca Firenze s.a. ii. 394 ff. 
fig' 287, Pfuhl Malerei u. Zeichnung d. Gr. ii. 589, 600, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasen- 
nialer des rotfigiirigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 465 no. i), on which the combatants are 
grouped in symmetric pairs as on the paryph^ of Athena's pdplos (F. G. Welcker in 
K. O. Miiller Ha^idbuch der Archdologie der Kunst'^ Breslau 1848 p. 639 § 396, F. Hauser 
op. cit. iii. 40). (2) An amphora with twisted handles, found in Melos and now in the 
Louvre (no. S 1677, F. F. Ravaisson in the Monui?ients grecs publics par P Association 
pour V encouragement des Etudes grecques en France No. 4 1875 p. i ff . fig. i and pis i, 2 
=:A. Conze Wien. Vorlegebl. viii pi. 7, Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasenmalerei ii. 
193 — 200 pis 96 ( = my pi. vii), 97 (attributed to the painter of the Talos-vase {supra i. 
721 pi. xli)), P. Ducati in Xhejahresh. d. oest. arch. hist. 1907 x. 256, ib. 1908 xi. 135 — 
141 figs. 35 a, 35 b, H. Bulle Der schoene Mensch im Altertum'^ Muenchen — Leipzig 1912 
p. 640 f. figs. 198, 199, P. Ducati Storia della ceramica greca Firenze s.a. ii. 420 — 423 
figs. 301, 302 (first quarter of s. iv B.C.), J. D. Beazley Attic red-figured Vases in A??ierican 
Museufus Cambridge Mass. 1918 p. 184 (later than 'the Meidias painter'), Hoppin Red- 
fig. Vases ii. 450 no. 3, Pfuhl Malerei u. Zeichnung d, Gr. ii. 588 f., iii. 234 fig. 584). 
(3) Fragments of a krater or amphora from Ruvo, now at Naples (Heydemann Vasen- 
samml. Neapel p. 425 fif. no. 2883 (Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 371 denies that 
Heydemann op. cit. p. 365 no. 2664 belonged to the same vase), O. Jahn in the Ann. d. 
Inst. 1869 xli. 184 fif., Man. d. Inst, ix pi. 6, Overbeck op. cit. p. 369 fif. no. 25 Atlas pi. 5, 
8 and 8 a, P. Ducati in the /ahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1907 x. 255 figs. 83 — 85 (photo- 
graphs), Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasenmalerei ii. 195 ff. fig. 72 and figs. 73 — 75 
(photographic), E. Buschor Greek Vase-painting trans. G. C. Richards London 192 1 
p. 150 pi. 90 figs. 149 — 151, Hoppin Red-fig. Vases ii. 449 f. no. 2, Pfuhl Malerei u. 
Zeichnung d. Gr. ii. 588, 600, iii. 235 fig. 585), which appears to be more careful work 
by the same artist (Furtwangler — Reichhold^/". cit. ii. 196). Vases (2) and (3) presuppose 
a famous original, probably the Gigantomachy painted inside the shield of Athena 
Parthenos {eid. ib.). The semicircular band of bdkchoi, which on vase (3) denotes the 
arch of heaven, may well perpetuate the rim of Athena's shield (Sir C. Smith in the 
Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1896 — 1897 iii. 135 fif-, Pfuhl op. cit. ii. 588). (4) A red-figured 
kratir {a??iphoral) with volute handles from Ruvo, now at Petrograd (Stephani Vase?i- 
samml. St. Petersburg i. 263 ff. no. 523, G. Minervini in the Bull. Arch. Nap. 1844 "• 
105 fif. pis 5, 6 (=:my pi. viii), 7, i — Reinach Rip. Vases i. 467, if., Overbeck Gr. 
Kunstmyth. Zeus p. 367 ff. no. 24 Atlas pi. 5, 4, H. Heydemann Zeus ivi Giga^ttenkampf 
(IVinckehnannsfest-Progr. Halle i) Halle a/S. 1876 p. 9, P. Ducati in i\\ejahresh. d. oest. 
arch. Inst. 1908 xi. 141), which again shows the sky as an arch, yellow-painted and 
radiate, but represents Zeus in a four-horse chariot (cp. supra ii. 84 fig. 46) with Nike 
as charioteer and Porphyrion already blasted beneath him. (5) The great altar of Per- 
gamon {supra i. 118 fif. pi. x figs. 87, 88) has as the culminating scene of its eastern side 
a magnificent composition, in which Zeus contends with Porphyrion and Athena with 
Alkyoneus (H. Winnefeld in Pergamon iii. 2 Atlas pi. 24). Zeus with wide stride 
brandishes a thunderbolt in his right hand, while a serpent-fringed aigis, scaly without 
and leathery within, is wrapped about his left. Porphyrion, a stalwart stifif-necked giant, 
as yet unvanquished, advances his left fist outlined beneath a lion's skin against the aigis. 
His eye, of some glittering substance, was separately inlaid. His legs are serpentiform — 
an innovation which dates from the beginning of s. iv B.C. (first on a gilded aryballos at 
Berlin (inv. no. 3375) published by H. Winnefeld in the Festschrift fiir Otto Benndorf 
Wien 1898 pp. 72 — 74 pi. 1, O. Waser in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. Suppl. iii. 690 f. 
no. 132, 735 f.) — and the left serpent winds up till its head rises above the giant's left 



Plate VI 




Kylix from Vulci, now at Berlin : 
{A) Poseidon attacks Polybotes in the presence of Ge. 
{B) Ares v. Mimon, Apollon v. Ephialtes, Hera v. Phoitos. 
(C) Artemis v. Gaion, Zeus v. Porphyrion, Athena v. Enkelados. 

See page 56 n. o (i). 
[From Furtwangler-Reichhold Griechische Vasenntalerei ^\. 127 by permission of Messrs F. Bruckmann A.-G., Munich. 



Plate VIII 




^ IMIMIMI ^ L^IMIMI ^ IMIMIMI ^ i^ 



A krater (amphora ?) from Ruvo, now at Petrograd : the Gigantomachy — Porphyrion blasted by the thunderbolts of Zeus. 



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Nephelokokkygia 5 7 

The herald sent to men now returns with a golden crown voted 
by the states to Pisthetairos ; for every one has gone bird-mad and 
is eager to obtain wings. Accordingly, in comes a second group of 
visitors, bent on getting them, — a father-beater, Kinesias, an informer, 
and lastly Prometheus, who wants to know whether Zeus is 

Clearing the clouds off, or collecting them^. 
He is desperately anxious to escape notice from above and produces 
an umbrella, under cover of which he explains that Zeus is ruined 
by the Birds' blockade, that the Triballian gods, yet higher up, are 
threatening to come down upon him, and that envoys are now on 
their way to treat for peace. But the Birds must make no peace 
unless Zeus restores the sceptre to them and hands over Bastleia, 
the 'Queen,' a beautiful girl who keeps his thunderbolts and other 
belongings, to be the bride of Pisthetairos. 

The envoys in due course arrive — Poseidon, Herakles, and the 
uncouth Triballian^. Pisthetairos is busy preparing a savoury stew 

shoulder, where it is gripped by the claws of Zeus' eagle (H. Winnefeld in Pergamon iii. 
1. 48 ff. Atlas pi. 10 = my pi. ix. Die Skulpturen des Pergajyion- Museums in Photographien 
Berlin 1903 pi. 15, Collignon Hist, de la Sculpt, gr. ii. 520 ff. pi. 12, H. Bulle Der schoene 
Mensch im Altertum'^ Muenchen — Leipzig 191 2 p. 599 pi. 296, A. von Salis Der Altai- 
von Pergamon Berlin 191 2 p. 54 ff. fig. 3, F. Winter Hellenistische Skulptur {Kunst- 
geschichte in Bildern"^ I Das Altertum xi — xii) Leipzig 1925 p. 352 fig. 6). 

A comparison of these representations will show that Porphyrion is normally (so in 
(i), (2), (3), (5)) conceived as a sturdy antagonist, full of fight and seen from the back as 
he stands up to Zeus (Hor. od. 3. 4. 54 minaci Porphyrion statu), but that on occasion 
(so in (4)) he borrows the type of a vanquished giant (cp. the youthful figure in the centre 
of (5)). His leopard-skin or lion-skin is of course parodied in Aristoph. av. 1249 f. 
Trop(pvpiot}vas . . .Trap8a\d^ ivrjixfxivovs. 

The giant defeated by Zeus on a red-figured hydria from Vulci, now in the British 
Museum {Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iii. i49f. no. E 165, Lenormant — de Witte El. mon. cer. 
i. 8 f . pi. 3, O. Jahn in the Ann. d. Inst. 1869 xli. 183, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus 
p. 365 f. no. 20, J. D. Beazley in the Am. Jour n. Arch. 1916 xx. 149 no. 9 (assigned to 
'the Tyszkiewicz painter'), id. Attic red-Jigured Vases in Ainerican Mtiseums Cambridge 
Mass. 1918 p. 55, Hoppin Red-fig. Vases ii. 460 no. 8, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler 
des rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 116 no. 29. My pi. x is from a' photograph taken by 
the Official Photographer), appears to be wearing a wolf-skin (J. Overbeck loc. cit. says 
'das Fell eines wilden Thieres, eines Wolfes oder Luchses (?) ') and, as he collapses, is 
heaving a rock on which is a vine-leaf (Lenormant — de Witte loc. cit. suppose 'une 
feuille de platane'). This would constitute an earlier type of Porphyrion, if we could 
but be sure that it is he. 

1 Supra p. 35. 

2 Triballos (on whom see J. Schmidt in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1102 f.) could claim 
some connexion with the Birds, for a Thracian myth told how his granddaughter 
Polyphonic had been transformed into an owl ((Tti;^), her two sons by the bear — Agrios 
and Oreios — into a vulture (71^'^) and a sort of swallow (?) (\a7cDs) respectively, and their 
maid into a woodpecker {iTrvr]) (Ant. Lib. 21 after Boios opvLdoyovias 13). Not improbably 
Aristophanes regarded Tpt^aXAos as the north-Greek form of *T/)i-0a\X6s, cp. Souid. s.v. 
T}pi(pd\7]s, T pi(f)d\7]Tos ' Svofia Kijpiop irapa 'Api(TTO(f>dv€i with Gall. 2. 19. 6 Naevius in 
Triphallo {Com. Pom. frag. p. 27 Ribbeck), Non. Marc. p. 191, 27 f. Lindsay Varro 



5 8 Nephel okokky gia 

and will listen to no proposals, unless Zeus consents to restore the 
sceptre to the Birds. In that case, he invites all the envoys to his 
feast. Herakles, greedy as usual, jumps at the offer and interprets 
in his own sense the Triballian's barbarous growl. Poseidon gives 
in, but when Pisthetairos claims Basileia too, is for walking off and 
wants Herakles to go with him as the prospective heir of Zeus. 
Pisthetairos, however, proves by Attic law that Herakles as a bastard 
has no right of inheritance and undertakes to feed him all his days 
on 'birds' milk.' Upon this, Herakles agrees to hand over Basileia 
and once more puts his own construction on the doubtful utterance 
of the Triballian. Poseidon is silenced, and Herakles invites 
Pisthetairos to ascend to heaven with them and claim Basileia as 
his own. The feast in preparation will serve as his wedding banquet. 
The play ends with the appearance of the new bridal pair in 
a blaze of glory. The Birds, parting on either hand, greet them with 
a chorus of exuberant delight^: 

Chor. Back with you ! out with you ! ofif with you ! up with you ! 

Flying around 
Welcome the Blessed with blessedness crowned. 

O ! O ! for the youth and the beauty, O ! 
Well hast thou wed for the town of the Birds. 
Great are the blessings, and wondrous, I ween, 

Which through his favour our nation possesses. 
Welcome them back, both himself and his Queen, 
Welcome with nuptial and bridal addresses. 

Mid just such a song hymenaean 
Aforetime the Destinies led 
The King of the thrones empyrean, 
The Ruler of Gods, to the bed 
Of Hera his beautiful bride. 
Hymen, O Hymenaeus ! 

And Love, with his pinions of gold, 
Came driving, all blooming and spruce, 
As groomsman and squire to behold 
The wedding of Hera and Zeus, 
Of Zeus and his beautiful bride. 
Hymen, O Hymenaeus ! 
Hymen, O Hymenaeus! 

Triphallo, Trepi dppevdTrjTos, Charis. i p. 80, 11 f. Keil Varro...in Triphallo, carm. Priap. 
83. 6 Priape, 9 o Triphalle, 15 Priape, and the gloss Upiawos cited in Steph. T/ies. Gr. Ling. 
vii, 2479 A. To this there is an ornithological parallel in rpiopxos or rpidpxv^ the 
'buzzard' (?) (Plin. nat. hist. 10. 21 triorchem a numero testium, cp. schol. Aristoph. av. 
1206 kird iralpa rjp, ^irai^e t6 rpiopxos) : see further D'Arcy W. Thompson A Glossary of 
Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 170. 

1 Aristoph. av. 1720— 1765. I quote the lively lyrics of Mr B. B. Rogers, altering a 



Nephelokokkygia 5 9 

Pisth. I delight in your hymns, I delight in your songs ; 

Your words I admire. 
Chor. Now sing of the trophies he brings us from Heaven, 

The earth-crashing thunders, deadly and dire, 

And the lightning's angry flashes of fire. 

And the dread white bolt of the levin. 

Blaze of the lightning, so terribly beautiful. 

Golden and grand ! 
Fire-flashing javelin, glittering ever in 

Zeus's right hand ! 
Earth-crashing thunder, the hoarsely resounding, the 

Bringer of showers ! 
He is your Master, 'tis he that is shaking the 

Earth with your powers ! 

All that was Zeus's of old 

Now is our hero's alone ; 

His the Queen, fair to behold. 

Partner of Zeus on his throne. 

Now and for ever his own. 

Hymen, O Hymenaeus ! 
Pisth. Now follow on, dear feathered tribes. 
To see us wed, to see us wed ; 
Mount up to Zeus's golden floor, 
And nuptial bed, and nuptial bed. 
And O, my darling, reach thine hand, 
And take my wing and dance with me, 
And I will lightly bear thee up, 
And carry thee, and carry thee. 
Chor. Raise the joyous Paean-cry, 
Raise the song of Victory, 
lo Paean, alalalae, 
Mightiest of the Powers, to thee ! 

Throughout this splendid exodos Pisthetairos is clearly conceived 
as the new Zeus. He is no longer referred to by his old name, but 
always by some phrase descriptive of the Olympian king. He comes 

Wielding the winged thunderbolt of Zeus ^. 
The chorus at his approach sing of ' the fiery lightnings of Zeus V 'the 
immortal spear of Zeus^' etc., and salute their leader himself as 

line or two to avoid his rendering 'Miss Sovereignty,' which, I fear, implies a confusion 
of jSac/Xeta, 'queen,' with jSaa-iXeLa, 'kingdom.' That the former, not the latter, word 
was intended by the poet is clear from the metre of verses 1537, 1753. The same slip is 
made by G. Caramia in his article on BaaiXeia in the Birds of Aristophanes {Rivista indo- 
greco-italica di filologia — lingua — antichith, 1925 ix. 3 — 4. 51 ff. cited by H.J. Rose in The 
Year' s Work in Class. Stud. ig2^-ig26 p. 59). 

^ Aristoph. av. 17 14 irdWcov Kepavvov, '7rT€po<p6pov At6s ^iXos. Supraix. 777 ff. 

^ Id. ib, i746f. rds re irvpdbdeis \ Ai6s dffTepoirds. 

* Id. id. 1749 At6s afi^poTov ^yxos {supra ii. 704 n. 5). 



6o Nephelokokkygia 

* having won all that belonged to Zeus^.' The scholiast is puzzled, 
and comments on the verse — 

He is your Master, 'tis he that is shaking the 

Earth with your powers ! — 

'He means Zeus of course, or Pisthetairos now that he has got 
Basileia^.' But the meaning of the chorus is quite unmistakable. 
When Pisthetairos, bride in hand, is escorted 'to Zeus' floor and 
marriage-bed^,' they acclaim him with all the emphasis of a farewell 
line as 'highest of the gods*.' 

Pisthetairos is Zeus. And Basileia is — who? Scholars ancient 
and modern have given a variety of answers to the question ^ An 

' Id. ib. I "J ^2 Aia 5e irdvTa Kpar-qaas \ k.t.X. 

^ Schol. Aristoph. az/. 1751 6 Zeus brfkovbTi, rj 6 HeLadeTaipos Xa^ojv ttju 'BacnXeiav (sic). 
^ Aristoph. av. 1757 f. eirl wedov Aibs \ Kai X^xos yafji-qKLov . 
^ Id. ib. I'j6^ daifjLovcou VTreprare. 

^ (i) Schol. Aristoph. av. 1536 aojfMaTOTroiet ttjv 'EacCKelav avro to irpdyfxa ws yvvaiKa 
in defiance of metre {supra p. 59 n. o) made her a personification of Royalty. 

(2) Euphronios the Alexandrine grammarian of s. iii B.C. (L. Cohn in Pauly — 
Wissowa RealEnc vi. 1220 f., W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur'^ 
Miinchen 1920 ii. i. 150) ap. schol. Aristoph. av. 1536 regarded her as a daughter of 
Zeus — probably an inference from Aristoph. av. 1537 ff. 

(3) Others held that she dispensed immortality, as Athena in Bakchyl.yra^. 45 Jebb 
was about to dispense it to Tydeus; and some actually called her Athanasia (schol. 
Aristoph. av. 1536). This was perhaps one of the many (Cornut. theoL 20 p. 36, iff. 
Lang) etymologies suggested for Athena (so even in Prellwitz Etym. Wdrterb. d. Gr. 
SprP- p. 11). 

(4) F. Wieseler Adversaria in Aeschyli Prometheum Vinctum et Aristophanis Aves 
Gottingae 1843 P* ^'^\ ^- contends that she was Athena, cp. Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. in "" KQ-qva. 
TivL jSaciXiSi T77 Kai l^oKeulKi^ Xeyofx^ur), dvyarpi de Bpovr^ov [supra ii. 833 n. 7). 

(5) Others cite Dionysios Skytobrachion (E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
V. 673) ap. Diod. 3. 57, who in his romantic vein told how Basileia, a daughter of 
Ouranos by Titaia (Ge) and a sister of Rhea (Pandora), brought up her brothers the 
Titans and hence was known as the Megale Meter, inherited her father's kingdom, and 
ultimately became by her brother Hyperion the mother of Helios and Selene. 

(6) Others again equate the Aristophanic Basileia with the goddess worshipped at 
Athens under the name Bao-tX?/ or Bao-iXeta (O. Kern in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Ejtc. iii. 
41 ff. , Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 1081 n. 5, 1521 n. i), whom some take to be a 'Queen' 
of Heaven (H. Usener Gotternamen Bonn 1896 p. 227 ff.), some a 'Queen' of the 
Underworld (G. Loeschcke Venmitungen zur griechischen Kiinstgeschichte und zur 
Topographie Athens Dorpati Livonorum 1884 pp. 14 — 24). 

(7) C. Pascal Dioniso Catania 191 1 pp. 99 — no argues that the Basileia of the play 
is 'Queen' of the Underworld and at the same time goddess of the mysteries and of 
fertility, in fact a variant of Kore. Marriage with her means death {supra ii. ii63ff.). 
Pisthetairos the pretender, after a career of hitherto unbroken success, is thus at the last 
politely handed over to the other world (E. Wiist in Xhe/ahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte 
der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1916 — 1918 clxxiv. 135). 

(8) J. T. Sheppard 'rt's eart.v tj Bao-i'Xeia ; ' in the Fasciculus loanni Willis Clark 
dicatus Cantabrigiae 1909 pp. 529 — 540, after rightly insisting that the solemnity of the 
final scene in the Birds implies a clear reference to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera, 



Nephelokokkygia 6 1 

Athenian audience in the days of Aristophanes could hardly have 
hesitated. The partner of Zeus must needs be Hera. And Hera in 
that very capacity was often called Basileia^, Besides, on the present 
occasion there was a special reason for picking out just this title and 
no other as appropriate to the goddess. For it would seem that the 
political circumstances in which the play was first planned prompted 
the author to the better part of its nomenclature — Euelpides, 
Pisthetairos, Nephelokokkygia, and finally Basileia. 

Aristophanes brought out his Birds at the City Dionysia of the 
year 414 B.C.^ But B. B. Rogers has shown that in all probability 
the play had been 'long in incubation,' indeed that it had been taken 

turns aside to the sacred marriage of Dionysos and the jSacriXiaaa {supra i. 672 n. o, 686, 
709 f. pi. xl, 3), and concludes that BaatXeta is an imaginary goddess, whose name 
suggests the consort of the god of comedy. ' Peithetairos, on this hypothesis, recalls to 
the audience Zeus, with a touch of Dionysos. Basileia recalls the Basilissa, not without 
a touch of Hera' (J. T. Sheppard op, cit. p. 540). The iepoKrjpv^ and the yepapai attendant 
on the ^aaiXiaaa (Dem. c. Neaer. 78) may be found in the messenger of Aristoph. av. 
1706 ff. and in the conjectural bridesmaids of Basileia. Mr Sheppard's article marks 
a real advance in the interpretation of this difficult scene ; but — to quote his own words 
— 'That Basileia has been caught in her true shape at last would be a bold assertion.' 

^ Zeus Bao-iXeus is associated with Hera Ba<rtXeta in a federal oath of the Phocians 
and Boeotians (H. G. Lolling in the Ath. Mitth. 1878 iii. 19 ff. line 14 f. cited supra ii. 
731 n. o (i)). Zeus BaoriXeiys at Lebadeia {supra ii. 899 n. 2, 1073 f., 1076) appears to 
have had as his consort Hera BacriX/s (W. Dittenberger in Inscr. Gr. sept, i no. 3097, i ff. 
"H/)^ BacriXiSi | Kal ry woXei Ae^ad^cjv \ Meuapdpo^ Xprjai/uiov | ieprjTevaa^ TrevTaerrjpida | iK 
tQv Ibioiv dvidTjKeu | iepTjTevo^iarjs ttjs yvuaiKos | avrov Ilaprjaias ttjs 'Ovacn/x^pSrov — a series 
of well-omened names) : so Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 78 n. 17, supra ii. 900 n. o. There 
was a cult of Hera Bacr/Xeta at Lindos (P. Foucart in the Rev. Arch. 1867 ii. 30 ff. no. 71, 
I3ff. = F. Hiller von Gaertringen in Inscr. Gr. ins. i no. 786, 13 ff. Titos 4>Xa(i;ibs) Ti'rou 
$Xa(utoi;) j Aeovros iepeojs vios Kvpeiva (cp. Orelli — Henzen Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 5793)0paj(7{;- 
Xoxos KXd((rios) airo yevovs T€T€L\/j,r]/jL€vos es to SieveKes vvb tQv \ iu deois AvTOKparopuiv Kal 
Tuv TTJs I iepas ^ovXijs avyKXrjTOV boypLOLTOOu {sc. senatus consultis)^ \ {jiraTLKCju [/cat] avvKXri- 
tikQv (Tvuyeplrjs] \ "Hpa BacrtXe/[a] ^[tti] to[v] ^cofiolv] | rals] {<r)TL^d5as iK[6a-iiir]<X€v]. On 
such (XTi^ddes or crTijSdSeta see A. Wilhelm in the Ath. Mitth. 1892 xvii. 190 f. and 
Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr.^ no. 1109, 52 f. n. 36), and perhaps at Sikinos (F. Hiller 
von Gaertringen in Inscr. Gr. ins. v. i no. 30, 2 f. in lettering not older than s. iii a. d. 
elSos ixkv iralpdfjLoios i(pvs "Hpris] \ ^aaiXeirfs) ; and there was another of Hera BaaiXis in 
Pisidia (A. H. Smith in the J^ourn. Hell. Stud. 1887 viii. 256 f. no. 41, i ff. from Pogla 
{Foula) 7} ^ovXi] /cat 6 drjfxos \ eTelix-qaev KvprfXi[av'\ \ ' Kpix[a]aTav, [r^qv Kal | Te[/)]Tiaj', 
M^[5]oj'[r]os, I ^ApTe/LL^ovs yvvaiKa \ adb(ppopa, yivovs \ rod irpoiTevovTos, \ iepaaa/x^vrjv 'Upas 
Ba|<TtXt5os, 8r)fjt.Lovpyr)\(ra(Tap, dpxtaiyoacra^efT;!', | /cat Trdvra rd eTTi tovtols \ vevofiLCTixeva 
Troi7]<ra\(rav. k.t.X., cp. Corp. inscr. Gr. iii no. 4367/".). 

Literary allusions include the following: h. Her. i fif."H/)7;j'... | ddavdTrju ^aalXuav... \ 
Ztjv^s ipiybovTroLo KaaLyvqTiqv dXox^v re, Ap. Rhod. 4. 382 ixrj to ye Tra/j.(3a(riXeia Atos 
TeXeaeiev d/coiris, Orph. h. Her. 16. 2 "Upr] (so J. G. J. Hermann for "Hpa) TrajiifiaaiXeLa, 
Atos ffvXXeKTpe /-td/catpa, 9 fxdKaipa Bed, TroXvibvvfie, Tra/AjSaciXeia, Prokl. in Plat. Tim. iii. 
191, 12 f. Diehl 5id dr] tovto t(^ Att (xvu^^evKTai. i] ^aatXls '"Hpa. See further Gruppe Gr. 
Myth. Rel. p. 1132 n. 2. 

'^ Schol. Aristoph. av. argum. i and 2. W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ 
MUnchen 191 2 i. 426. 



62 Nephelokokkygia 

in hand soon after the production of the Peace in 42 1^ Now the 
events of the period immediately succeeding the peace of Nikias 
had turned all eyes towards Argos, which then became the centre 

^ B. B. Rogers The Birds of Aristophanes London 1906 p. v f. : 'It is by far the 
longest of the extant comedies ; and dealing as it does with a subject outside the ordinary 
range of the poet's thoughts and language... it is obviously a comedy which must have been 
long in incubation, and could not (as was the case with the Peace) have been hastily put 
together to meet a particular emergency. Indeed there are not wanting indications from 
which we may surmise that it was taken in hand, if not immediately after the production 
of the Peace, at all events whilst the mind of Aristophanes was still filled with the topics 
and ideas which possessed it while he was engaged in the composition of the earlier play. 
In the vagrant Oracle-monger {xpv<''f^o\6yos) of the Birds, with his prophecies of Bakis, 
his lust for a share of the airXdyxt'OL, and finally his ignominious expulsion, we cannot fail to 
recognize the exact counterpart of Hierocles, the xfiV^^/^oXoyos of the Peace. The 
description which Cinesias gives of the sources from whence the dithyrambic poets derived 
their inspiration is merely an amplification of a sarcasm placed previously in the mouth of 
Trygaeus ; whilst the whole scheme of the proposed sacrifice on the stage, its preparation, 
interruption, and final abandonment, with the allusion to the predatory habits of the Kite, 
and to the unwelcome pipings of Chaeris, is substantially identical in the two plays. 

So again the two plays have an idyllic character which belongs to no other of the poet's 
comedies : the innocent charms of a country life are depicted as they are depicted nowhere 
else; in each of them, and in them only, we hear the "sweet song" of the t^tti^, and in 
each it is designated by its Doric name 6 dxeras, the chirruper. Here too, and no- 
where else in Aristophanes, the coaxing address w deiKaKpLcov is employed ; and although 
the Aeschylean phrase ^ovdos 'nriraKeKTpvCov is found also in the Frogs, yet it there occurs 
in its natural place as part of a criticism on the style and the language of Aeschylus, while 
in each of these two plays it is introduced, apropos of nothing, in the Parabasis, as the 
sarcastic description of a showy m.ilitary officer. And possibly the germ of the present 
drama may be discovered in the determination of Trygaeus ixer^ dpvidiav is KbpaKas 
^abi^eiv [cp. av. 155, 753]. Minor coincidences, such as irobairbs to yevos, are very 
numerous, but are hardly worthy of mention. 

So again, although the Athenian dependencies on the coasts of Macedonia and Thrace 
were in a chronic state of disturbance, and were giving some trouble at this very time, 
yet the advice to the reckless young Athenian to "fly off to Thrace-ward regions and 
fight there" would seem more naturally adapted to a time when those regions were the 
chief seat of Athenian warfare, than to a time when the entire attention of the Athenian 
people was directed to the military operations in Sicily. And the very remarkable verbal 
allusions to the History of Herodotus would seem more suitable to a period when that 
History was still fresh in the hands and thoughts of the poet and his audience. 

But whatever weight may be due to these considerations, the comedy would of course 
not receive its final touches until it was about to be sent in to the Archon, in the winter 
of 415 — 414 B.C.' 

I have quoted at length the wise words of Mr Rogers because they form the best 
reply to an objection raised by E. Wiist in the Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der 
klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1923 cxcv. 151, who urges against me the contention of 
A. Ruppel Konzeption und Ausarbeitung der Aristophanischen J^omodien 'D3.rmsta.dt igiz 
'dass der Dichter immer nur 3 — 4 Monate mit der Ausarbeitung eines Stlickes beschaftigt 
war' (E. Wlist loc. cit. 1916 — 1918 clxxiv. 133). But such a rule was obviously open to 
exceptions. U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff ' Uber die Wespen des Aristophanes' in 
the Sitzungsber. d. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin 1911 p. 460 ff., rightly holding that the Kyon v. 
Labes trial oivesp. 894 ff. travestied the Kleon v. Laches trial of the year 425 B.C., infers 
that the play was planned three years before its performance in 422 (E. Wiist loc. cit. 
1916 — 1918 clxxiv. 132, 155). 



Nephelokokkygia 6 3 

of more than one new political combination^ The Argives in a sense 
held the balance between Athens and Sparta, a fact that the play- 
wright fully appreciated^. And at Argos there had been a deal of 
wobbling. The successive alliances of the Argives with the Athenians 
(420), with the Spartans (418), and with the Athenians again (417) 
must have been received at Athens with alternate outbursts of 
enthusiasm and disgust. What the Athenian 'optimist,' the Euel- 
pides of the moment, really wanted was a staunch and loyal ally, 
a 'trusty comrade,' a Pisthetairos^. 

More than that. If, while the play was being drafted, popular 
attention was thus directed to Argos, it may fairly be surmised 
that Aristophanes' castle-in-the-air Nephelokokkygia contained — 
inter alia^^ no doubt — an allusion to the Argive Mount Kok- 
kygion^ with its myth of Zeus the cuckoo^ Aristotle'^ tells the story. 



^ See e.g. J. B. Bury A History of Greece London 1900 p. 458 ff., W. S. Ferguson in 
The Cambridge Ancient History Cambridge 1927 v. 256 ff. 

^ Aristoph. pax 475 ff. 

^ That this is the true form of the name appears from Corp. inscr. Att. ii. 3 no. 
1723 on an architrave of Pentelic marble in the church of St Theodoros near the village 

oi Marousi PI^JOKAH^ ! PI^OETAIPO ! AOMONE Y^ (K. Meisterhans 
Grammatik der attischen Inschriflen'^ Berlin 1900 p. 54). E. Wiist loc. cit. 1923 cxcv. 151 
deems this evidence 'nicht zwingend.' He is hard to please. 

* A. Todesco 'KOKKTS' in Philologus 1914 — 1916 Ixxiii. 563 — 567 (an article which 
Prof. A. D. Nock kindly brought to my notice) thinks that 'N€<p€\oKOKKvyLa vi^as a name in- 
vented by Aristophanes (Loukian. ver. hist. 29), in accordance with Greek usage, to denote 
a chaos of clouds {av. 178) and a babble of political intriguers (Ac/t. 598). 'Ganz 
verniinftig wiirde auch diese neue Erklarung sein : Ne0eXo/co/c/cu7ia sei die Idealstadt der 
schlauen Feiglinge, welche auf Kosten des Nachsten leben wollen. Wenn man besonders 
den Begriff der Schlauheit betont, so sind diese KOKKvyes die Demagogen, und wir sehen 
im Hintergrund die anderen Leute, die Athener, welche Kexv^ores alle Prahlereien ernst 
nehmen.' 

^ A similar allusion to Argive topography occurs in Aristoph. av. 399 airodaveiv ev 
'Opveais, where again the name is selected partly because it suggests birds (opvea) and 
partly because the town was uppermost in the thoughts of the people owing to its capture 
by Athenians and Argives in 416 B.C. Miss R. E. White (Mrs N. Wedd) in the Class. 
Rev. 1904 xviii. 100 f. finds the same point in av. 15 f. 6s rwS' ^0aa/ce v(^v (ppd(T€iv rbv 
Trjp^a I TOP ^wo^\ 8s opvis eyiver €k twv opvecov and aptly defends the variation in the use 
of the article by citing Thouk. 6. 7 roi>s iv 'Opv€ah...oi €k rQv'OpveQv. 

Does the oracle in av. 967 f. dW Srav oiKricruxn \vKot iroXiai re KopCovai \ ev ravrcf to 
fxera^v Kopivdov koI Si/cutDvos, — | k.t.\. refer to the alliance of Argos, whose symbol was 
the wolf, with Corinth [Kbpivdo^ — Kopibvrf)? 

F. Creuzer Symbolik und Mythologie'^ Leipzig and Darmstadt 1841 iii. 248 n. 2 saw 
that Nephelokokkygia stood in some relation to Mt Kokkygion or Thornax in Argolis 
{supra i. 135, ii. 893 n. 2), but thought that the topic might have been suggested to 
Aristophanes by the existence of another Mt Thornax near Sparta {supra ii. 893 n. 2). 

6 Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. p. 481 contributes an acute surmise : 'Zeus often appears as 
a lover in the guise of a bird. As a swan he begot the Dioscuri at Sparta, at Argos it was 
said that in the shape of a cuckoo he deceived Hera and won her love on the Mountain of 



64 Nephelokokkygia 



the Cuckoo. I venture to guess that these myths, which appear in old Mycenaean 
centres, are remains of the Minoan belief that the gods appeared in the shape of birds.' 

It must not, however, be forgotten that in the Old Slavonic area there was, or is said 
to have been, a fairly close parallel to the cuckoo-Zeus of Mt Kokkygion. J. Grimm 
Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 ii. 679 cites from the Polish 
chronicle of Prokosz the following remarkable account of a Slavic god Zywie : Chronicon 
Slavo-Sarmaticum . . .Procossii ed. H. Kownacki Varsaviae 1827 p. 113 'divinitati Zywie 
fanum exstructum erat in monte ab ejusdem nomine Zywiec dicto, ubi primis diebus 
mensis Maji innumerus populus pie conveniens precabatur ab ea, quae vitae auctor 
habebatur, longam et prosperam valetudinem. Praecipue tamen ei litabatur ab iis qui 
primum cantum cuculi audivissent, ominantes superstitiose tot annos se victuros quoties 
vocem repetiisset. Opinabantur enim supremum hunc universi moderatorem transfigurari 
in cuculum ut ipsis annuntiaret vitae tempora: unde crimini ducebatur, capitalique poena 
a magistratibus afhciebatur, qui cuculum occidisset.' This chronicle, which professed to 
be the work ^Procossii sec. X scriptoris,'' was denounced by Dobrowski in the Wiener 
Jahrbiicher d. Liter, xxxii. 77 — 80 as a pure fabrication and is described by A. Potthast 
Bibliotheca historica medii aevi^ Berlin 1896 ii. 940 as 'Ein unsauberes Machwerk des 
Przybyslaw Dyamentowski (saec. xviii).' But J. Grimm op. cit. ii. 679 n. i protested that 
Dobrowski had gone too far: the chronicle, though not so old as s. x, 'is at any rate 
founded on old traditions.' Partial confirmation of the alleged statements of Prokosz may 
be found in those of J. Diugosz, a canon of Cracow who died in 1480 A. D. and has left 
what purports to be an account of the ancient Polish pantheon. According to the careful 
critique of A. Bruckner in the Archiv filr slavische Philologie 1892 xiv. 170 fif., Dlugosz 
did not invent the names of his divinities, but took them from old ritual folk-songs still 
current in the fifteenth century, dignifying inferior powers with the rank of gods and 
comparing them with the gods of Greece and Rome. Thusy^j-0« = lupiter, Zja^a = Mars, 
Dzydzilelya = VenviS,, A^a= Pluto, /iC^rj^a^^Temperies, Zywye = de\x'i vitae, Dzewana — 
Diana, Marzyana^Coxts, (L. Niederle Manuel de Vantiquite slave Paris 1926 ii. 152). 
Other Polish chroniclers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries complete the list by 
adding from a similar source the names Lei and Polel^ which M. de Miechow Chronica 
Polonorum a Lecho usque ad annum MDvi Cracoviae 1521 equated with Castor and 
Pollux (L. Niederle op. cit. ii. 153 n. i). The relevant passages in Dtugosz are as 
follows: lo. Diugossus historia Polonica Lipsise 1711 i (i. 34A) ' baba, mons altissimus 
supra fluvium Sota^ herbas multiferas germinans, & oppido Zywiec imminens-' {sc. Zywiec 
on the Sola, some 40 miles south-west of Cracow), ib. i (i. 37 b) 'Item Deus vitce, quem 
vocabant Zywie.'' The fuller, but less authoritative, account of Prokosz is quoted, with 
various comments, by W. Mannhardt in the Zeitschrift fiir deutsche Mythologie und 
Sittenkunde 1855 iii. 230, J. Plardy in The Folk-Lore Record 1879 ii. 85, C. Swainson 
The Folk Lore and Provincial Names of British Birds London 1886 p. 121, O. Keller Die 
antike Tierwelt Leipzig 191 3 ii. 66. C. de Kay Bird Gods New York 1898 p. 116 speaks 
of 'a goddess Zywie' etc. : he has misconstrued the Latin of Prokosz. 

Other considerations, which deserve to be weighed before the testimony of the 
chroniclers is rejected, are these. The name Zywye, which is akin to ^tjv, vivere (Boisacq 
Diet. ^tym. de la Langue Gr. p. 120, Walde Lat. etym. Worterb? p. 846 f., F. Muller Jzn 
Altitalisches Worterbuch Gottingen 1926 p. 211 f.), recalls the Thracian or Thraco- 
Phrygian Erikepaios, whose name was interpreted as meaning ^o}o8oT7]p {supra ii. 1024 f.). 
Again, the notion that the cuckoo is an ominous bird, which declares to men how many 
years they have to live etc., is wide-spread in Europe (see W. Mannhardt loc. cit. 
p. 231 ff., J. Grimm op. cit. ii. 676 ff., J. Hardy loc. cit. p. 86 ff., C. Swainson op. cit. 
p. 115 ff., L. Hopf Thierorakel und Orakelthiere in alter und neuer Zeit Stuttgart 1888 
p. 154 f., O. Keller op. cit. ii. 66). Typical are the folk-lines of Lower Saxony Kukuk 
vam haven, \ tvo lange sail ik leven? (J. F. Schuetze Holsteinisches Idiotikon^ ein Beitrag 
zur Volkssittengeschichte Hamburg 1801 ii. 363), or those of Guernsey Cottcou, cou-cou, dis 
mi I Combien d^ans Je vivrai (Sir E. MacCulloch Guernsey Folk Lore ed. Miss E. F. Carey 
London 1903 p. 505, P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1906 iii. 200), or those of 



Nephelokokkygia 65 

Zeus, seeing Hera all by herself, was minded to consort with her. 
To secure her by guile, he transformed himself into a cuckoo and 
perched on a mountain, which had previously been called Throitax, 
the 'Throne,' but was thenceforward known as Kokkyx, the 'Cuckoo.' 
He then caused a terrible storm to break over the district. Hera, 
faring alone, came to the mountain and sat on the spot where there 
is now a sanctuary of Hera Teleia. The cuckoo flew down and settled 
on her knees, cowering and shivering at the storm. Hera out of pity 
covered it with her mantle. Thereupon Zeus changed his shape and 
accomplished his desire, promising to make the goddess his wedded 
wife. Pausanias-"- adds that Mount Kokkygion and Mount Pron over 
against it were topped by sanctuaries of Zeus and Hera respectively. 
Further^, he brings the myth into connexion with the famous cult 
of Hera at Argos. The temple-statue was a chryselephantine master- 
piece by Polykleitos. The goddess sat enthroned. On her head was 
a band decorated with figures of the Charites and the Horai. In one 
hand she held a pomegranate, about which a tale not rashly to be 
repeated was told; in the other she had a sceptre surmounted by 
a cuckoo, the subject of the foregoing myth. Strabo^ says of this 
statue that, though in point of costliness and size it fell short of the 
colossal works of Pheidias, yet for sheer beauty it surpassed all 
others. Maximus Tyrius* in a few well-chosen epithets records the 

the modern Greek /coL'/co /xou, /cou/cd/ct yaou, | KidpyvpoKovKOLKi /jlov, \ iroaovs xpovovs dk va ^rjcoj ; 
(J. Grimm op. cit. ii. 676 n. 3). fitienne de Bourbon, a thirteenth-century Dominican, 
states that the cuckoo-oracle was consulted on the first of May (A. Lecoy de la Marche 
Anecdotes historiques legendes et apologues tiris du recueil inMit d'' ^tienne de Bourbon 
Paris 1877 § 52 p. 59 f., § 356 p. 315). Prokosz therefore may, after all, be right in what he 
tells us of the May-day celebration on Mt Zywiec. His further assertions, that the ruler 
of the world was believed to take the form of a cuckoo and that the killing of a cuckoo 
was a capital offence, cannot be controlled, but are at least consistent with one another 
and no\. per se wholly incredible. Yet the cautious enquirer would do well to digest what 
Seemann in the Handwdrterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens Berlin — Leipzig 1933 
V. 749 — 751 has to say against e.g. W. Mannhardt's attempt to treat the cuckoo as an 
animal form of Donar or Fro and C. L. Rochholz' contention that St Gertrude with her 
cuckoo was * eine Stellvertreterin Freyas oder Idunas.' 

'' Aristot./r^^. 287 {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. i9of. Miiller) ap. schol. vet. Theokr. 15. 64 = 
Eudok. viol. 414'^ cited supra ii. 893 n. 2. 

^ Paus. 2. 36. 2 quoted supra ii. 893 n. 2. 

2 Paus. 2. 17. 4 rb bk dyaXfia r^s"H/3as i-rri dpbvov Kad-qrai fieyedei fx4ya, xp^(^o^ /"^'' '^ctt 
€\4(f>avTos, HoXvKXeiTov de ^pyov • '4ire<TTi 5e oi o'T€(pavos Xdpiras ^x^^ '^^ti "fipas iireipyaa- 
fx^vas, Kai tQv x^'-P^^ tv I^^^ Kapirbv (p^pei poids, rrj be (XKriwTpov. tol fxev odv es ttju poidv 
— aTTopprjTdTepos yap icmu 6 \6yos — d(f>ei(rdw jmoL' KbKKvya be eirl rep (XKrjTrTpip Kadijadai 
<f>acn \4yovT€S rbv Aia, 8t€ ijpa irapdevov rrjs "B.pas, es tovtou top 6pui.da dWay^uac, tt]v bi 
are iraiyviov drjpdaaL. Supra ii. 893 n. 2. 

^ Strab. 372. 

^ Max. Tyr. 14. 6 T7\v "Hpai/, o'ia.v no\i;/cXetros 'ApyeioLs ^5ei|e, XeuKibXeuov, eXecpavrb- 
^VX^^i eywTTiJ', evelfjiova, ^aaiXiKrjv, ibpvfxivqv eirl xpv<^ov dpdvov. 

c. ni. c 



66 Nephelokokkygia 

effect produced by the ivory arms, the exquisite face, the gorgeous 
drapery, the queenly bearing, and the golden throne. Greek and 
Roman writers vied with each other in praising the sculptor's 
creation. To cite but a single epigram, Martial^ wrote: 

Thy toil and triumph, Polykleitos, stands — 

Hera, beyond the reach of Pheidias' hands. 

Had Paris this sweet face on Ida seen. 

The judge convinced, the rivals scorned had been. 

Loved he not his own Hera's form divine, 

Zeus might have loved the Hera that is thine. 

I need not labour the point. The myth was well known, and the 
statue immensely famous. What concerns us at the moment is the 
fact that the Argive Hera herself was worshipped expressly as Hera 
Basileia^. Aristophanes, true to a long-established tendency of the 
mythopoeic mind, has split off the cult-title Basileia and transformed 
it into a new and brilliant personality — the quasi-W^xd. of Athens^ 
This bold stroke of genius* was necessitated and justified by the 

1 Mart. ep. lo. 89. 

2 W. R. Paton — E. L. Hicks The Inscriptions of Cos Oxford 1891 p. 88 ff. no. 38, 
5 t. =J. de Prott Leges Graecorum sacrae Lipsiae 1896 Fasti sacri p. 25 ff. no. 6, sf. = 
P. Mlillensiefen in Collitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. iii. i. 361 ff. no. 3637, 5 f. = Michel 
Recueil d' Inscr. gr. no. 717, 5 f. = Dittenberger Syll. inscr. GrJ^ no. 1026, 5 f . a liturgical 
calendar on a marble slab in lettering of s. iv — s. iii B.C. b^K6.r(ii • "H/?at 'Apyeiai 'EXeiat 
BacrtXetai 5d/x|a\is Kpird- k.t.X. {'lSi\eia = iv ^Xei, 'in the marsh,' cp. Alexis of Samos 

frag. I {Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 299 Mliller) ap. Athen. 572 F "AXe^is 5' 6 Sd/^ios kv devT^pi}) 
"Upuv ^afxiaKOJv ^ Tr]v iv 'Zd/n^ ' A.(f>pobiT7]v , rjv oi jxev iv KaXdyUots koKovclv, oi bk ej'"EXei,' 
K.T.X., Paus. 8. 36. 6 at Megalopolis ArjjurjTpos KaXovfxivrjs iv ^Xei vadi re Kal dXaos. 
Hesych. s.v. eXeia (eXeta cod.)'... /cai'Hpa iv Kuirpc^}. kol" Kprefjus iv M.eaa'qvri (Meaivr) 
cod.). See further O. Jessen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. 2819). 

The title as attached to the Argive Hera appears to be of long standing : Phoronis 
frag. 4 Kinkel ap. Clem. Ai. stroui. 1. 24 p. 102, 23 f. 'OXvfXTnddos daaLXeirjs, \"Iipr)s 
'ApyeiTjs (context cited supra i. 453 n. 8), Aisch. suppl. 296 f. IIEA. ttws ovv reXevra 
^aaiXioiv veiKTj rdde; \ XO. ^ovv tt]v yvvaiK ^drjKev' Apyeia deoi. | k.t.X., Corp. inscr. Att. 
iii. I no. 172, 5 ff. on a taurobolic altar of Pentelic marble, to be dated c. 361 — 363 A. D. 
oStos KeKpoiriTjv auxe? ttoXlv, ovtos iv " kpyei \ vaieTdei, ^Iotov /mvaTiKov ev 5id7w»'- | avTbdi 
yap KXeidoOxos ^(pv ^aaiXrjtdos "Uprjs, | k.t.X., g{. 8g,doux^^ /^e Koprjs, paaiX['r)'t]5o$ iepd 
arjKiiov I "Hpas KXeWpa (pipiav, ^ojfxbv ^drjKe 'Per; | /c.r. X. = Kaibel Epigr. Gr. no. 822, 5ff., 
9f. = Cougny Anth. Pal. Append, i. 283. 5 ff., 9 f • (reading 7 avTbdt yap /cXetSoOxos ^^v 
^a<nX7]tdos"I{pr]i but 9 5a5o0x6s fxe Koprjs BaciX^s Aios lepb? rjKiav \ k.t.X.). So in Latin Sen. 
Ag. 349 ff., Apul. 7?iet. 6. 4. 

^ There appears to have been no temple of Hera at Athens till the time of Hadrian 
(Paus. I. 18. 9), unless we reckon the ruined temple on the way from Phaleron to Athens, 
said to have been fired by Mardonios (Paus. i. i. 5, 10. 35. 2). 

* Possibly not so original as we might suppose. I incline to think that Kratinos had 
hit upon a very similar idea. He is known to have dubbed Perikles Zei;s [supra i. 280, iii. 
32 f., cp. ii. 816 n. i) and Aspasia "H/sa, if not also T^ipavvos or Tvpavvodai/j-wv (Meineke 
Frag. com. Gr. ii. 61 f., 147 ff., stipra iii. 32 n. 5). "When, therefore, we read in schol. 
Aristoph. av. 1536 'icTi hi koX irapd KpaHvii) i] BaatXeia, it is tempting to conclude that 
Kratinos spoke of Perikles and Aspasia as the Zeus and the Hera Baa-iXeia of Athens. 



Plate XI 




A lekylhos from Ruvo, now in the British ^[useum : the Judgment of Paris with the- 



Hera as prl/c-winner. 

Stc page 67 1 



Nephelokokkygia 6 7 



whole plot of the bird-comedy. The bird-Zeus was the mate of Hera 
Bastleza: Pisthetairos must follow suit. The sceptre, of which we 
hear so much in the course of the play^, was perhaps directly sug- 
gested by the cuckoo-sceptre of the Argive Hera^. 

I end by anticipating an objection. Aristophanes (it may be 
urged), lover of old-fashioned Athens as he was, would not have 
appealed to an Athenian public by thus dwelling on a virtually 
foreign cult. Still less (I shall be told) could he have assumed in 
his work-a-day audience familiarity with or appreciation of a cult- 
statue carved by an alien sculptor for a Peloponnesian town. The 
objection may be met, or at least minimised, by the consideration 
of a certain red-figured lekythos from Ruvo, now in the British 
Museum^, which — if I am not in error — makes it probable that this 
very statue was known and admired by ordinary folk at Athens in 
the days of Aristophanes. The vase-painting (pi. xi)*, which is 
contemporary or nearly contemporary with our play, represents 
a frequent subject — the judgment of Paris. To our surprise, however, 
the central goddess is not Aphrodite but Hera, who sits on a throne 
raised by a lotos-patterned base. As befits a 'Queen,' she wears 
a high decorated stephdne and holds in her left hand a long sceptre 
tipped by a cuckoo with spread wings. Her feet rest on a footstool, 
and beside the further arm of her throne is an open-mouthed panther 
sitting on its hind legs^ Advancing towards her comes Nike with .,<;^ 

G. Loeschcke Vertnutungen zur griechischen Kunstgeschichte und zur Topographic 
Athens Dorpati Livonorum 1884 pp. 14 — 24, followed by O. Kern in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. iii. 44 f., would identify the Bao-iXeta of Kratinos and Aristophanes with the 
Meter of the Athenian market-place, protectress of the Bouleutdrion. 

^ Aristoph. av. 480, 635 f., 1534 f., 1600 f., 1626 f., 1631. 

^ Cp. Aristoph. a7J. 508 ff. '^px^^ ^' ovtoj acpddpa rrju dpxv^ uxtt , e'l rts /cat ^acriXe^ot \ 
ev rats irbXecnv tCov "EtWriviav 'Aya/x^fxvcov t] Mev^Xaos, \ iwi tQv aKrjiTTpwu iKddrjr' opvLs 
IxcT^X^v ''■^ dojpo8oKoir] with id. 504 AlyvTrrov 5' ad /cat ^oiviKrjs irda'qs kokkv^ j8a<TtXei)s rjv. 
It is important to note that both Egypt (Epaphos, Memphis, Libye, Belos, Anchinoe, 
Aigyptos, Danaos, etc.) and Phoinike (Agenor, Kadmos, Phoinix, etc.) play a large part 
in the mythology of the early kings of Argos. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iv. 61 no. F 109, Gerhard Ant. Bildw. p. 289 f. pi. 43, Welcker 
Alt. Denkm. v. 410 no. 61 pi. B, 3, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Hera p. 140 ff. (b) Atlas 
pi. 10, I and 1 a. 

* The vase, when I first saw it, had been very skilfully repainted so as to appear quite 
complete. My friend Mr H. B. Walters kindly had it cleaned for me with ether (Sept. 29, 
1910), and thus fixed the exact limits of the restoration. I was therefore enabled to publish in 
the Ridgeway volume {supra p. 44 n. i) for the first time an accurate drawing of the design 
by that excellent draughtsman, the late Mr F. Anderson. The present plate is reproduced 
from his coloured drawing to a larger scale. 

^ The panther appears to be a variant of the lion, which on other vases representing 
the judgment of Paris precedes (Welcker Alt. Denkm. v, 388 no. 22) or is carried by Hera 
{id. ib. V. 398 f. no. 52 pi. b, 2, Furtwangler Vasensanmil. Berlin ii. 716 ff. no. 2536, 

5—2 



68 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

a palm-branch^. In front of her sits Paris; behind stands Hermes; 

above are Athena and Aphrodite — all with their usual attributes. 

It seems clear that the vase-painter, wishing to give an individual 

turn to a common type^, has made Paris award the prize of beauty, 

not — as tradition prescribed — to Aphrodite, nor even — as patriotism 

might suggest — to Athena, but to Hera, the Hera of Polykleitos. 

The rival goddesses are relegated to the far corners of the scene, 

and the chef-d'oeuvre of the sculptor queens it in the centre. Doubtless 

the vase-painter showed his ingenuity by treating the pomegranate 

in Hera's hand as if it were the apple of discord that Paris had just 

presented to the fairest. In short, the vase as a whole forms an 

amusing parallel to the epigram by Martial already quoted. 

But whether the second half of the name Nephelo-kokkygia was 

or was not inspired by the Argive cult, it is certain that the first half 

owed much to the common Greek conception of Zeus enthroned 

above the clouds. Above them rather than upon them. Prometheus, 

arriving in Cloudland, is terribly afraid that Zeus will see him 

'from above^.' Hence his ludicrous umbrella. And Pisthetairos, 

aspiring to the home and the very couch of Zeus, must needs bear 

his bride upwards from the celestial city on pinions that soar to yet 

higher heights^ After all, that is as it should be. The clouds, if 

strictly described, are of the aer\ and the aer is a lower stratum 

than the aither^. The realm of the sky-god was rightly pictured by 

Homer as 

Broad heaven in the aither and the clouds^. 

(d) The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth. 

From the ritual of Zeus Aktaios we have inferred that in early 
days Greek rain-makers clothed themselves in sheep-skins by way 

Overbeck Gr. Kunsttnyth. Hera p. T41 ff. (m) Atlas pi. 10, 7, Tiirk in Roscher Lex. Myth. 
iii. 161 5 fig. 6) and is usually explained as symbolising the sovereignty of Asia (Eur. Tro. 
927 f., Isokr. Hel. 41, alib.). These adjuncts recall another statue of Hera at Argos: Tert. 
de cor. mil. 7 lunoni vitem Callimachus induxit (perhaps the seated Hera 'Nv/mcpevo/JLewrj at 
Plataiai, made by Kallimachos (Paus. 9. 2. 7)). ita et Argis signum eius palmite redimitum, 
subiecto pedibus eius corio leonino, insultantem ostentat novercam de exuviis utriusque 
privigni {sc. Dionysos and Herakles). 

1 Mr H. B. Walters in the Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iv. 61 says: 'Before Hera hovers 
Iris or Nike, with wings spread,' etc. But, if Nike were hovering in the air, her feet 
would point downwards : see e.g. F. Studniczka Die Siegesgottin Leipzig 1898 pi. 3, 19 ff. 

2 Cp. P. Gardner A Grammar of Greek Art London 1905 pp. 244 — 253 = /of. The 
Principles of Greek Art New York 1914 pp. 297 — 309. 

3 Aristoph. av. 155 1 avoodev, cp. ib. 1509. 

4 Id. ib. 1759 ff. 

^ Supra i. 10 r f. pi, ix, 2. 

* //. 15. 192 (cited supra i. 25 n. 5, iii. 34). 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 69 

of copying the fleecy clouds^. Such a usage goes some way towards 
explaining another drama of exceptional brilliance^, the Clouds of 
Aristophanes ; for he, in common with all the writers of old Attic 
comedy, was largely indebted for his choruses to the mimetic dances 
of the past^ The Clouds, however, to whom the Aristophanic 
Sokrates would introduce his elderly pupil and initiate, Strepsiades, 
are not mere masses of vapour that the magician can coax into 
sending a shower, but rather august, and indeed divine, personifications 
of the same: 

Old man sit you still, and attend to my will, and hearken in peace to my 

prayer, 
O Master and King, holding earth in your swing, O measureless infinite 

Air; 
And thou glowing Ether, and Clouds who enwreathe her with thunder, and 

lightning, and storms. 
Arise ye and shine, bright Ladies Divine, to your student in bodily forms*. 

Sokrates speaks of them as 'our deities^,' and again as * heavenly 
Clouds, great goddesses ^' Strepsiades, taking his cue, salutes them 

^ Supra p. 31 f. 

2 When first exhibited at the Dionysia of 423 B.C. the Ne^Aat of Aristophanes gained 
only the third prize, being beaten by the Tlvrivr] of Kratinos and the K6i'vos of Ameipsias — 
a judgment hard to understand. We have the play in part rewritten, a second edition 
which was never staged (W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Mlinchen 
1912 i. 422 f.), being either 'composed to be read and not to be acted' (B. B. Rogers in his 
ed. 1 916 p. xii), or planned for performance some time after 421 B.C. (G. M. Boiling 'The 
two recensions of The Clouds'' in Class. Philol. 1920 xv. 83 ff., reported in the Berl. 
philol. JVoc k. ]\xli 30, 192 1 p. 736). 

^ So at least I have argued in the yourn. Hell. Stud. 1894 xiv. 163 ff. Note that the 
choreutai impersonating the Clouds are likened to spread fleeces [nub. 343 e'l^aaiu yovv 
eploLffiv TreirTafi^uoicri). Why attention is drawn to their noses (id. 344 avrai 5i pitvas 
^X^voi-v), is not quite clear. The schol. ad loc. says elaekTfKvdaai yap oi tov x^P^^ 
TTpocrwTreta irepiKeifievoi fxeyaXa^ ^opra plvas Kal aXXws -yeXota Kai dffxvf^ova. The sequel 
{nud. 346 ff.) of course shows that the Greeks, like other children, formed fancy-pictures 
in the sky and took the clouds to be a Centaur, a leopard, a wolf, a bull — in fact, as 
Lowell puts it, 'Insisted all the world should see | camels or whales where none there 
be ! ' But that is hardly the import of pives. I should rather suppose that the Nephelai 
are entirely wrapped in fleeces except for their nostrils. Cp. the use of ve(pi\'q in Greek 
(Hesych. s.v. (pdpr]) and nebula in Latin (De Vit Lat. Lex. s.v. 'nebula' § 9) for a thin, 
flowing garment, or of 'cloud' in English for a voluminous woollen scarf (J. A. H. 
Murray A New English Dictionary Oxford 1893 ii. 526 s.v. 'Cloud' § 8). 

* Aristoph. 7iub. 263 ff. trans. B. B. Rogers 212. exxp-qixeiv XPV '''^v Trpea^vTrjv Kai tijs 
evxv^ eiraKo6eLv. \ cS biairor' dua^, d/xirprfT^ '-^VP) ^s ^X^'^ ttjv yijv fier^capou, \ \a/xTrp6s r' 
Aidrip, aefivai re deal Ne0^Xai jSpovTrjaiK^pavvoi, j dpdrjTe, (pdvr]T\ c3 deffTToivai, tc^ 

<f>pOVTl(JT^ fXeT^OJpOL. 

^ Id. ib. 252 f. 212. Kal luYyei/^cr^at rats ^€(pe\ai(nv es \6yovs, \ rals TjfieT^pata l 
haljxociv ; 

^ Id. ib. 315 f. 2T. piQ)v yjpQvai rivis eicriv ; \ 2S2. tJkktt^ dXX' ovpdvtai Ne^Aat, /xeydXat 
deal dvbpd(TLv dpyocs. 



70 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

as 'Queens over alP.' Sokrates outdoes even this by declaring that 
the Clouds are 'the only goddesses', the rest being pure rubbish^. 
Zeus? There's no such person^. But the Clouds themselves are 
more orthodox, and in their pardbasis begin by invoking four gods 
with whom they are specially concerned — Zeus, Poseidon, Aither 
their father, and Helios* It would seem that Aristophanes, who 
throughout the play is presenting the grossest caricature of Sokrates, 
has foisted upon him a worship of the Clouds more properly belonging 
to Orphic votaries. The comedian of course accounts that way for 
Sokrates' nebulous notions and shifty morals ^ But the Orphists, 
who from of old had been devotees of nature, were perfectly serious. 
Their hymns to Zeus Keraiintos and to Zeus Astrdpios are im- 
mediately followed by another to the Clouds, which is prefaced by 
the rubric that the proper burnt-offering to be made is myrrh, and 
continues : 

Clouds of the air, that nurture the crops, and that roam in the sky, 

Parents of rain, driven wide o'er the world by the blasts of the wind, 

Brimful of thunder and fire, loud-roaring, of watery ways. 

Ye that make horror of sound in the echoing bosom of air, 

Rent by the winds or charging amain with a crash and a clap, 

You I beseech, that are clad in the dew, and that breathe in the breeze, 

Send us the showers to nurture the crops of our Mother the Earth®. 

Adoration of the Clouds, though perhaps connectible with other 

^ Id, ib. 356 f. 2T. xaipere rolvvv^ (2 d^ffiroiuaf KaivOv, e'lirepTtvl KoiWi}}, \ ovpauofirjKT) 
prj^are Kafioi (pwvqv, w TrajuL^acriXeiai. 

^ Id. ib. 365 Sfl. aSrai ydp rot ixovai dai deal' raXXa de ttolvt^ e<TTi <p\6apos. 

^ Id. ib. 366 f. ST. 6 Zei>s 5' y]}uv^ 0^/)e, 7r/)6s r^s F-^s, ovK^fxirLos ov 6e6s icTTiv; \ 212. 
TTotoj Zei/s; ov fxij Xrjprjaeis' oub' 'iari 7ie{)s. Supra ii. 2. Cp. nub. 380 f. ST. At^'os; rovrl 
jx iXeX'Tjdei, \ 6 Zei/s ovk ojv, dXX* avr^ avrov Alvos vvpI ^aaCkeiiov, 818 f. ST. t'Soi; 7' i8ov 
At' 'OX^fXTTLOv • T77S fxajplas' | rbv Ala vofu^etv, ovra ttjXikovtopI, 827 ST. ovk '4<jtlv, d 
^eidLTTirldr), Zei;?. ^EI. dXXd ris ; \ ST. Acvos /SaciXeuet, tov AV e^eXrjXaKdos, 1469 ff. 
^EI. idov ye Aia TLaTpcpov tos dpxcifos el. \ Zej)s ydp tcs ^ariv ; ST. 'iariv. $EI. ovk i<Tr\ 
oi}K, iirei I Alvos ^aaiXeiet,, rbv AC e^eXrjXaKws. 

■* Id. ib. 563 ff. vxl/ifMidovra fi^v deQv \ Zijva rvpavvov es x^P^^ I TrpCJTa [xeyav KiKX'qffKia- \ 
rbv re pueyaGdevrj Tpiai\v7]^ Ta/xlav, \ yrjs re Kal aXfivpds 6aX6.<T\<xr]i dypiov fioxXevTTjv \ Kai 
IxeyaXoivvjxov r}/j.^Tepov iraTip", \ Xidipa (rejxvbTaTov, ^lodp^/j-fiova irdPTOjv | rbv 0' 'nnrovib/xav, 
8s virep\XdiXTrpois aKT^cnv /carexei j 777s iribov, fxeyas ev deois \ iv dvrjToicri re daifxojv. The 
aniistrophi {595 ff.) invokes Apollon of Mt Kynthos, Artemis of Ephesos, Athena of 
the Akropolis, and Dionysos of Mt Parnassos — another quartet of deities likely to be 
interested in Clouds. 

5 Id. ib. 316 ff. 

^ Orph. h. Neph. i\ NE^ON, Ovjubiafxa a-fxijpvav. i ff. rjepiai (so E. Abel for rjipioi) 
v€<piXai, KapiroTpb(pQL, ovpavbirXayKToi., \ ofx^porbKOL, irvoL-^aiv (so G. Hermann for irvoiaiaLv) 
eXavvbfievai /card Kbafxov, \ ^povraiaL, TrvpbeacraL, ipi^pop.01, vypoKeXevdoi (so Hermann for 
vdpoK^Xevdoi), I 7}^pos (so Hermann for d4pos) eu KbXirix} irdrayov (ppLKibde' (so Hermann for 
(ppiKibbrj) '^xovaai, | irveip.a(Tiv dvyiairaaToi iTndpofxddrjv Trarayevcai, | vp-ds vvv Xlrofiai, 
dpoaoei/uLoves, eijirvooi aiipais, \ ir^/.cireiv KapiroTpb(l>ovs ofxjSpovs ^wl /nrjT^pa yaiav. 



The Clouds personijGed in Cult and Myth 71 

points of Orphic doctrine^ and apt to recrudesce in popular 
practice^was naturally ridiculed as fatuous and futile^. But that was a 
reproach which it shared with the highest conception of the Hebrews*. 
Christianity itself has cherished, not only the recollection of 'a cloud 
that overshadowed them^' and 'a cloud' that 'received him out of 
their sight ^,' but also the anticipation of 'another mighty angel come 
down from heaven, clothed with a cloud',' and the final vision of 
*a white cloud, and upon the cloud one... like unto the Son of man^' 

1 The Rhapsodic theogony spoke of the world -egg as 'the cloud' {Orph. /rag. 60 Kern 
aj>. Damask, quaest. de primis principiis 123 (i. 317, 2 f . Ruelle) quoted supra \\. 1024, 
where P. R. Schuster's cj. Ke\v(f>'qv for vecpeXrjv is clever, but improbable). The Justinian 
recension of the Orphic AiadijKai {Orph./rag. 245 Kern ap. pseudo-lust. Mart, de monarchia 
2. 105 A — B (i. ii6 Otto) = pseudo-Iust. Mart, cohortatio ad gentiles 15. 15 E (i. 50, 52 
Otto)) has the following impressive passage: I3ff. ov^k tls ^crd' erepos x^P^^ fxeyaXov 
^affLXrjos (so Clem. Al. strom. 5. 14 p. 416, 4 Stahlin and most codd. of the cohortatio. 
jxeyoKoLo dvaKTos most codd. of the de monarchia and codd. C E. of the cohortatio). \ 
avTov 5' ovx opbia' wepi yap v^(t>os iffrripiKTaL. | irdcnv yap duTjTocs dvrjral Kopai elalv iv 
Bffcrois, I d(Td€vies 5' Ideeiv Aia top ttolvtuiv fxediovra. The Aristobulian recension of the 
work (Orph. frag. 247 Kern ap. Aristoboul. in Euseb. praep. ev. 13. 12. 5 = the*Theo- 
sophia Tubingensis ' of Aristokritos (?) (see W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ 
Munchen 1924 ii. 2. 976) published by K. Buresch Klaros Leipzig 1889 p. 112 ff.) has 
line 20 avTov 5' ovx opow wepi yap vi(f)os ear-qpLKTai in a different context. Another passage 
of the ALadrjKaL {Ovph. /rag. 248 a Kern ap. Clem. Al. strom. 5. 14 p. 411, 4 and 10 
Stahlin = Euseb. praep. ev. 13. 13. 52) invokes the supreme deity 6 6s Kiv^h dv^/novs, 
ve<f>i\ri(n d^ iravTa /caAi^Trrets, and again 12 cos xetyuwi' \pvxpoX(XLV iTrepxofJievos pecpeXaiciv. 
The AuideKaerripides (Oiph. /rag. 256 Kern) state that, when lupiter is in Virgo, the year 
will bring pestilence etc. Kal Kepavvo^oXoi v€(p^\ai rd aTrep^xara KaraKa^aovaL (the MSS. 
read Kepawo^oKai and /cara/cai)<rei. J. Heeg cj. ^5e KepavPo^dXoi »'e0Aat < /cara Kapirbv> 
^Kavaau). The same poem elsewhere, in an imitation of Hes. o.d. 504 ff., says: TroXXat 
S' oipavbdev Kal eirapT^es €k vecpeXdwv \ ttj/jlos eiropvvvTat (prjyoXs Kai devdpeaiv dWois \ oiipecri 
re (TKOir^XoL^ re Kai dvdpibirojv (Heinsius cj. dudpibirois) ipid^fxois | irrjyvXides Kai '^crovrat 
d/Ltei5^es [Oxph. /rag. 270 Kern ap. Tzetz. in Hes. o.d. 502). 

^ Tert. apol. 24 colat alius deum, alius lovem, alius ad caelum manus supplices tendat, 
alius ad aram Fidei, alius, si hoc putatis, nubes numerat orans, alius lacunaria, alius suam 
animam deo suo voveat, alius hirci. Cp. ib. 40 caelum apud Capitolium quaeritis, nubila 
de laquearibus exspectatis. 

^ Hor. aj's poet. 230 aut, dum vitat humum, nubes et inania captet, Pers. sat. 5. 7 
grande locuturi nebulas Helicone legunto. 

^ luv. 14. 96 f. quidam sortiti metuentem sabbata patrem | nil praeter nubes et caeli 
numen adorant. J. Rendel Harris St. Paul and Greek Literature ( Woodbrooke Essays, 
No. 7) Cambridge 1927 p. 17 f. would correct Col. 2. 23 €v ideXodprjo-Keig. Kai TaireLvocppoc^vyj 
Kal d<f>€L8ig. aib/xaros : ' if we restore ev veipeXodp-qcxKeLq. we shall have an expression capable 
of explanation from Aristophanes ; the worship of angels is, like the new religion in the 
Greek comedy, a worship of the clouds.' Li/ra p. 432 n. 9. See further Ducange Gloss, 
med. et in/. Graec. i. 994 s.v. vecpo/uLavreia, who cites from Damask, v. Isid. ap. Phot. bibl. 
p. 340 b i3ff. Bekker the queer tale of the cloud-seer Anthousa, of Aigai in Kilikia, who 
saw a cloud like a Goth swallowed up by a cloud like a lion and divined that Asper 
leader of the Goths would be slain by Leon.' 

5 Mark 9. 7. « ^cts i. 9. 

^ Rev. 10. I. Cp. Verg. Aen. 10. 633 f. (luno) caelo se protinus alto | misit agens 
hiemem nimbo succincta per auras. 

^ Rev. 14. 14. 



72 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

For, after all, a cloud may symbolise mystery as well as mystifica- 
tion ; and what began as a nimbus may end as a glory^. 

Nephele, the personified Cloud, figures in one or two Greek 
myths which deserve attention. Pherekydes of Athens (or Leros^), 
the earliest Attic prose-writer {^floruit 454/3 B.C.), tells the tale of 
Kephalos and Prokris in the following form^: 

Kephalos, the son of Deioneus, married Prokris, the daughter of Erechtheus, 
and dwelt at Thorai^. Wishing to make trial of his wife, he went abroad — it is 
said — and left her for the space of eight years^ while she was yet a bride. After 
that, he adorned and disguised himself and, coming to his house thus tricked 
out, persuaded Prokris to receive him and consort with him. Prokris, eyeing 
his adornment and seeing that Kephalos was a very handsome man, lay with 
him. Thereupon Kephalos revealed himself and took Prokris to task. However, 
he made it up with her, and sallied forth to the chase. As he did this repeatedly, 
Prokris suspected that he had intercourse with another woman. So she summoned 
the serving-man and asked if he knew aught of it. The thrall said he had seen 
Kephalos repair to the top of a certain mountain and often exclaim 'O Nephele^, 
come to me!' — that was all he knew. Prokris on hearing it went to that 
mountain-top and hid herself Then, when she heard him saying the same words, 
she ran towards him. Kephalos, seeing her, was seized with sudden madness 
and, on the spur of the moment, struck Prokris with the javelin in his hand and 
slew her. Then he sent for Erechtheus and gave her a costly burial. 

Schwenn' in a recent discussion of the myth very justly observes 
that Nephele here must be a flesh-and-blood personification, not a 
mere amorphous vapour. Ovid^ goes off on a wrong tack, when he 

^ The nimbus of Christian art has a long history of its own, on which see L. Stephani 
Nimbus und Strahlenkranz St Petersburg 1859 pp. i — 140 (extr. from the Memoir es de 
VAcadimie des Sciences de St.- Piter sbourg. vi Serie. Sciences politiques, histoire, philologie. 
ix. 361 — 500), E. Venables in Smith — Cheetham Diet. Chr. Ant. ii. 1398 — 1402, 
H. Mendelsohn Der Heiligenschein in der italienischen Malerei seit Giotto Berlin 1903 
pp. I — 23 with figs., A. Krlicke Der Ni?nbus und verwandte Attribute in der friihchrist- 
lichen Kiinst Strassburg 1905 pp. i — 145 with 7 photographic pis { = Zur Kunstgeschichte 
des Auslandes Heft 35), G. Gietmann 'Nimbus' in The Catholic Encyclopedia New York 
19 1 1 xi. 80 — 83. Older monographs are Behmius De Nimbis Sanctoru??i (cited by Venables) 
and J. Nicolai Disqiiisitio de Nimbis antiqtioriim^ Imaginibus Deoruin^ imperatoruj?i olim, 
d^ nunc Christie Apostolorum 6~= Marice Capitibus adpictis (Jena) 1699 pp. i — 151. 

2 W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Miinchen 191 2 i. 454 f. 

^ Pherekyd./ra^. 77 {Frag. hist. Or. i. 90 f. M tiller) =/ra^. 34 [Fj'ag. gr. Hist. i. 71 
Jacoby) ap. schol. M.V. Od. 11. 321, cp. Eustath. iii Od. p. 1688, 20 ff. 

^ Schol. Od. II. 321 has ev ry BopUwv {sc. <t>vKrj). V. G. Sturz cj. iv t^ QopUwv 
(sc. drjfxip). C. Miiller, after P. K. Buttmann, would read ev T(f QopiKif.' {sc. drifjL({}). 
U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, followed by F. Jacoby, prints ip rfj Qop<ia>Leo}u. 

^ A significant period, one 'great year' {supra i. 540 n. i, ii. 240 ff.). 

^ Codd. M. Va. of schol. Od. 11. 321 read u5 ve(f>i\a, which is accepted by F. Jacoby. 
Eustath. in Od. p. 1688, 27 has Co v€<pe\r], and so P. K. Buttmann in schol. Od. 11. 321. 
C. Miiller prints c5 Ne^Aa* 

"^ Schwenn in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xi. 218. 

^ Ov. ars am. 3. 697 ff., met. 7. 811 fif. 



Plate XII 




Krater in the British Museum ; the death of Prokris. 

See page 73 «. 5. 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 73 

substitutes aui'a, the cool breeze beloved by the hunter. And 
Hyginus^ makes confusion more confounded by importing Aurora 
from the myth of Heos. Schwenn, however, has not perceived that 
the story as a whole involves a modified mixture of two folk-tale 
motifs. J. G. von Hahn^ long since pointed out that Prokris, who 
first succumbs to the trinkets of a stranger and later lives with him 
as his wife, illustrates one variety of weibliche Kduflichkeit. This has 
been crossed with the ' ^^wsXn^' -formula^ of a mortal man, who is 
unfaithful to a more-than -mortal woman and is therefore deserted 
by her and punished for his offence. Such stories ultimately go back 
to a very primitive type of tale which, according to Sir James Frazer*, 
has its roots in a totemic taboo. Be that as it may, it certainly 
seems probable that in the original version Nephele the cloud- 
goddess bestowed her favours upon Kephalos and was jealous of 
his relations to the mortal wife Prokris. Her death was his punish- 
ment — a scene graphically portrayed on a red-figured krater with 
columnar handles now in the British Museum (pi. xii)^ 

Essentially similar is the myth of Athamas^. He too deserted 
the goddess Nephele for a mortal wife, and was punished by a 
drought for his desertion. Again the tale has come down to us with 



1 Hyg./a3. 189. 

2 J. G. von Hahn Griechische und albanesische Mdrchen Leipzig 1864 i. 47 gives as 
his sixth formula : 'Eine Jungfrau giebt fur Kostbarkeiten in dreimaliger Steigerung ihre 
Reize Preis und verliert dabei ihr Magdthum a) durch Ueberlistung, /3) bewusster 
Weise, und muss sich mit dem Kaufer vermahlen.' 

^ J. G. von Hahn op. cit. i. 45 second for7nula '. 'Der Mann fehlt, und die nicht zum 
Menschengeschlecht gehorende Frau verlasst ihn entweder : a) fiir immer, ohne dass er 
ihr zu folgen versucht. b) oder er sucht sie in ihrer fernen Heimath auf und verbindet 
sich mit ihr,' C. S. Burne The Handbook of Folklore l^ondon 1914 p. 344 no. 2, P. Saintyves 
Les contes de Perrault et les recits paralleles : leurs origines Paris 1923 pp. 420 — 427. 

* Frazer Golden Bough'^ : The Dying God pp. 129 — 131. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iii. 294 no. E 477, Inghirami Vas. fitt. iii. 18 ff. pi. 205, 
J. Millingen Ancient Unedited Monuments Series i London 1822 p. 35 ff. pi. 14, Harrison 
Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. Ixixf. fig. 14, A. Rapp in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1103 fig. 3, 
G. Weicker Der Seelenvogel Leipzig 1902 p. 167 fig. 86, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasen- 
maler des rotfigurigen Stils Tiibingen 1925 p. 416 no. 7 (attributed to the painter of the 
Naples Hephaistos-/^r«//r (Heydemann Vasensa?fi?nl. Neapel p. 285 f. no. 2412)). My 
pi. xii is from a photograph by the Official Photographer. In the centre Prokris collapses 
on the mountain-side. She wears a short chiton, and attempts to pluck the unerring javelin 
from her bare breast. As her eyes close in death, a soul-bird escapes from her into the 
air. From the right advances her father Erechtheus, wearing himdtion and wreath, one 
hand holding a long sceptre, the other outstretched in dismay. On the left stands 
Kephalos with chlamys and p^tasos. He raises his left hand to his forehead with a gesture 
of despair, and rests his right on a club, while he holds his hound Lailaps by a leash. No 
other representation of the scene is known. 

^ Supra i. 414 ff. 



74 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

much admixture and amplification. A. H. Krappe^ has analysed it, 
in my opinion successfully, and has shown that it combines, not 
only the old Greek belief in the king's responsibility for the crops 
and the old Greek custom of sacrificing him or his son in time of 
famine, but also a whole bunch of folk-tale motifs — the jealousy of 
the heavenly wife (' Melusine ^ '), the wicked step-mother (' Briiderchen 
und Schwesterchen ^'), and the helpful animal (' Einauglein, Zweiaug- 
lein und Dreiauglein*'). 

A curious modification of this union between a mortal man and 
the cloud-goddess may be detected in sundry other myths. It would 
seem that the ancient mating of man with goddess struck the later 
Greeks as blasphemous. They therefore said that such and such 
a hero had become enamoured of such and such a goddess, but that 
Zeus had substituted for her a phantom made out of cloud. Thus 
Endymion, in the Hesiodic poem entitled The Great Eoiai^^ was 
raised to heaven by Zeus and fell in love with Hera, but was deluded 
by a cloud-phantom and cast down to Hades ^. Similarly, when 
Ixion paid court to Hera, Zeus, according to the usual version', or 

^ A. H. Krappe 'The Story of Phrixos and Modern Folklore' in Folk-Lore 1923 
xxxiv. 141 — 147. Id. *La legende d'Athamas et de Phrixos' in the Rev. ^t. Gr. 1924 
xxxvii. 381 — 389 discusses some remaining difficulties in this complex tale and proposes 
{ib. p. 385) to reconstitute its final form as follows: • Athamas repudie Nephele et epouse 
una femme mortelle, qui lui donne plusieurs enfants. Jalouse de sa rivale qu'elle hait, 
Nephele provoque une famine, sachant que par ce moyen le fils de sa rivale sera immole 
a I'autel. Pour sauver son enfant d'une mort terrible, la pauvre mere se suicide et 
devient une divinite bienveillante.' 

2 Supra p. 73 n. 3. 

^ A. Aarne Verzeichnis der Mdrchentypen (Communications edited for the Folklore 
Fellows by J. Bolte, K. Krohn, A. Olrik, C. W. v. Sydow. No. 3) Helsinki 1910 p. 19 f. 
no. 450, J. Bolte — G. Polivka Annierkungen zu den Kinder- u. Haiismdrchen der Briider 
Grimm Leipzig 191 3 i. 79 ff- no. 11. 

* A. Aarne op. cit. p. 23 no. 511, J. Bolte — G. Polivka op. cit. Leipzig 1918 iii. 60 ff. 
no. 130. 

^ A. Rzach in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 1204 f., W. Christ Geschichte der 
griechischen Litteratur'^ Miinchen I9i2i. 123 f. 

^ Hes. /rag. 160 Kinkel, 148 Rzach, ap. schol. Ap. Rhod. 4. 57 iv de rats ;ue7dXats 
'Ho/aiS X^erat tou '^vdvfJLLWpa avevex&V^on viro rod Aios eis ovpavov. epaadevra 8e 'Upas ei'SciXy 
TrapaKoyiadrivaL [rbv ^pura {om. H. Keil)] vecpeXrjs /cai iK^Xrid^vra KareKdeiv ets"At5oi' = Eu- 
dok. viol. 344. 

^ P. Weizsacker in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 766 ff., R. Wagner ib. iii. 180 f. The 
principal sources are: Pind. Pyth. 2. 25 ff. evjxeviaaL yap irapa Kpovidais \ yXvKuv eXw^ 
ptoTOu, [xaKpbv ovx virifxeLvev 6\^op, /xaiuo/xeuais (ppacriv \ "Hpas or ipdaaaTo, rav Atos evval 
\dxov j TToKvyadies- dXXct vlv v^pis et's dvarai^ virepdipavov \ upaev, 36 ff. iirel vecpiXq. trape- 
Xe^aTO, I xj/eudos yXvKV ixedeiruiv, dl'8pis durjp' | etdos yap vtrepoxoiTdrq. irpiirev ovpavidv (so 
A. Boeckh, C. A. M. Fennell, Sir J. E. Sandys with codd. D. E. cett. T. Bergk, followed 
by B. L. Gildersleeve and W. Christ, cj. Ovpaviddv. T.Mommsen, followed by O. Schroder, 
reads OvpaviSa, cp. schol. vet. ad loc. tov ovpavLov Kpdvov) \ dvyarepi Kpovov dure ddXov 
avTi^ diaav \ Tirjvos iraXd/xai, kuXov Trij/jia. /c.r.X., schol. Ap. Rhod. 3. 62 iXerjcras ovuoZei/s 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 75 

Hera herself, according to some^ fashioned a cloud-figure, by whom 
Ixion became the father of Kentauros^. 

An instructive case is that of the hero^ lasion, who lay with 

dyvi^ei avrbv Kal ayvicrdels ijpdadri r^s"Hpas. 6 5e Zeus ve(p4\r}v 6/Uotwo-as "Hpct TrapaKOLfii^ei 
aCT<^, Diod. 4. 69 T^Xos 5' virb rod Atos Kara tovs jx^dovs dyvLddeis, rjpdadrj /jl€v r^s'Hpas 
Kal KaT€To\fxr]aev virep avvovcias Xoyovs TroLelcdat. 'iirevra top fieu Ala e'ldwXov TrotrjcrauTa 
TTJs "Upas ve<pe\7}v e^aTrocrretXat, top de 'l^ioua rfj v€(j)e\rj fiiyeura yepvrjaai tovs dvofia^ofi^vovs 
TS.€UTa6povs dpdpojirofpvets, 70 rives de \eyovcn toi)s iK l^€(f)4\r)s Kal 'I^ioj^os yepvrjdevras 
J^evravpovs irpuiTOvs iirireTueiv eTTixetpT^o'aj'ras 'liriroKevTavpovs (hvo/ndadat k.t.\., Loukian. 
dia/. deor. 6. 4 (Zeus to Hera) etdoiXov iK vecpeXrjs wXaadixevoL avry aoi o/holop . . . irapaKara- 
K\lp(a[xev avT(^ (pipovres k.t.\. with schol. ad loc. (i. 216 T. Hemsterhuys — ^J. F. Reitz) 
ovTOS de cLKoKacTos <jjv rjpdadr) "Upas, rj dvrjyyetXe Tip Aa. 6 < 5e {ins. M. du Soul) > doKip-d^oju 
airbv direlKacre uetpiXrjv ry "Jlpg., rj fxlyvvTai 'I^twi', Kal iroLel iralba rd fx,ev dvOpibirov ^x^^'^'^ 
roL 5^ 'iinrov, d(p' oS 'I-mroKivTavpoi, schol. V. Od. 21. 303 'l^iojv 6 Aios irals . . . did ttjs 
ifKpdTov KaKtas eirelpa^e top ttjs "Upas ydp-ov. vTroTrreijaacra 8^ rj debs dp-qpeyKe np Ad ttjp 
'l^iopos Xfjaaap. 6 8e epdvixovfxepos ^rjX(p irdXtP tovto ravT-rjp 8pdp dLa^dXXovaav roi/s i^ avrov 
yeyeprjfjiepovs, ^k tlvos o/xws eiriTexvyjceias ttjs ^I^'lopos eireipaTo ypdbfirjs. (XKOirCop bk evpe rb 
dXijdis. pe<peX7)P yap "Hpg irapeLKdcas ixoptjp ep rep daXd/nu) tov ^I^Lopos KareXiTrep, 6 8e cos 
"Upap e^Laaaro . . . y'lPeraL S^ e/c rrjs pecpeXrjs Tracs ^l^iopos 5i0U7js rd fxep Kanbrepa p.ipt] rris 
fjLTjrpbs '4x^^' cii ydp pecpiXai 'iinroLS ioiKaai' rd de dvibrepa p-ipri dirb tov ofKpaXov p^expi- tt]^ 
Ke<paX7Js TOV irarpbs 'I^iopos. k.t.X. 

1 Hyg. /ad. 62 luno lovis iussu nubem supposuit, quam Ixion lunonis siinulac[h]rum 
esse credidit. ex ea nati sunt Centauri, Myth. Vat. i. 162 Centauri autem Ixionis et nubis 
filii sunt; quae nubes ipsi a lunone in sui forma est opposita, 2. 106 Ixion, Phlegyae 
filius, ... lunonem de stupro interpellare ausus est. quae de audacia eius conquesta lovi, 
suadente ipso, pro se nubem ei opposuit, cum qua Ixion concubuit ; unde geniti sunt 
Centauri, 3. 4. 6 Ixion lunonis coniugium petiit; ilia nubem in speciem suam ornavit, 
cum qua Ixion coiens Centauros genuit, schol. C. Eur. Phoen. 1185 6 'I^iwj/ ... {;/3picre tt)p 
TOV Atbs (pLXLap. iiredv/Jirjcre ydp t^s "Hpas Kal Xoyovs irpoariyayep avTy- 17 5^ 6ed pe<peXr)p 
avT(p irapeKoiiXLffep els iavTTjP (rxT^/xarifoi'O'a, rj drj (TvyKadevdrjaas 6 'I^iwj/ eTre/cauxTjcraro Ty 
(rvpovaig. (but other scholia on the same line give the more usual account: schol. A. C. M. 
6s dKoXaaraipojp Idijop T'r]p"llpap TjpdcrdT) avrrjs' fiT) (pipovaa d^ i)"llpa ttjp p^apiav avTov (prjcL 
T(p Ad* i(f> ^ dyapaKTTjaas 6 7ie6s, ^ovXoixevbs re ypCopai (so cod. M. doKip-daai codd. A. C.) 
e'i ye dXrjOes earip, dveiKacre rrj "Hpq, pecpeXrjp, rjP idojp 6 'l^iup, popiicras t7]p "Hpap eXpai, 
fiiypvrai avTji Kal iroLeT Traida diipvij, rd pt.ep dpdpihirov ^;)^oj'Ta rd 5^ 'iinrov, d<(> od Kal 01 Xoiirol 
K&TavpoL yeybpaaip, schol. Gu. Bar. ovtos 6 'l^i<i}p ..,e(pu}pd6rj tt^s "Hpas epQp. diXwp ovp 
6 Zei)s yvCiPai Tbp ^pwra pecpiXrjp irapeiKd^ei ttj "H/o^, eis rjp 6p/J.rjcras 6 'l^iup drjXop eTroirjae 
Tit. Ad Tbp ^pojTa... eK d^ ttjs irpbs tt]p pecpiXrjp tou 'I^lopos fii^eojs yiyopep 6 'iTriroKiPTavpos, 
Ke(paX7]p flip Kal aTTJdos Kal x^'pcts dvdpd)irov ^xw^, to de Xoiirbp crQpia 'Iinrov, k.t.X.), schol. 
Loukian. ptsc. 12 p. 132, 23 ff. Rabe ^aal ydp rbp 'l^iopa ttjs "Upas epaadrjpat, ipaaO&Ti 
d^ TTJP "Hpap x'^pf-^ofiiprjp avT(p pe(f)4Xr]p els eavrrjp direiKacraaap eap 'I^Lopl XPW^^^'^ ^5 eavTrj, 
d(f) ov Kal oi K.€PTavpoL dpxw '^V^ yepeaeias 'iffxov. Kal to avpLirTUfia els opofia ^Xa^op- irapd 
ydp TO TTjv aiipap Keprelp rbp 'l^iopa iirl ttj yepiaei Kivravpos Tb dirb tovtov iKXrjdr] — an effort 
of etymological imagination which it would be hard to beat ! 

But it is a serious mistake to infer from such passages that Hera was a rain- or cloud- 
goddess (Wide Lakon. Kulte p. 26 *Eine alte Vorstellung von der Hera als Regen- bez. 
Wolkengottin birgt sich in dem Mythos von Hera-Nephele und Ixion'). 

^ Cp. Aristoph. nub. 346 pe<l>kX'i]v Kepravpip bfioiap, supra p. 69 n. 3. 

3 There is not the least reason for supposing that lasion was a hero'ised sky-god 
(Gilbert Gr. Gotterl. p. 337 n. i ' Die Verbindung der Dem.mit Jasion...stellt diese Ehe der 
Erde mit dem Himmelsgotte dar, da beide...hier heroisirt erscheinen,' ib. p. 473 n. i 
'ich halte 'lacrtwf fiir einen heroisirten Poseidon larpos') or a form of Zeus (E. Thraemer 
Pergamos 1888 p. 102 n. 2 'e 125 wird Jasion, der Buhle der Demeter, von Zeus aus 



76 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

Demeter on a thrice-ploughed field in Crete, became by her the 
father of the infant Ploutos, and was thunder-struck by Zeus (fig. 22)^ 
for his presumption^. This ancient myth, though it had the sanction 




Fig. 22. 




Eifersucht getodtet. Der Dichter des e ahnt nicht, dass Jasion mit Zeus wesensgleich 
ist'). 

^ G. Kieseritzky 'lasios' in the Strena Helbigiana\A^?,\2iQ 1900 pp. 160 — 163 with fig. 
{ = my fig. 22) published a fragmentary red-figured kratir of late style, from Chersonesos 
Taurike, now in the Hermitage at Petrograd, which appears to represent the scene. 

A young man (lA^^O^) in oriental garb flings up both arms with a gesture of despair 
and looks back in terror towards the left, where just beyond a neighbouring hill Nike is 
seen driving the chariot of Zeus (?). On the right sits a bearded god holding a long 
staff (trident? sceptre??). Beside him was a goddess, whose arm with its arm-band is 
visible leaning on his left shoulder. They are probably Poseidon and Amphitrite. Beneath 
the necks of the horses appears the corner of some squared structure. Above it the 

letters ...^O^ suggest comparison with the XPY^O^ and PAOTO^, who flank the 
chariot of N I KH on a gilded oinochoe from Athens, now at Berlin (Furtwangler Vasensamml. 

Berlin ii. 761 f. no. 2661, Lenormant — de Witte El. mon. dr. i. 307 ff. pi. 97, O. Jahn 
Ueber bemalte Vasen mit Goldschmuck Leipzig 1865 p. 13 no. 23, T. Eisele in Roscher 
Lex. Myth. iii. 2582, J. Toutain in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. iv. 518). 

On the variants 'lao-iwj', 'lao-wj/, 'latrtos, "latros, see W. Gundel in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. ix. 752 f. "lao-tros is not elsewhere attested; but cp. 'Ia<r(r6s for 'Ia(j-6s, the 
Carian town (L. Biirchner ib. ix. 785 f.). The suffix -<ros or -o-<ros seems to be character- 
istic of prehistoric Greece (P. Kretschmer Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen 
Sprache Gottingen 1896 p. 401, G. Glotz La civilisation igeenne Paris 1923 p. 440, 
A. Debrunner in Ebert Reallex. iv. 2. 520 f., J. B. Haley in the Am. lourn. Arch. 1928 
xxxii. 144 (full list and map), M. P. Nilsson Homer and Mycenae London 1933 p. 64 ff. 
(list and map)). 

2 By far the fullest and best account of the myth is that given by W. Gundel in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ix. 752 — 758. 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 77 

of both Horner^ and Hesiod^ and was almost certainly based on 
actual agrarian usage ^, nevertheless could not escape the charge of 
derogating from the dignity of the goddess and was therefore 
modified by the later Greeks in one of two directions. Either, as 
the logographer Hellanikos*, the historian Idomeneus^, and the 
geographer who passes under the name of Skymnos^ agree, the hero 
had outraged a statue {dgalma) of Demeter; or, as the rhetorical 
mythographer Konon'^ preferred to put it, the hero had consorted 
with a mere phantom {phdsina) of the goddess. 

Konon's expedient was in all probability suggested by Stesichoros' 
solution of a similar problem. Having penned an ode about Helene 
on the traditional Homeric lines he, like Homer, had lost his eye- 
sight. But, unlike Homer, he recovered it when, realising the nature 
of his offence, he wrote his famous palinode: 

The tale's untrue ! 
Thou didst not go on board the well-planked ships, 
Nor ever earnest to the towers of Troy ^. 

1 Od. 5. I'lS ff. wj 5' OTTOT 'laciojvi ivirXoKafios ArjfjLrjTrjp, \ (^ 6v/j.(^ ei^aaa, /J-iyrj 
(piXoTriTi Kai evvrj \ veiip '4vi rpLTrdXip ' oid^ 8r}v rjev airvcros \ Zei;s, 6s jxiv KaT^Tr€(pV€ ^aXCjv 
dpyrJTL Kepavvi^. 

2 Hes. theog. 969 ff. ArjixriTrjp p.ev UXovtov iyeiuaro 5ta dedoov, \ ^lacriujv rjpojt ixiyela^ 
eparrj (piXSrrjTi \ veiip ^vi TpiTrbXiiJ, KpriTrjs ev ttLovl byjixLji, \ k.t.X. 

2 Frazer Golden Bough'^'. Spirits of Corn and Wild i. 208 f. compares 'the West 
Prussian custom of the mock birth of a child on the harvest-field \ib. p. 150 f ]. In this 
Prussian custom the pretended mother represents the Corn-mother {Zytniamatka) ; the 
pretended child represents the Corn-baby, and the whole ceremony is a charm to ensure 
a crop next year.' See also Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. p. 346. 

^ Hellanik.y^-a^. 129 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 63 Miiller) =yra^. 23 {Frag. gr. Hist. i. 112 f. 
Jacoby) ap. schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 916 iyivvrjcxe 5^ {sc. 'HXeKTpvdour)) rpets waidas, Adpdavou 
rdv ets TpoLav KaroiKi^cravTa, bv Kal HoXvdpxv ^act Xeyeadat virb rCov e7%wpia;j', Kai 
'Her/wj'a, bv 'laaioiva 6vop.d^ov(jL, Kai <paal KepavPuidrjuaL avrbu v^pi^ovra ayaXp-a r-^s 
Arjp,r)rpos. Tpir-qv 8k '^(TX^^ ' App.oviau, yjv riydyero KdSyUos ' /cat aTro rrfs pLTjTpbs avTTJs 
HXeKTpLdas ir^Xas ttjs Qtj^tjs (hvop^daduL laTopel 'EXXdj/t/cos iv irpJiTip TpaiLKQv kuI 'I8op.€vevs 
[iv rrpdrip Tpwi/ctDi/ {om. K. H. F. Sintenis)]. Cp. He\\a.nik./rag. 58 (Frag. hist. Gr. i. 53 
Miiller) = /ra^, 135 {Frag. gr. Hist. i. 139 Jacoby) ap. schol. Od. 5. 125 outos {sc. 6 
'lafficjv) Kpijs to yivos, Karp^os (so G. Kramer for KpaT{p)4os) kuI ^povias vi6s. ws 5e 
"EXXdvtKos, 'HX^/crpas Kai Aibs vids. irap (^ p.6vLj) pierd rbv KaTaKXv(Tp.bv evp^dt} airippLara. 
ov Kai ArjpirjTpos b UXovtos Kara Hffiodov {supra n. 2). 

^ Idom. /;'«^. 18 {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 494 Mtiller) ap. schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 916 (cited 
supra n. 4). F. Jacoby in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ix. 910 says: 'Danach gehort er 
frllhestens ins 4. Jhdt., wahrscheinlicher erst in hellenistische Zeit.' 

^ Skymn. Q\\\.per. 681 ff. {Geogr. Gr. min. i. 223 Miiller) irporepov ydp eluai (paaip ev 
rairr) {sc. ry l^ap.o6pq,Kri) rives | roiis TpQas, "HXiKTpas TeKoiarjs Adpbavov \ ttjs Xeyop.^vr]S 
"ArXavTOS 'laaiuud re, | cov rbv fikv ' laaicjva dvaff^^rjpid tl | irpd^at irepi Arjp^rjTpos Xeyova 
dyaXp.a Kai \ TrXrjyrj Kepavvwdevra daipovicp daveiv, | rbv Adpdavov 8k k.t.X. F. Gisinger in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii a. 674 f. dates this pseudepigraphic poem c. 100 B.C. 

^ Konon narr. 21, writing between 36 B.C. and 17 A. D. (E. Martini in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. xi. 1335), says: Adphavos Kai 'Idtrwj' TraiSes ijaTrjv Atbs i^ 'HXiKTpas 



78 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

Stesichoros now asserted that Greeks and Trojans fought one 
another for the sake of a mere wraith {eidolon), in ignorance of the 
genuine Helene^ What, in his reconstruction, the genuine Helenewas 
doing all the time, we do not know: perhaps she never left Sparta ^ 
Herodotos^ gives a different turn to the story. According to him, 
Helene was stolen from Menelaos at Sparta by Alexandros, driven 
by a storm out of the Aegean to Egypt, and there taken from her 
paramour by Proteus and kept at Memphis for the coming of her 
lawful husband. Euripides in his Helene combines the two versions. 
Like Stesichoros, he preserves the innocence of Helene by making 
the truant a wraith {eidolon^, fashioned of ouranSs or cloud or aither 
and substituted by Hera for the faithful wife*. Like Herodotos, he 
sends the real Helene to Egypt, whither she is conducted by Hermes 

T^s 'ArXai'TiSos, k(xX (^kovu 'Ziafiodpq.Krjv ttjv vri<rov. dXX' 6 fikv 'Tcicrwj' (pacfMa Ai^firjTpos 
atVxL'J'ai ^ovXrjdeis iKepavvwdr], AdpSavos 8^ k.t.X. 

^ Stes. /ra^. 32 Bergk^, 11 Diehl, 18 Edmonds op. Plat. Phaedr. 245 A — b. The 
Platonic passage is expounded on allegorical lines by the neo-Platonist Hermeias of 
Alexandreia in Plat. Phaedr. p. 75 ff. P. Couvreur. 

^ Plat. rep. 586 C (^(nrep t6 rijs 'EXevTjs etdojXov inrb tQ}v ev ^polq. l^Trjcrixopds <f>7}<TL 
yevecdai TrepifjLaxV'o^ dyuoiq, tov AXtjOovs. 

" The passages relating to Stesichoros' waXivipdia are collected and discussed by 
T. Bergk in his note on /rag. 32 {Poet. lyr. Gr. iii. 217 — 219 Bergk^). To his biblio- 
graphy add R. Hirzel 'Die Plomonymie der griechischen Gotter nach der Lehre antiker 
Theologen' in the Ber. sacks. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Phil. -hist. Classe 1896 xlviii. 290 f. 
(the resolution of a self- contradictory mythical figure into self and shade goes back 
to Homer, cp. Od. 11. 601 ff. for a similar treatment of the T^pw? ^eos (Pind. Nem. 3. 22)), 
W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ MUnchen 1912 i. 212 ('Den Helenastoff 
hat er zuerst in der 'EXe/'a auf Grund der rein asthetischen, religios indifferenten 
homerischen Vorlage, dann in der HaXivi^dia mit Rlicksicht auf die Uberlieferung und den 
Glauben der Dorer dargestellt, denen Helena eine Kultgottin war'). 

That the genuine Helene never left Sparta may be inferred from Dion Chrys. or. 1 1 
p. 323 Reiske /cat tov fxkv 'ZiTrjaixopov ev ttj vcrrepov cp8rj X^yeiv on to Trapdwav oi/de 
TrXeiL)G€Lev ij 'EX^j't/ ov8afi6(X€' aXXoi de Tives {sc. Herodotos) ws dpiraadeir] jxh^'EiXivr) viro 
TOV 'AXe^dvdpov, devpo de Trap' 7/,uas els AiyvrrTou dcp'iKoiTo. The schol. Aristeid. iii. 150 
Dindorf (A. C. liTrjaLxopos iv ttj iroLifjaei X^yei u)S rjpiraKihs ttju 'EX^urju 'AX4^av8pos Kai 5id 
T?7$ ^dpov ipx^P-^vos d(pripedrj p-ev Ta^T7)v irapd IIpwT^ws, ^XttjSe 5^ irap a'UTOv {irap avTOv om. 
C.) iv irivaKi to e'ldooXov avTTJs yeypap.p.evov, tua opQv wapap^vdoiTo tov avTOv '4pu}Ta. 
B.D. eh ^TTjcrixopov atVirreraf Xe7ei yap iKeivos otl eXdoiv 6 'AX^^avdpos iiri rai^rr/s ttjs 
vrjaov, TTJs ^dpov, d(prip4dr) irapd tov Ilpwrews Tr]v ^'EX^vrju /cat eidtoXov avTjjs ede^aTO ' k.t.X.) 
and Eudok. vio/. 43 = 753 (Srr/crtxopos 84 (prjaiv otl, 8iepxopi4vov 'AXe^dv8pov 81 AiyOirTov, 6 
IlptoTevs'EXivrjv dcpeXofxevos ei8o}Xov ' l^Xevrjs avT(^ ^Swkc, Kai ovtojs '^irXevcev els Tpoiav) are 
attributing to Stesichoros the Herodotean version plus sundry rationalising additions of 
their ow^n. ^ Hdt. 2. 112 — 115. 

* Eur. Hel. 31 ff. (EA.)"Hpa 8e fie/xcpdeia oiJveK oi VLKq. Beds \ i^rjv^fjLojaeTd/jL 'AXe^dv8p(j} 
X^XVi I 8i8(t}(rt 5' ovk ^ix\ dXX' bfxonhcrac ifj,oi \ €i!8o}Xov ^fnrvovv ovpavov ^vvdela d-rro (so 
J. J. Reiske for viro codd.), | Hpidixov Tvpavvcp 7rai8i, 582 ff. EA. ovk -qXdov is yrjv Tpipd8\ 
dXX' el8u}Xov -rjv. \ ME. /cat rt's ^XiwovTa crtujuar i^epyd^eTai; \ EA. aldrjp, 6dev ad deoirbvrjT* 
^X"S X^x'H- I ME. tIvos irXdaavTos dedv; deXiTTa yap Xiyeis. | EA. "Hpas (so Scaliger for 
ijpa codd.) 5tdXXa7yu', ws Ildpts /xe /JiriXd^oi, 1135 f. vetpiXav eTrt vavalv dycjv, \ eii8(x}Xov Ipbv 
(so K. W. Dindorf for iepbv codd.) "Hpas, 1218 f. 9E. ttov 8i) Tb wefx^dev dvTl aov Tpoia 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 79 

at the command of Zeus^ Menelaos, escorting the phantom home 

from Troy, arrives in Egypt and is there confronted with the true 

Helene. He is desperately puzzled. But, just as he begins to 

think himself either a bedlamite or a bigamist, the misty Helene 

evaporates^ — a sufficiently whimsical situation. 

If Euripides' Hera outwitted Paris by making a phantom 

Helene of aither, Euripides' Zeus outwitted Hera by means of a 

similar trick — witness a curious -passage of the Bacchae^ in which 

Teiresias attempts to explain the story of Dionysos being sewn up 

in the thigh of Zeus as due to a verbal confusion of homeros, 

* hostage,' with meros, 'thigh': 

And dost deride the tale that he was sewn 

r the thigh of Zeus? I'll tell it all aright. 

When Zeus had caught him from the lightning-fire 

And borne him, babe divine, to Olympos' height, 

Hera was fain to cast him forth from heaven. 

But Zeus, a very god, met plot with plot : 

Breaking a portion of the aither off, 

Which rings the earth, he made that same a hostage 

Against the strifes of Hera and sent out 

Dionysos elsewhere^. Thus in course of time 

Man said that he was sewn i' the thigh of Zeus — 

Changing the word, since once he served as hostage 

To Hera, god to goddess, — such their tale. 

KaKdv; j EA. v€<p4X'r]s X^yfis dyaX/ji' ; is aWip otx^rai. Cp. Eur. £/. 1282 f. Zeus 5', ws ^pts 
yivoLTo KOLL (f>6uos ^poToJv, I €L8(i}\ov"Et\4pT]s €^iTr€fi\p' es (so A. Nauck for eh codd.)''IXioj'. 

On the plot see further A. von Premerstein ' Ueber den Mythos in Euripides' Helene' 
in Philologus i896 Iv. 634 — 653, A. C. Pearson in his edition of the play (Cambridge 1903) 
p. X ff., A. W. Verrall Essays on four Plays of Euripides Cambridge 1905 pp. 43 — 133 
('Euripides' Apology. {Helen.y)^ H. Steiger 'Wie entstand die Helena des Euripides?' in 
Philologus 1908 Ixvii. 202 — 237, V. Pisani 'Elena e 1' etduiXov' in the Rivista di Filologia 
1928 vi. 476 — 499 (summarised in Class. Quart. 1929 xxiii. 215). 

^ Eur. Hel. 44 ff. Xa^ojv de [x 'Ep/x^s ev irrvx^'IcLV aidepos \ v€<pi\ri KoXviJ/as, ou yap 
rj/j.iX'r]<Ti /xov \ Zeus, t6v8' is oIkov llpwrews idpvcraTo, \ k.t.X. 

^ Eur. Hel. 557 ff. The wraith's disappearance is reported id. 605 f. AF. ^i^-qKev dXoxos 
CT) irpbs aidipos TTTvxoLS \ apdeia d(pavTos' ovpavu} di KpviTTeTaL, | k.t.X., 612 ff. (the wraith 
speaking) iyoo 5' iTreidrj xpovov 'iixeiv ocrou pC ixpWi I to pLopaip-ou aibcracra, irdXiv (so A. Nauck 
for Trarip codd.) ets ovpavbv \ direipLL. Cp. Lyk. Al. 822 ^dapia Trrrjvdv, ei's axdpav (pvybv. 
Hence later Helene appears iv aidipos tttvxcus (Eur. Or. 1631, 1636). 

^ Eur. Bacch. 286 ff. /cat Ka.Ta.yekq.s vlv, Cjs iveppdcpri Atos | prjpip; dLdd^oj a d)S KoXOiS 
^X^f- Tbde. j iirei vlv TJpiraa e/c Trvpos Kepavvlov | Zeus, ets 5' "OXvpurov ^pi(pos durjyayev debv, \ 
"Hpa vt.v i)deX iK^aXeiv dir oipavov' \ Zeds 5' dvT€pirixa.vr](Tad' ola dr] debs. \ prj^as p-ipos tl 
Tov x^<^''' ^yKVKXovpivov I aidipos, 'idriKe rbvd' ofiripop, iKdidoiis \ Aibpuaou, "Upas uecKiuw 
X/36»'y 5^ vtv I ^poTol pa<p7jvai (so J. Pierson, followed by F. A. Paley, for Tpa<p7jvai codd.) 
(paaiu iv pirjpcp Ai6s, | ovopt-a pLerao'T'qaaPTes , on deq. debs \ "H/)(jt -rrod' (Jjprjpevcre, avvdivTes 
Xbyov with the notes of Sir J. E. Sandys ad loc. 

* Cp. supra i. 707 n. 2 fig. 524 a vase now attributed to ' the Syleus Painter ' {c. 480 B.C.) 
(Hoppin Red-fig. Vases ii. 438 no. 9, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen 
Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 162 no. 23). 



8o The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

The real explanation of the story is of course very different from 
the sophisms of Teiresias. The pretended birth from the thigh of 
Zeus-"^, which from the sixth, if not the seventh, century onwards 
is attested by vases ^ frescoes^, reliefs*, and other works of art^ 




Fig. 23. 

^ F. Lenormant in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. i. 601 f., H. Heydemann Dionysos' 
Gehurt und Kindheit ( Winckelniannsfest-Progr. Halle 1885) pp. 1 2 — 1 7 (' Schenkelgeburt'), 
F. A. Voigt in Roscher Lex. Myth. \. 1045 f., E. Thraemer ib. i. 1123, Preller — Robert 
Gr. Myth. i. 661 f., Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. no. 

1 see no probability in the suggestion that Hesych. s.v. aKupa- to, aK^Xr}- KpT^res and 
et. 7nag. p. 45, 16 f. aKapa- to. (XK^Xr) K/j^res. "AKapa" ttoXls Trjs'Aaias, i) vdv KaXovfxivr] 
Nijcraa. k.t.X. (Nysa in Lydia, near which is Acharaka : supra i. 503) imply a localised 
myth of the birth of Dionysos from the leg of Zeus. 

2 (i) R. Rochette Choix de peintures de PoTnpHV2>x\?,\'^\% — 1856 p. 76 ff., with coloured 
design on p. 73 (part of which = my fig. ■23), published a yellow-ground Corinthian /jjc/'j- 
of c. 600 B.C., found in a tomb between Corinth and Sikyon, on which he thought 
to recognise the earliest extant representation of Zeus bearing Dionysos from his thigh. 
This view, accepted by F. Lenormant loc. cit. \. 602 and by E. Thraemer /^^. cit. i. 1123, 
was called in question by H. Heydemann op. cit. p. 4 ('die altkorinthische Vase mit 
einfachen Genrescenen'). E. Wilisch Die altkorinthische Thonindnstrie Leipzig 1892 
p. 49 f. apparently reverts to R. Rochette's explanation (cp. ib. pp. 62 ' " Bakchusgeburt",' 
63 'Bakchusgeburt, '97 n.353 ' Bacchusgeburt,' 143 ' die sogenannte Bakchusgeburt'). The 
vase is now in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris (P. Milliet — A. Giraudon Vases feints 
du Cabinet des MMailles 6^ Antiques {Bibliotheque Nationale) Paris 1891 i. pi. 10 
II® Classe, IV® Serie, E, De Ridder Cat. Vases de la Bibl. Nat. i. 42 ff. no. 94 ' Scene 
d'enfantement (?) ' etc.). The hair and the girdle of the central figure prove it to be female. 
Unless, therefore, we are prepared to hold that Zeus in labour was represented as a woman, 
this cannot be he. To left and right of the seated woman are the Eileithyiai. Another 
female on the right holds a distaff and spindle, less probably a branch of ivy (?) : Klotho? 

(2) A black-figured amphora from S. Maria di Capua, likewise in the Bibliotheque 

Nationale (no. 219), shows Dionysos ( AIO50O$ = Aios ^c6s) as a naked boy, with two 
torches, standing on the lap of a seated Zeus {supra ii. 273 with fig. 177, infra § 9 (h) ii 

(^) (4)). 

(3) A red-figured Ukythos at Boston (no. 95. 39) is described and illustrated by 
J. D. Beazley Attic red-figured Vases in American Museums Cambridge Mass. 1918 
p. 134 ff. fig. 83 ( = my fig. 24) : 'Zeus, naked, very tall, his long hair and beard curiously 
neat, is sitting out of doors on a stone, which is covered by his clothes, and carefully easing 
the small god out of his thigh: his trusted Hermes stands beside him, watching, and 
holding his master's sceptre.' The vase is referred by the same authority to 'the 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 8i 




Fig. 24. 




Fig. 25. 



C. III. 



82 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 



Alkimachos painter' of the late archaic period (Hoppin Red-fig. Vases i. i8 no. 2, 
J. D. Beazley Attische Vasennialer des rotfigurigeii Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 298 no. 25). 

(4) A south-Italian vase, now lost, but seen by A. L. Millin at Naples in private 
possession ('Vaso che si trova in casa del S""^ d. Genn. Patierno, restauratore, alia salita 
de' Reggj Studj, n. 61'. altezza, palmi 2^; diametro, i palmo, 3^ oncie') and drawn for 
him (drawing extant in the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliotheque Nationale), is 
described by R. Rochette Choix de peintures de Pompei Paris 1848 — 1856 p. 81 with n. 4, 
recorded by L. Stephani in the Compte-rendtc St. Pet. 1861 p. 13, and published by 
F. Lenormant in the Gaz. Arch. 1880 vi. 72 — 74 with two figs, (of which the first = my 
fig. 25). In the upper register is Zeus, seated on a throne with a footstool. He wears a 
himdtion (scaled aigisl) and a bay- wreath, and holds a thunderbolt in his right hand, an 
eagle-tipped sceptre in his left. From his right thigh emerges a diminutive Dionysos. 
The boy stretches out his arms to Eileithyia, who bends towards him, holding in readiness 
a cloth or garment. Behind Zeus stand a Bacchant {thyrsos) and a Maenad (panther-skin, 
torch (?)) — hardly Apollon and Artemis. In the lower register, on rocky ground, is Athena 
{Gorgoneion, helmet (?), shield, spear) conversing with two Maenads {tkyrsos, torch) — 
hardly Demeter and Hekate. Athena was perhaps made out of a third Maenad (timbrel (?), 
thyrsos). The reverse of the same vase depicts the madness of Lykourgos, who brandishes 
a club (?) in the midst of four Satyrs. Both designs have been copied ' par une main 
singulierement maladroite et inexperimentee'. 

(5) A ^o\vX%-kratir of c. 415 B.C. from Caelia {Ceglie), now at Taranto, fully published 
in i\\Q /ourn. Hell. Stud. 1934 Hv. 175 ff. pis. 8 and 9 by A. D. Trendall, to whose 
kindness I owe my pi. xiii. 

(6) A red-figured fragment at Bonn (inv. no. 1216. 19) (Trendall loc. cit. fig. i = my 
pi. xiii, 3). 

^ Plin. iiat. hist. 35. 140 Ctesilochus, Apellis discipulus (but cp. Souid. s.v. 'AireX- 
X^s,,..d5eX06s Krrjffioxov, /cai avrov ^(aypdtpov), petulanti pictura innotuit, love Liberum 
parturiente depicto mitrato et muliebriter ingemescente inter obstetricia dearum. H. Hey- 
demann Dionysos^ Geburt und Kindheit {Winckehnannsfest-Progr. Halle 1885) p. 5 f. 
regards this curious effort as 'ein humoristisches oder vielmehr parodisches Bild' and 
would date it c. 300 B.C. See also Miss E. Sellers (Mrs A. Strong) on Plin. loc. cit. 

The precise part played by Zeus in Philostratos' picture of Semele {supra ii. 28, 828) 

is not clear (Philostr. mai. imagg. i. 14. 2 f. 
TTvpbs f€<p4\rf irepicrxovira ras Orj^as eis tt]v tov 
Kddfiov (TTiyrjv p'rjyvvTaL KcopidaravTos iiri ttjv 
IjejueXrjv tov Alos, Kai aTroWvTat fiep, ws 
doKovfxev, 7] 2)e/A^\7/, TCKTeraL de Ai.6vv(ros 6ifj,aL 
(O. Benndorf cj. oT/iiai, < /cat >) vrj Ai'a irpbs to 
TTvp. Kai TO ixev ttjs "Eefji^Xrji eWos d/j.vdpbv 
dLa(paip€TaL Iovcttjs is ovpavbv, Kai al MoOcrat 
avTTjv eKcT ^Voyrat, 6 de Aibwaos ttjs ixev /xrjTpbs 
iKdp(^aK€L payeLa7)s ttjv yacTT^pa, to bk irvp d^- 
\vG3bes epyd^eTaL (paibpbs (C. L. Kayser cj. 
(patbpbi^) avTos olov daT-qp tls diraaTpdirT(j}v (so 
codd. F. P. daTpdiTTuv vulg.). biaaxoOixa 5^ r) 
(p\b^ avTpov TL Tip Aiovvcrip <jKiaypa<peX iravTos 
iqbiov 'Aaavpiov re Kai Avbiov k.t.X.). A. 
Bougot Philostrate Vancien Paris 1881 p. 265 f. 
cites for comparison and contrast a fresco said to have been found in Rome and formerly 
owned by Prince Gagarin {Memorie Romane di Antichith e di Belle Arti ed. L. Cardinali 
Roma 1824 — 1827 iii pi. 13) : Zeus, with gray beard and hair, sits enthroned on a cloud. 
His head is surrounded by a halo of rays ; his legs are wrapped in an ample wind-swept 
himdtion of flame-coloured fabric. His eagle is perched beside him. With his right hand 
he grasps a thunderbolt, with his left he reaches towards the undersized babe ('als Em- 
bryo gekrlimmt,' says Gerhard) of Semele, who half-clad in a yellow robe lies dead on 
the couch before him. This painting, accepted without hesitation by E. Gerhard [Hyper- 




Fig. 26. 



Plate XIII 





(i) Kralcr from Ceglie, now at Taranto. 

(2) Detail of same vase: the birth of Dinnysos. 

(3) Vase-fragment at Bonn: the birth of Dionysos. 

Scifagc 8! «. o (5 r.). 




The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 83 

boreisch-romische Studien fiir Archdologen Berlin 1833 i. 105 — 107, written from Rome 
on Oct. 8, 1823 after careful inspection of the original) and by F. Lenormant (in Darem- 
berg — Saglio Diet. Ant. i. 6or fig. 677 (=my fig. 26), on the strength of Gerhard's 
testimony), was doubted by F. Wieseler (in C. O. Miiller Dcnkmdler der alten Kunst 
Gottingen 1835 — 1856 ii. 2. 13 pi. 34, 391) and L. Stephani [Nimbus und Strahlenkranz 
St Petersburg 1859 p. 14 no. 3 (extr. from the Mdmoires de V Acadhjiie des Sciences de 
St.-P^tersbourg. vi Serie. Sciences politiques, histoire, philologie. ix. 361 ff.), id. in the 
Co7npte-rendu St. PH. 1861 p. 13), and decisively rejected by J. Overbeck {Gr. Kunstmyih. 
Zeus p. 418 with n.^ 'Man beachte nur den einen Umstand, dass Zeus' Haar und Bart 
grau gemalt sind und vergl. Anmerkung 71 zu S. 68.' Yet see infra §9 (h) ii {k) The 
superannuation of Zeus) and H. Heydemann (loc. cit. p. 4). 

Long. past. 4. 3 elxe hk koX ^udodev 6 velos AiovvaiaKas ypa<pdi, ^efieXrjv TiKTOvaav, 
K.T.X. may or may not be purely imaginary, and in any case says nothing of Zeus. 

^ (i) A marble frieze, found in front of the Porta Portese at Rome and now preserved 
in the Vatican (W. Helbig Fiihrer durch die offentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Alter- 
tUmer in Rom'^ Leipzig 1912 i. 168 f. no. 259), has the following scene (Visconti Mus. 
Pie-CUm. iv. 165 ff. pi. 19 ( = my fig. 27), A. L. Millin Galerie Mythologique Paris 181 1 
i. 51 no. 223 (wrongly described) pi. 53, H. Brunn in the Bull. d. Inst. 1858 p. 128, 
Welcker Or. Gbtterl. ii. 580 n. 20, Overbeck Or. Kunstviyth. Zeus pp. 171 no. X, 178, 
H. Heydemann Dionysos' Geburt und Kindheit [Winckehnannsfest-Progr. Halle 1885) 
p. 15 f., Baumeister Denkm. iii. 1289 vignette, F, Hauser Die neu-attischen Reliefs 
Stuttgart 1889 p. 72 no. 102, id. in the fahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1903 vi. 103 n. 22, 
Reinach R^p. Reliefs iii. 362 no. 2). Zeus, with bent head, is seated on a rock. He leans 
heavily, not to say painfully, on his right hand and grasps a long sceptre with his left. 
His himdtion is so arranged as to leave bare the further leg, from the upper part of which 
emerges the infant Dionysos and leaps with outstretched arms towards Hermes. That 
god {pitasos^ chlatnys^ boots, but no caduceus) advances with a panther-skin in which to 
wrap the babe. Behind him are three stately female figures bearing long sceptres and 
variously interpreted as Eileithyia, Kore, and Demeter (E. Q. Visconti, A. L. Millin, and 
S. Reinach locc. citt.), as the Charites (H. Brunn loc. cit.), as Nymphs (H. Heydemann 
loc. cit.), or as the Fates (F. Hauser locc. citt.). The identification of the third female with 
Demeter is borne out by the bunch of corn-ears held stiffly in her right hand. Heydemann's 
conjecture that all three are the Nymphs of Nysa ready to receive their nursling might 
claim the support of Nonn. Dion. 9. 16 fif. /caf fxiv ^crw Apa/cdi'oto (E. Maass in Hermes 1891 
xxvi. 189 n. 2 equates ApdKuvov here with to ApcKauov in the south of Kos (Strab. 657, cp. 
Agathem. geogr. 18 [Geogr. Gr. min. ii. 479 Miiller), L. Biirchner in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. v. 1646, xi. 147 1), and loc. cit. p. 178 ff. explains in like manner h. Dion, i 
ApaKCLui^}, Theokr. 26. 33 iu ApaKdv^ VKpoevri. Others have supposed that Nonnos was 
alluding to ApdKavov a town and promontory (now Cape Phanari) at the north-east end 
of the island Ikaros {Nikaria) (R. Kohler Uber die Dionysiaka des Nonnus von Panopolis 
Halle 1853 p. 17 f., Preller— Robert Gr. Myth. i. 677 n. 5), or to Apeiravov [Trapani) the 
promontory in the north-west of Sicily (B, Graef De Bacchi expeditione Indica monu- 
mentis expressa Berolini 1886 p. 10 f. n. 15)) Xexwtoi' dix(f>L KoKdjviqv \ ir-qx^'^ KoKiroidivrL 
\aj3(j}P MaiT^ios 'Ep/^iys | rjepddev weTrdTrjTO' Xox^vofxivip de AuatV | Trarpi^iqv eiredrjKev 
€Tr(iivvp.lr]v TOKerdio \ KtKXrjaKuv Aiduvaov, eTrei vodi (poprov deipcov \ rjie xwXatVwj' Kpouidrjs 
^e^ptdbTL firjpcp, I vvffos 6tl yXib<Ta-ri XvpaKoffcridi x^Xos d/coi)ei (uucros, 'hobbled' (?) might be 
akin to Schnur etc., cp. Walde Lat. etym. Worterb.^ p. 530 f. s.v. 'nurus')- | Kaldeov 
dpTcXdxevTov ((p-qixiaav 'EipacpLdjrrjv, \ 6tti fxiv evcbdiui iraTrjp eppd^aro p-rjpc^ (lines 17, 
19 — 24 are quoted in et. mag. p. 280, 13 ff.). | Kai /jllv dx^TXibroio 8i.at<TcrovTa Xox^irjs \ ■Jnfixel' 
Kovpov dbaKpvv eKOTutpiae aOyyovos 'Ep/iiTJs, | Kai ^pi<pos evKepdoio c/yviji 'ivbaXixa ^eXrjvrjs {sc. 
horned like the Moon) | (JSiraae dvyaripeffcri AdfjLov TroTafnqLdi Nvficpais ( = the Hyades: see 
H. W. Stoll and W. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1822, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. 
P* 1435 n. i), I TratSa Aios KO/x^eiv (TTa<pvXr]K6p.ov at de Xa^oOaai \ BdKXov ewiqx^vavTO, Kai 
eh ffrSfia iraidbs eKdarT) [ ddXi^^iov yXaybecrcav dvi^Xvev Ufxdda fia^Qv. But the corn-ears 
are ill-suited to Nymphs. Besides, Hauser rightly insists on the points of similarity 
between this relief and that of the Madrid puteal [infra § 9 (h) ii [rj)). Dionysos springs 

6—2 



84 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 




The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 85 

from the seated Zeus much as Nike does on the puteal\ and here, as there, the three 
females grouped on the right must be the Fates. If so, the corn-ears are a later 
modification of the lots held by Lachesis ^pace Helbig loc. cit. : ' Indes hat eine erneute 
Untersuchung ergeben, dass an den Ahren von Uberarbeitung keine Spur zu finden ist'). 
What purpose was served originally by this frieze (Visconti loc. cit. : 'Haut. trois palmes, 
un tiers; longueur dix palmes moins deux onces'), and whether it was continued by means 
of other figures to the right, we cannot say. 

(2) A child's sarcophagus of late Roman date (White marble. Height 0*29'" : length 
o'69'"), in the collection formed by Field-marshal Count Lavall Nugent, was found at 
Minturnae (?), was exhibited at the Palazzo Pisani in Venice, and is now preserved in 
Tersatto Castle near Fiume. Its front represents the birth of Dionysos in a series of three 
scenes separated by herms (E. Wolfif in the Bull. d. Inst. 1831 p. 67, C- Lenormant in 
the Ann. d. Inst. 1833 v. 210 — 218, Mon. d. Inst, i pi. 45, A ( = my fig. 28), F. Wieseler 
in C. O. Miiller Denkmdler der alten Kunst Gottingen 1835 — 1856 ii. 2. 13 f. pi. 34, 392, 
Welcker Gr. Gdtterl. ii. 580 n. 20, F. Lenormant in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. i. 602 
fig- ^79' O* Benndorf in Wien. Vorlegebl. A pi. 12, 8, R. Schneider in the Arch.-ep. 
Mitth. 1881 V. 167 — 169 no. 36, H. Heydemann Dionysos'' Geburt und Kindheit {Win- 
ckelmannsfest-Progr. Halle 1885) pp. 8 f., 16 f., P. V. C. Baur Eileithyia {The University 
of Missouri Studies \. 4) University of Missouri 1902 p. 86). To the right Semele lies 




Fig. 28. 

exhausted on a couch, her left hand propping her head, her right drooping as if she held 
flowers (Schneider, Heydemann). Beneath the couch a jug and bowl are in readiness for 
the bath of the expected infant. Zeus appears above a wall in the background, lays his 
left arm on Semele's neck (Schneider, Heydemann), and brandishes a thunderbolt in his 
right hand. To the left Zeus sits erect on a chair with a footstool, upon which is set a large 
urn. His right hand presses hard on the chair; his left grasps a long sceptre. A winged 
goddess, presumably Nike playing the part of Eileithyia (E. Gerhard in the Bull. d. List. 
1 83 1 p. 67 n. I, followed by Wieseler, Schneider, Heydemann, Baur, was content to 
describe her as a winged Eileithyia), touches with her outstretched left hand the right 
leg of Zeus, which is bandaged (Schneider, Heydemann), not bare: the god has been 
already delivered. In the centre Hermes, looking round towards Zeus, carries off the 
newborn babe to the Nymphs, one of whom is seen reclining behind him (so E. Wolff Z^^'. 
ctt. C. Lenormant, Wieseler, and Schneider would recognise Gaia). 

Similar in type, but with sides reversed, is a fragmentary relief (Luna marble. 
Height I •20'" : length o'54"') found on the EsquiHne in 1874 and now in the Palazzo dei 
Conservatori at Rome (C. L. Visconti 'Frammento di rilievo rappresentante la nascita di 
Bacco' in the Bull. Comm. Arch. Comun. di Roma 1874 ii. 89 — 96 pi. i, 3 ( = my fig. 29), 
H. Heydemann op. cit. p. 17, G. Lafaye in Daremberg— Saglio Diet. Ant. ii. 982 
fig. 2884, P- V. C. Baur op. cit. p. 86, Stuart Jones Cat. Sculpt. Pal. d. Conserv. Rome 
p. 85 Galleria no. 16 pi. 31). Zeus is seated to the left. His left leg, covered by a 



86 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 



himdtion, uses a globe as a footstool (cp. siipra i. 47 ff.). His right leg is bare and is being 

bandaged by the same winged goddess (wings 
broken away), on whose shoulder he rests his 
hand. This relief too perhaps formed part of 
a sarcophagus. C. L. Visconti loc. cit. p. 94 
describes the work as mediocre and dates it 
about the end of s. ii a.d. 

A less considerable fragment of the same 
design, M^hich has been worked into a patch- 
work sarcophagus now in the Loggia Scoperta 
of the Vatican, shows the veiled head and 
powerful body of Zeus sitting on a rock to the 
right and leaning hard on his right hand 
(Visconti Mus. Pie-CUm. iv. 269 fif. pi. 37 
,('le fleuve Ismenus'), A. L. Millin Galerie 
Mythologique Paris 18 rr ii. 20 f. no. 429 pi. 
109 ('le fleuve IsmeniMS^), J. G. Zoega in the 
Zeitschrift fur Geschichte und Auslegimg der 
alien A'?/«j-/ Herausg. von F. G. Welcker 1818 
i. 402 f. (first critical account: 'Okeanos'), 
F. Matz in the Bull. d. Inst. 1870 p. 70 f. (first 
identification as 'Giove nell' atto di sgravarsi 
da Bacco bambino'), H. Heydemann op. cit. 
pp. 10 n. 28, 12, 17). 

H. Heydemann op. cit. p. 15 draws atten- 
tion to a lost relief, of which a cast has been 
for over a century at Bonn. F. G. Welcker 
Das akademische Kunstmuseuni zu Bonn^ 
Bonn 1844 P- 1^5 "o. 353 describes it as 
follows : ' Eileithyia, die Lende des Zeus vom 
Dionysos entbindend. Nur das eine Bein des 
Zeus bis an das Knie ist erhalten und ein Flligel 
des Adlers, der iiber ihm schwebte, vielleicht 
angstvoU ihn umflatterte [? the wing of a winged 
Eileithyia. a.b.c], und von dem Kinde nur 
das Handchen angelegt an dem Knie der 
Eileithyia. Hermes, als Kinderwarter der Gotter und insbesondre des Dionysos bekannt, 
steht seines Berufes gewartig daneben und sieht aufmerksam und wie verlegen zu.' 
R. Kekule Das akademische Kunstmuseufu zu Bonn Bonn 1872 p. 113 no. 452 adds : 'Das 
Bruchstuck, welches mit dem Relief bei Miiller — Wieseler 11, 34, 392 zu vergleichen ist, ist 
in dem jetzigen Zustand mindestens in der Figur des Hermes schwerlich durchaus antik.' 
This second series of reliefs is perhaps derived, though not without modification, from 
the painting by Ktesilochos {supra p. 82 n. 3). The rebirth of the infant was a subject 
admirably suited to a child's sarcophagus and, doubtless, often repeated (cp. supra ii. 

309' 417)- 

^ An Etruscan mirror, of unknown provenance, at Naples (A. Sogliano in the Giiida 
del Mus. Napoli-^. 358 no. 1525), long cited under the misleading name of the ^Patera 
Borgia,'' represents the actual birth-scene in early fourth-century style (A. (H. L.) Heeren 
Expositio fragmenti tabulae 7narmoreae . . .Musei B or giant Velitris Romae 1786 p. 9 n. (^), 
L. Lanzi Saggio di lingua Etrusca e di altre antiche d^ Italia per servire alia storia 
de' popoli, delle lingue, e delle belle arti Roma 1789 ii. 195 — 198, Visconti Mus. Pie-Cl^??i. 
iv. 362 fif. pi. B I, I and 2, A. L. Millin Galerie Mythologique Paris 181 1 i. 50 f. no. 222 
pi. 71, F. Inghirami Monumenti etruschi di etrusco nome Poligrafia Fiesolana 1824 ii. 
277 — 297 pi. 16 (good), id. Storia della Toscana Poligrafia Fiesolana 1841 ii. 519, 522, 
524, 529 pi. 39, I, B. Quaranta in the Real Mus eo Borboiiico Napoli 1839 xii pi. 57 with 
text pp. I — 5, Gerhard Etr. Spiegel iii. 84 — 87 pi. 82 ( = my fig. 30), id. Uber die 




Fig. 29. 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 87 




Fig. 30- 



88 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

Gottheiten der Etricsker Berlin 1847 PP- 4° n. (96), 58 n.*) {=Abk. d. berl. Akad. 184s 
Phil.-hist. Classe pp. 556 n. {96), 574 n.*)), F. Wieseler in C. O. Muller Denkmdler der 
alien Al^«^/ Gottingen 1835 — 1856 ii. 2. 14 f. pi. 34, 394, A. Fabretti Corpus inscriptionum 
Italicarum Aug. Taurinorum 1867 p. ccxiv no. 2470, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. Zeus 
p. 187 f. no. (c) Atlas pi. i, 37, H. Heydemann Dionysos' Geburt und Kindheit 
{ Wine kelmannsf est- Progr. Halle 1885) p. 14 f., C. Pauli in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 460 f.). 
In the centre sits Zeus {Tinia) wearing a wreath of lilies [supra i. 622 f., 736 n. o, ii. 740) 
and a kimdtton, which leaves his right leg bare. He leans with his right hand on a long 
sceptre surmounted by an eagle (Gerhard wrongly took this to be a Dodonaean dove) and 
holds a winged thunderbolt in his left. From his right thigh emerges Dionysos as a nude 
baldish infant with a string of bullae across his chest. The child carries in his left hand 
2i.narthex with umbelliferous head (so Heydemann. Gerhard made it a ferule and grape- 
bunch; Visconti, followed by Wieseler, a small pedum) and raises his right to greet 
the birth-goddess {Tkalna) who, arrayed in Ionic chiton and himdtion with stephdne, 
ear-ring, and necklace, stoops forward to receive him. Behind Zeus is a winged goddess 
[Mleyin, on whom see W. Deecke in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 2481) wearing an Ionic 
chitdn with girdle and cross-bands; she too has stephdne, ear-ring, and necklace. She 
uplifts a dipper in one hand and grasps an aldbastron with the other (not a pen and 
ink-bottle, as though about to inscribe the child's destiny). To the left of the group 
stands Apollon {Apulu), his long hair rolled round a fillet, a chlamys over his shoulders, 
a bay- branch in his left hand, and a doe behind him. To the right, room is found 
beneath the wings of Mean for the infant's cradle or, more probably, swaddling-clothes 
(so Heydemann. Inghirami had spoken of a vannus, Gerhard of a mystic cista). The 
whole composition, probably derived from some Greek vase-painting, is enclosed between 
two purely decorative figures — above, a wild bearded head with streams or streamers 
flowing from the mouth (Gerhard thought of Phobos, or of the Dodonaean Zeus ! 
Visconti saw a lion's head and a snake !!) ; below, a winged goddess swathed in a himdtion. 
Over her runs an inscription, which has lately been read by C. Pauli loc. cit. as 

>|A^>lH/I[^^]^\A/>l[8V8] Fujiuns Semleal, 'Dionysos son of Semele.' The 

reverse of the handle shows a pair of scantily draped dancers, male and female. 

C. Lenormant in the Ann. d. Inst. 1833 '^' ^IS ff. and J. de Witte in the Nouv. Ann. 
1836 — 1837 i. 369 — 371 pi. A 1837, I — 2 published two bullae of thin gold foil (diameter 
c. if inches), found in a tomb at Vulci and preserved in the Cabinet des Medaillesat Paris. 
They are both decorated with a repouss^ design representing the birth of Dionysos (cp. the 
series of sarcophagus -reliefs described supra p. 85 n. o (2)). Zeus M^ith bowed head sits to 
the left on a rock (?). He wears a himdtion round his loins and over his left shoulder. His 
right hand clasps his right knee. His left hand rests on the rock. From his right thigh 
emerges the infant god, uplifting both arms. He is received by a winged Athena, clad in 
a Doric piplos with long overfold, aigis^ and Gorgoneion. Between Zeus and Athena is 
a lotiform thunderbolt (?). J. de Witte's description of the scene is full of bad blunders. My 
pi. xiv, I is from a fresh photograph by Giraudon. Another gold bulla from Italy, of 
third-century work, shows Zeus in labour flanked by two winged Eileithyiai {Brit. Mus. 
Cat. Jewellery p. 262 f. no. 2285 pi. 46 with fig. 75 ( = my pi. xiv, 2)). 

Lastly, a bronze coin of Nysa Skythopolis, the ancient Beth-Shan and modern Beisdn, 
struck by Gordianus Pius in the year 304, i.e. some year between 
240/1 and 243/4 A. D., has for reverse type Zeus standing to the 
left and the city-goddess standing to the right. Zeus is clad in a 
himdtion, which passes like a veil over the back of his head. 
His right foot is raised on some uncertain object (? a rock), 
while the head and shoulders of the infant Dionysos emerge 
from his right thigh. He rests his left hand on a long sceptre and 
extends his right towards the goddess. She is dressed in chitdn 
and hi?fidtion, zxid wears a turreted crown and a veil (?). She Fig. 31. 

holds a long sceptre in her right hand and the babe Dionysos in 
her left. The legend is [NV] CCKV l€PAC and in the exergue [A] T (G. F. Hill in 




Plate XIV 




isAWilM^^MS 




(i) Gold bulla from Vulci, now at Paris : Birth of Dionysos. 

(2) Gold bulla from Italy, now in the British Museum : Birth of Dionysos. 

See page 88 n. o. 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 89 

reflects a very ancient ritual of adoption^. The detail of the sewing 
{errdphthat) is probably to be connected with the office of the birth- 

the Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Palestine pp. xxxvi, 77 pi. 8, 5. Fig. 31 is from a cast kindly 
supplied by Dr Hill). 

1 So first J. J. Bachofen Das Mutterrecht Basel 1897 pp. 243, 256, 259, though he 
confused the issue by importing a reference to the couvade (hence Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. 
p. 904 goes off on a wrong path). Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. 1 10 keeps a clearer head: 
' The old attempts to interpret this as nature-symbolism have failed ludicrously. The first 
to strike the right track was Bachofen, who, following the anthropological method, 
explained the myth as the reflex of some primitive social institution ; but his suggestion 
that we have here a divine example of the couvade was not altogether happy, though the 
couvade was practised by primitive peoples of the Mediterranean area. The travail of Zeus 
is more naturally explained by him as a primitive mode of adoption, wherein the father 
pretends to actually [(j'zV)] give birth to the adopted son ; and this would be the natural 
method for a people passing from the rule of the matrilinear to that of the patrilinear 
descent^. pWe hear of the same fashion of adoption among the Haidas of North 
America who are in the transition-state between the two systems.] Dionysos, therefore, 
was accepted and afliliated in this wise to Zeus by some Hellenic tribe who were still in 
that stage, and whom we cannot discover, for we do not know whence the story first 
radiated, though we may surmise that it arose in Boeotia.' The latter part of this state- 
ment, however, will have to be modified by those who accept the recent attempts of 
H. J. Rose ('On the alleged Evidence for Mother-right in Early Greece' in Folk- Lore 
1911 xxii. 277 — 291, ' Prehistoric Greece and Mother-Right' ib. 1926 xxxvii. 213 — 244) 
to disprove the existence of mother-right in early Greece. 

Frazer Golden Bough^'. The Magic Art i. 74 f. illustrates 'Simulation of birth at 
adoption' from a wide area, including one classical myth: Diod. 4. 39 (from an older 
handbook of mythology (E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 674)) irpocrdeT^ou 
5' Tffuv Tol^ €iprj/jL€VOLS OTL fieroi TTjv aTTod^cjcnv avTov Zevs "Hpav jxkv 'iireLcxev vioTroirjcracrdai 
Tov 'UpaKX^a Kal rb Xonrbv els rbv airavra xP^^ov /xrirpos eiivoiav Trap^xeor^ai [irap^^eadaL 
cod. D.), Tr]v 5e T^KVcjcrcv yev^cxdai (pad TOiaOrrjv • Triv"H.pav ava^daav iirl [eirl ttju vulg.) 
k\Iv7}v Kal TOV 'Hpa/cXea n pocrXa^ofJiiprjv irpos to aCJixa dia tQv evdvfxaTivv dcpeivaL irpbs ttju 
y^v, fjii/jLovfiivrjv ttiv d\r]dLvr]v yivecnv • oirep fJ-expi- tov vvv iroieiv tov's ^ap^dpovs otolv deTov 
vibv TTouladaL ^oOXuvTaL, Lyk. Al. 39 6 bevTipav TeKOvcrav k.t.X. with Tzetz. ad loc. Ty\v 
"Hpav \^7€f 5ia tov kSXttov yap airbu rjyeu {fjveyKev cod. a) cos TiKTOvcra Kal TeKvoTroLOVfxeur]. 
Cp. three important mirrors which represent Hera suckling a full-grown Herakles : (a) An 
early fourth-century mirror in the Museo Civico at Bologna (F. Schiassi De Fateris, ex 
senteiitiaj. T. Biancani senno Bononise 1808 pi. 10, Gerhard Etr. Spiegel \\\. 125 pi. 126 
( = my fig. 32), E. Brizio in the Guida del Museo Civico di Bologna Bologna 1882 p. 24 
Sezione antica, Sala viii, E Vetrina di fronte, Sezione di mezzo, J. Bayet HercU Etude 
Critique des principaux monuments relatifs a I'Hercule Etrusque Paris 1926 p. 150 ff. 
no. D) shows Herakles as a well-grown youth, with his lion-skin round his neck and a 
smooth club at his side, bending forward to be suckled by Hera. She sits on a throne, 
the footstool of which is seen in perspective, and holds up her bared right breast to the 
hero's lips. Behind her and leaning on her shoulder is lolaos (Gerhard says Ares), with 
chlamys and lance. The whole is surrounded by a beautiful ivy-wreath ; and the reverse 
has a frilled ( = rayed) solar (?) head. A similar design on a terra-cotta medallion in relief 
was reported by W. Helbig in the Bull. d. Inst. 1866 p. 65 f. It was found probably at 
Palestrina and was then in the possession of Castellani. Helbig took the medallion to be a 
model for a bulla. But A. Kluegmann in the Ann. d. Inst. 1871 xliii. 21 regarded it with 
more likelihood as the centre of a bowl. The group of Hera suckling Herakles was flanked 
by two standing youths clad in chlamydes — apparently a duplication of lolaos. {b) A fourth- 
century mirror from Volaterrae {Volterra), now in the Museo Archeologico at Florence, 
elaborates the subject (G. Korte in Gerhard Etr. Spiegel v. 73—78 pi. 60 ( = my fig. 33), 
A. B. Cook in the Class. Rev. 1906 xx. 416 f. fig. 4, J. Bayet op. cit. p. 150 ff. no. E 



go The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 




Fig. 3- 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 91 




Fig. 33- 



92 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

pi. 4). In the centre sits Hera on a handsome throne, the seat of which is seen from 
below (cp. siipra ii. 738 fig. 668), with a footstool. She is attired in an Ionic chiton and a 
himdtion drawn over her head. She has a profusion of trinkets {stephdne, ear-ring, 
finger-rings, necklace, bracelet) and is shod with strap-work shoes. Her right hand pulls 
forward her himdtion; her left, with spread fingers, presses her naked breast, which is 
being sucked vigorously by Herakles. He is a bearded man with a broad fillet on his hair, 
a lion-skin round his neck, a short chiton about his waist, and a knotty club in his right 
hand. He leans over the goddess' lap to play the infant's part. To the right of these two 
stands Zeus, with himdtion^ shoes, and sceptre, signing to a young undraped goddess, 
who wears a large necklace with pendants of three drops (cp. //. 14. [83, Od. 18. 298 
TpiyXirjva ixopbevra) and, like Zeus, displays two leaves stuck in her hair. To the left stands 
Apollon with chlamys, bay-wreath, and bay-branch. In the background an older goddess 
appears in three-quarter position: she wears a stephdne, a necklace with pendants, and a 
himdtion like that of Hera (there is indeed some confusion between the two) drawn over 
her head. Behind Hera's throne is an Ionic pillar supporting a tablet inscribed eca : 
sren : j tva : ix^ci \ c : hercle : | unial : cl\an : Qra : see. The only words at present 
intelligible to us, hercle : unial'. clan, denote 'Hercules son of Uni (luno)' and certainly 
suggest that the inscription is a label explaining the scene rather than a votive dedication 
involving other names. They do not of course justify Ptolemy Chennos of Alexandreia 
{c. 100 A.D.) in his paradoxical notion that Herakles was the son of Zeus and Hera(Ptol. 
nov. hist. 3 p. 186, 28 fif. Westermann ap. Phot. bibl. p. 148 a 38 ff. Bekker rivos karXv 6 
iijxvo^ 6 qido/Jt-evos kv Qrj^aiocs (I. Bekker cj. Orj^ats) ets 'Hpa/cX^a, eu (^ \^7ei (either read 
X&yerai or, less probably, supply the author Mdrpts 6 Orj^alos vjuLvoypaKpos from the context 
and suppose a direct quotation of the following words) Atos Kal "Upas vi6s). The whole 
composition is enclosed between an upper and a lower band of herring-bone pattern. 
Above is a bald Silenos, with pig's ears, drinking from a phidle. He sprawls along the 
upper line, and from his incredibly clumsy neck I should infer that the artist had at first 
intended him to be an upright head (cp. Gerhard Etr. Spiegel pi. 212) or one of two (cp. 
ib. pi. 291, a), but had later altered him into a recumbent figure (cp. ib. pi. 323). Below 
is Eros, crouching almost en face, with a bulla slung round his throat and an ovoid object 
(egg ? ball ?) in either hand, {c) An early third-century mirror from Vulci, now at 
Berlin, introduces some variations and adds names (C. Robert in the Arch. Zeit. 1882 
xl. 173, A. Furtwangler ib. 1883 xli. 271, Gerhard Etr. Spiegel v. 72 f. pi. 59 ( = my 
fig. 34), J. Bayet op. cit. p. 151 ff. no. F). Herakles {Hercle) sits on a low stool, beardless 
but adult and equipped with lion-skin and club. He is about to suck the right nipple of 
Hera [Uni), who stoops towards him with bared breast, clasping him with her right hand 
and holding a horn (cp. supra ii. 347 fig. 241) in her left. Behind Herakles sits Mean 
raising two sprigs of olive, bent to form a wreath for the hero. In the background stands 
Zeus {Tinia), his head surrounded by two streamers and a lotiform bolt visible at his right 
side. He is flanked on his right by Aphrodite [Turan), on his left by Athena [Merva, a 
mistake for Aloirva) with aigis, Gorgoneion, and shield bearing a star. Below is a large 
female head between two stars. These three mirrors clearly postulate a common original, 
perhaps a fifth-century fresco, from which is also descended — with sundry important 
modifications — a Ukythos of ' Apulian' style found at Anxia {Anzi di Basilicata) and now 
in the British Museum (G. Minervini in the Bull. d. Inst. 1842 p. 160, id. in the Bull. 
Arch. Nap. 1842 — 1843 i. 6 f., id. 11 mito di Ercole che succhia il latte di Gitmone Napoli 
1854 pp. I — 34 with pi. (extr. from the Memorie delta Regale Accademia Ercolanense 
Napoli 1853 vi. 317 fif.), Overbeck Gr. Kiinstmyth. Hera p. 141 no. l, G. Korte in 
Gerhard Etr. Spiegel v. 76 ff., Brit. Miu. Cat. Vases iv. 60 no. F 107). Herakles is here 
reduced to the proportions of a boy and has lost his lion-skin and club. But that he and 
no other is meant appears from the presence of his patroness Athena (aigis, spear), who 
offers Hera a lily — not, as Minervini thought, in allusion to the later legend of the Milky 
Way {supra i. 624 n. 5), but merely as the favourite flower of the goddess {supra i. 624 
n. 2, ii. 515 n. 10) and a fitting reward for her services. Hera herself is a queenly figure, 
seated with a floral stephdne on her head and a lily-topped sceptre in her hand. She presses 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 93 




Fig. 34- 



94 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

goddess Rhapso^, but was presumably stressed as a means of 
explaining the obscure appellative EiraphiStes'^ . The same etymolo- 
gising tendency dates the whole hostage-episode, with its play on 

the boy to her right breast, where he drinks his fill. Behind her stands Iris in short chitSn 
and high boots. She has wings on her shoulders, and a knotted or studded staff by way 
of caduceus. She talks with a seated wreath-bearing goddess, who is difficult to identify, — 
probably not Peitho (G. Korte), certainly not Alkmene (G. Minervini, H. B. Walters). 
This couple is balanced by a standing Eros (wreath, sphendSne) and a seated Aphrodite 
(mirror) on the left. A. D. Trendall cp. a Ukythos of 'early Apulian' style, by the same 
hand, at Taranto (my pi. xv, 2), which substitutes Aphrodite and 'EpwruXot for Athena 
and Herakles. 

It is noteworthy that in the case of Dionysos the simulated birth is from the god (Zeus), 
in the case of Herakles from the goddess (Hera). Parallels to both forms of the rite can 
be^adduced. 

^ Supra ii. 184 n. 3. 

- Supra i. 674 n. 2, ii. 957 n. 2. See further O. Jessen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
V. 21 19 f., Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 661 n. 2, 714 n. 5, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. 
p. 822 n. 4. 

Expert philologists have advanced widely different explanations. W. Sonne in the 
Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung 1861 x. 103 connected elpacpubrrjs, Aeolic 
ippa<pa<JoTr]-s, with the Sanskrit rshabha 'bull,' so that the word would mean ' Befruchter. ' 
R. Meister Die griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1882 i. 146 followed suit. W. Prellwitz 
in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogerm anise hen sprachen 1897 xxii. 99 was still inclined 
to agree (' Sonne... vielleicht mit recht,' etc.), and F. Solmsen in the Indogermanische 
Forschungen 1897 vii. 46 ff. definitely accepted the same view, not only connecting 
Lesbian 'Eppac/teuras, Ionic Wpa^icoTTjs, with the Old Indian rsabhds 'bull,' but (after 
A. Meillet ib. 1895 v. 328 f.) bringing into relation with them ^ppaos, which meant either 
'ram' (Lyk. Al. 1316 with Tzetz. ad loc.) or 'boar' (Kallim. frag. 335 Schneider a/. 
Tzetz. in Lyk. Ai. 1316, Hesych. s.v. 'ippaos (so M. Schmidt for eppds cod.)- Kpibs), and 
drawing attention to 'Appd^aiov tov Bpo/xepoO, KvyK-qarCov Ma/ce56»'a>v jBaaiXia (Thouk. 4. 
83), a man who was tov Ba/cxtaScDt' y^vovs (Strab. 326) — an obviously Dionysiac group of 
names. F. Froehde in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogermanischen sprachen 1896 xxi. 
199, while not doubting the possibility of Eipa<pidi}Tr)s, 'Eppa^twras being related to the 
Sanskrit rsabhd 'bull,' regarded the word as another form of 'Ept^ios, the goat too being 
a 'Verkorperung des lebenerzeugenden Numens des Gottes' (F. A. Voigt in Roscher Lex. 
Myth. i. 1079). G. Legerlotz in the Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung 1859 
viii. 53 had long since derived Eipa<pLdi}T7]i 'von einem etp-a-^os = ^p-t,-<pos (vgl. o-TpaTuhTrjs, 
r/Xt/ctc6T77s)' and had noted the Laconian cult of Dionysos "Ept^os. H. Ehrlich ib. 1906 
xxxix. 567 f. likewise dwells on the connexion of Dionysos with the goat {supra i. 674 ff.) 
and remarks: 'Daher denken Wieseler .Philol. 10, loi und Wide Lakonische Culte 
p. 168 an ^pi<pos, und eine nebenform * ipiacpos = * eipacpos * ^ppa^os ware wohl annehmbar. 
Da -a0os tiersuffix ist (cf. Aa0os d^KoXacpos Kiddip'q Kopa^os Hes.), konnte man *^pia(pos 
auch mit eipcov "listig" (*e'pjtcoj/; zu errare st. * er-sd eigentlich "der in die irre fuhrt") 
zusammenbringen und darin ein altes wort fiir den "fuchs" sehen...vgl. auch Philemon 
fr. 89^ II p. 504 K. : ovK ^ct'' dXibirrj^ 7} fx^v eipoiv rrj (pvaeL, \ i] 5' av64Ka(TTos,...Die adjectiv- 
ischen ableitungen *ctpa0io- * ippacpeo- bezeichneten dann "das zum fuchs gehorige, das 
fuchsfell," und WipacpidoTTjs 'Eppa^ewras ware sozusagen die griechische iibersetzung von 
Baaa-apeijs, " dem fuchsfelltrager " nach alter iiberlieferung, die recht haben kann.' A. Fick 
in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogermanischen sprachen 1894 xx. 179 f. cp. Hermes 
<nrapyaPiu}Tr)s {h. Herm. 301), fxrjxcivLcbTrjs {ib. 436), Dionysos jSa/cxeicixTys (Sapph. frag. 
147 Bergk^, 172 Edmonds = Simon. yra^. 210 a Bergk^ ap. Him. or. 13. 7), Pan opeidorrjs 
{Anth. Pal. 9. 824. 2 (Erykios)). As (nrapyavuhTiqs meant 'wrapped in the airapydviov or 
"swathing-band",' so eipa<pL(J)TT]s, Aeolic ippacpiibras, must have meant 'wrapped in the 
* eipdipLov or "tufted skin" — a word related to etpos, Aeolic ^ppo^ "wool" as xpi^o'a^toj' to 



Plate XV 




( 1 ) Lekythos of early Apulian style from Anxia, now in the British Museum : 

Herakles suckled by Hera. 

See page 92 n. o and pai^e 94 n. o. 

(2) Lekythos of early Apulian style, now at Taranto : 

Herakles suckled by Hera. 

See page 94 ;/. o. 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 95 

homeros and meros'^, as the effort of Prodikos^ or some other fifth- 
century sophist, though the particular incident of the ^^V/z/r-phantom, 
with its further play on meros, 'portion', is attributable to Euripides 
him self ^ 

Xpvcrdi. Dionysos elpa^iibTrjs "in the tufted skin" was a kid, cp. Hesych. s.v. eipa^Lconjs ' . . . 
Kal ^pL(pos irapa Kolkuxtlv. [Observe, however, that eipacfynbr-qs ' wrapped in a tufted gar- 
ment' might equally well, or even better, describe the Bacchant garbed in an artificial 
skin (Eur. Bacch. 1 1 1 ff. (TtlktQv r' ifdura ve^pidoip \ (XT^(f)€T€ XevKorpixoiv TrXoKafiwv \ 
/iaXXots with Sir J. E. Sandys ad loc). A. B. c.]. F. Bechtel Die griechischen Dialekte 
Berlin 19-21 i. 128 f. approves this derivation, but notes two difficulties : ' Die eine ist die, 
dass, wenn ipfa(pLov die Grundlage des Gottesnamens bildet, dieser bei den Lesbiern die 
Gestalt 'Epa^twras haben miisste, da, wie speciell kirepos lehrt, f hinter Consonanten 
spurlos untergegangen ist. Man kann ihr mit dem Einwande begegnen, dass die Ver- 
dopplung des p die metrische Dehnung der ersten von drei auf einander folgenden Kiirzen 
bezeichne, wie in Treppvatp Theokr. •2926' Nicht beseitigen aber lasst sich die zweite 
Schwierigkeit. Nach den Ausfiihrungen Wackernagels Glotta iv 243 f. kommt den 
Deminutiven auf -a(pLov langes a zu, dem im lonisch-Attischen 77 entspricht : ^vK-qcjuov im 
Corpus der Hippokratischen Schriften und bei Alexis. Also miisste die Namenform bei 
den Lesbiern 'Epa0ic6ras, bei den loniern Wp7](f>i(J}TT}$ lauten. Hier kann man nur mit 
einer auf unsichrer Grundlage ruhenden Hypothese helfen : da das Erscheinen der Lange 
in -a^iov von Wackernagel selbst als "Ratsel" bezeichnet wird, darf man vielleicht 
annehmen, dass neben ihr die Kiirze gelegen habe, die kein Ratsel sein wiirde.' K. Brug- 
mann Griechische Grammatik^ Miinchen 19 13 p. 232 pronounces the verdict: ' Ei'pa^- 
twT7;s lesb. 'Eppa0ea;ras..'.ist zweifelhaften Ursprungs.' Possibly fresh evidence may yet be 
forthcoming — from Hittite sources? 

The month Eipa<piibv at Arkesine in Amorgos {Inscr. Gr. ins. vii no. 62, 28 = F. Bechtel 
in CoUitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2 558 f. no. 5371, 28= Dittenberger Syll, inscr. 
Gr.^ no. 531, 28, ib^^ no. 963, 28 e/x [x-qvl 'SllpacpLwvL) probably corresponds with the Ionic 
Lenaion and the Attic Gamelion (J. Delamarre in the /?ev. Philol. N.s. 1901 xxv. 180 f., 
W. Dittenberger in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 2118 f.). 
^ 6 fiTjpot = 6/in]pos. 

2 Euripides is said to have been a pupil of Prodikos {v. Eur. i in schol. Eur. i. 2 , 7 f . 
Dindorf, Souid. s.v. 'EjvpLirldrjs ter, Gell. 15. 20. 4), who was interested on the one hand 
in linguistic discussions (E. Zeller A History of Greek Philosophy trans. S. F. Alleyne 
London 1881 ii. 489 ff., 512), on the other in the origins of Dionysiac worship {id. ib. 
p. 482 f.). 

^ The foregoing paragraph must not be taken to imply that mythical birth from the 
thigh always betokens the ritual of adoption. F. Liebrecht Zwr Volkskunde Heilbronn 1879 
p. 490 f. (= id. in Germania i860 v. 479 f.) compiles a list of such births from the leg, the 
foot, the hand, etc., each of which calls for separate investigation. They include the 
following : 

(i) A. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gotiertranks"^ GWiQxsXoh 1886 pp. 13 f., 
148 f. draws attention to Aurva, son of Cyavana (son of (^ukra son of Bhrgu) by Arusht 
daughter of Manu, who was sprung from his mother's thigh {Alahabharata trans. M. N. 
Dutt Calcutta 1895 i. gi = Mahabh. 1. 66. 47 'Arushi, the daughter of Manu, became the 
wife of the wise Chyavana,and the greatly illustrious Aurva was born in her, ripping open 
her thighs,' ib. 1896 iii. ^t^^^Mahabh. 3. 314. 17 'O sinless one, you have further heard 
how the Brahmanic sage Aurva at one time remaining concealed in his mother's thighs 
served the purpose of the celestials.' On Aurva see further S. Sorensen An Index to the 
Names in the Mahabharata London 1904 p. 100 f.). 

(2) A. Kuhn op. cit.^ p. 149 ff". compares the case of Vena, son of Anga and Sunitha, 
who produced Nishada from his thigh and Prthu from his arm {Mahabharata trans. M. N. 
Dutt Calcutta 1903 xii ^6 = Mahabh. 12. 59. 94 'Vena, a slave of anger and malice, 
became impious and tyrannical towards all creatures. The Brahmavadin Rishis killed him 



g6 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

with Kusha blades inspired with Mantras. 95 — 96. Uttering Mantras all the while, those 
Rishis pierced the right thigh of Vena. Thereupon, from that thigh, sprang a short- 
limbed person on earth, resembling a charred brand, having blood-red eyes and black hair. 
Those Brahmavadins said to him, — Nishida (sit) here. 97. From him have originated 
the Nishadas, viz., those wicked tribes who live in the hills and the forests, as also those 
hundreds and thousands of Mlecchas, living on the Vindhya ranges. 98. The great Rishis 
then pierced the right arm of Vena. Thence originated a person who was a second 
Indra in form' {sc. Prithu). H. H. Wilson Works London 1864 vi. 181 ff. = VishAu 
Purdna i. 13 'And they fell upon the king, and beat him with blades of holy grass, 
consecrated by prayer, and slew him, who had first been destroyed by his impiety towards 
god.... The sages, hearing this, consulted, and together rubbed the thigh of the king, 
who had left no offspring, to produce a son. From the thigh, thus rubbed, came forth a 
being of the complexion of a charred stake, with flattened features (like a negro), and of 
dwarfish stature. "What am I to do?" cried he eagerly to the Munis. "Sit down" 
(nishida), said they: and thence his name was Nishada. His descendants, the inhabitants 
of the Vindhya mountain, great Muni, are still called Nishadas, and are characterized by 
the exterior tokens of depravity. By this means the wickedness of Vena was expelled ; 
those Nishadas being born of his sins, and carrying them away. The Brahmans then 
proceeded to rub the right arm of the king, from which friction was engendered the 
illustrious son of Vena, named Prithu, resplendent in person, as if the blazing deity of 
Fire had been manifested. There then fell from the sky the primitive bow (of Mahadeva) 
named Ajagava, and celestial arrows, and panoply from heaven. At the birth of Prithu, all 
living creatures rejoiced; and Vena, delivered, by his being born, from the hell named 
Put, ascended to the realms above.' H. H. Wilson adloc. cites the parallel passage in the 
Bhdgavata-purdna 4. 14. 43 — 46 with the rendering of E. ^yxxxiowi Le Bhdgavata Purdna 
Paris 1844 ii. 2. 78: 'Ayant pris cette resolution, les Richis secouerent rapidement la cuisse 
du roi qu'ils avaient tue, et il en sortit un nain. Noir comme un corbeau, ayant le corps d'une 
extreme petitesse, les bras courts, les machoires grandes, les pieds petits, le nez enfonce, 
les yeux rouges et les cheveux cuivres. Prosterne devant eux, le pauvre nain s'ecria : Que 
faut-il que je fasse? et les Brahmanes lui repondirent: Assieds-toi, ami. De la lui vint le 
nom de Nichada. C'est de sa race que sont sortis les Naichadas qui habitent les cavernes 
et les montagnes; car c'est lui dont la naissance effa9a la faute terrible de Vena,' ib. 4. 15. 
I — 6 (ii. 1. 79 Burnouf) 'Maitreya dit : Les Brahmanes ayant ensuite agite les bras du roi 
Vena, qui etait mort sans posterite, en firent sortir deux enfants, un fils et une fiUe. A la 
vue de ces deux enfants, les Richis qui expliquent le Veda, y reconnaissant une portion 
de la substance de Bhagavat, s'ecrierent, pleins d'une extreme joie: Celui-ci est une 
portion de la substance du bienheureux Vichnu, qui est faite pour purifier le monde; 
celle-la est une creation de Lakchmi, la compagne fidele de Purucha. De ces deux 
enfants, le male deviendra le premier roi ; ce sera le Maharadja, nomme Prithu, dont la 
gloire et la renommee seront repandues au loin. Celle-ci sera sa royale epouse; douee 
d'une taille parfaite et de belles dents, faite pour rehausser les ornements et la vertu elle- 
meme, elle sera, sous le nom d'Artchis, inviolablement attachee a Prithu. Get enfant 
est sans contredit une portion de Hari, qui est ne dans le desir de sauver le monde ; et 
cette fille est certainement ^ri son epouse devouee, compagne inseparable du Dieu qu'elle 
a suivi [sur la terre].' H. H. Wilson op. cit. vi. 182 n. i further remarks: 'The Padma 
(Bhumi Khanda) has a similar description [of Nishada]; adding to the dwarfish stature 
and black complexion, a wide mouth, large ears, and a protuberant belly. It also 
particularizes his posterity as Nishadas, Kiratas, Bhillas, Bahanakas, Bhrahmaras, 
Pulindas, and other barbarians or Mlechchhas, living in woods and on mountains.' 
A. Kuhn op, cit.^ p. 149 f. refers to the ffarivam^a, a supplement to the Mahabharata^ 
for the same tale. 

(3) Mandhatr, an ancient king, son of Yuvana9va, was born from his father's side. 
Yuvana9va, when hunting, had drunk sacrificial butter and so become pregnant [Maha- 
bharata trans. M. N. Dutt Calcutta 1896 iii. \^i — Mahabh. 3. 126. 24 — 31 'O great king, 
as you, being very thirsty, have drunk the water prepared with sacred hymns which was 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 97 

filled with the virtue of my religious labours, you must bring forth out of your own body 
a son as described above. We shall perform for your sake a sacrifice of wonderful effect, 
so that you will bring forth a son equal to Indra. You will not feel any pain at the time 
of the delivery. When one hundred years passed away, a son, as effulgent as the sun, 
came out by riving the left side of that high-souled king. The greatly effulgent child 
came out, but king Yuvanashwa did not die, — it was no doubt a great wonder. Then 
greatly effulgent Indra came there with the desire of seeing him. Thereupon the celestials 
asked Indra, "What is to be sucked by this boy?" Then Indra gave his own fore finger 
into his mouth (to suck), and the wielder of thunder said, "he will suck me." Thereupon 
the dwellers of heaven with Indra gave him the name " Mandhatta",' H. H. Wilson 
op. cit. London 1866 viii. 267= Vishnu Purdna 4. 1 'When the Munis rose, and found 
that the water had been drunk, they inquired who had taken it, and said: "The queen 
that has drunk this water shall give birth to a mighty and valiant son." "It was I," 
exclaimed the Raja, "who unwittingly drank the water": and, accordingly, in the belly 
of Yuvanaswa was conceived a child. And it grew; and, in due time, it ripped open the 
right side of the Raja, and was born: and the Raja did not die. Upon the birth of the 
child, "Who will be its nurse?" said the Munis; when (Indra,) the king of the gods 
appeared, and said, " He shall have me for his nurse " (mam ayarn dhasyati) ; and, hence, 
the boy was named Mandhatfi. Indra put his fore-finger into the mouth of the infant, 
who sucked it, and drew from it (heavenly) nectar. ' 

(4) The Btiddha-Yarita of Ajvaghosha {c, 100 a.d.) narrates the birth of Buddha from 
the side of queen Maya: Buddha-karita trans. E. B. Cowell i. 25, 26, 29 {7'he Sacred 
Books of the East Oxford 1894 xlix. 5f. ) 'At that time the constellation Pushya was 
auspicious, and from the side of the queen, who was purified by her vow, her son was 
born for the welfare of the world, without pain and without illness. Like the sun bursting 
from a cloud in the morning, — so he too, when he was born from his mother's womb, 
made the world bright like gold, bursting forth with his rays which dispelled the dark- 
ness.... As was Aurva's birth from the thigh, and Przthu's from the hand, and Mandhatrz's, 
who was like Indra himself, from the forehead [but see supra (3)], and Kakshivat's from 
the upper end of the arm, — thus too was his birth (miraculous).' The Fo-sho-hing- 
tsan-king, a translation of the Buddha-karita into Chinese made by the Indian priest 
Dharmaraksha {c. 420 a.d.), repeats the narrative: Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king trans. S. Beal 
I. I. 9 — II {The Sacred Books of the East Oxford 1883 xix. 2 f.) 'While she (thus) 
religiously observed the rules of a pure discipline, Bodhisattva was born from her right 
side, (come) to deliver the world, constrained by great pity, without causing his mother 
pain or anguish. As king Yu-liu \sc. Aurva] was born from the thigh, as king Pi-t'au 
\sc. Pr/thu] was born from the hand, as king Man-to \sc. Mandhat^z] was born from the 
top of the head [but see supra (3)], as king Kia-k^hn, [sc. Kakshivat] was born from the 
arm-pit. So also was Bodhisattva on the day of his birth produced from the right side ; 
gradually emerging from the womb, he shed in every direction the rays of his glory.' 

(5) F. Liebrecht Des Gervasius von Tilbury Otia Imperialia Hannover 1856 p. 72 
notes that, according to an Old French legend, Phanuel once peeled an apple and wiped 
the knife on his thigh. The juice soaked into and impregnated his thigh, from which 
nine months later a girl — the mother of the Virgin Mary — was born (J. von Lassberg 
Ein schoen alt Lied von Grave Friz von Zolre^ dem Oettinger, und der Belagerung von Hohen 
Zolren, nebst noch etlichen andern Liedern (Constanz 1842) p. 76 f. : 'Sainz fanoel se sist 
un Jour I Emmi sa sale ala froideur | Seur vn coulstes de cendaul | II apela son senechaul | 
Des pomes li fit apourter | Es melades en veut doner ] Ses seneschauz laut apourta | Et 
a ses piez sa genoilla | Trois des pomes et un coutel | Mit en la main sainz fanoel | Ly 
rois les prit sy les tailla | Et es melades en dona | Quant ly rois ot taille la pome | De 
la seue qui tant fut bone | Entint vn poy a son coutel | Or oiez de saint fanoel ] Quant 
il vit son coutel moille | De la pome quil ot taille | A sa cuisse le ressuia | Et la seue ly 
engenra | Vne mout gentil demoiselle | Qui mout parfut cortoise et belle. || Qvant ly rois 
vit la grand meruoille | A cui nuUe ne sa peroille | II hamende tous ses amis | Et les 
mires de son pais | II ny vint mires tant senez | Ne feciein tant letrez | Qui sehut dire la 

C. III. 7 



98 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

doleur | De la Jambe lempereur | Tant furent esbahy ly mire | Ly plus saige ne sot que 
dire | Quant vint au iour que dieux imit | Sy commen lescriture dit | Ly rois melades 
acoucha | Et de la cuisse deliura | Iceille gentil demoiseille | Qui tant fut cortoise et 
belle I Ce fut sainte anne don ie dy | D la meire ihesu nasqui'). Liebrecht loc. cit. thinks 
that this may conceivably be 'eine Reminiscenz der Dionysius[jzV]-sage.' Hardly so. 

(6) S. Baring-Gould Legends of Old Testament Characters London and New York 
1871 p. 20 f. 'The inhabitants of Madagascar have a strange myth touching the origin of 
woman. They say that the first man was created of the dust of the earth, and was placed 
in a garden, where he was subject to none of the ills which now aftect mortality ; he was 
also free from all bodily appetites, and though surrounded by delicious fruit and limpid 
streams, yet felt no desire to taste of the fruit or to quaff the water. The Creator had, 
moreover, strictly forbidden him either to eat or to drink. The great enemy, however, 
came to him, and painted to him in glowing colours the sweetness of the apple, the 
lusciousness of the date, and the succulence of the orange. In vain: the first man re- 
membered the command laid upon him by his Maker. Then the fiend assumed the 
appearance of an effulgent spirit, and pretended to be a messenger from Heaven com- 
manding him to eat and drink. The man at once obeyed. Shortly after, a pimple 
appeared on his leg ; the spot enlarged to a tumour, which increased in size and caused 
him considerable annoyance. At the end of six months it burst, and there emerged from 
the limb a beautiful girl. The father of all living was sorely perplexed what to make of 
his acquisition, when a messenger from heaven appeared, and told him to let her run 
about the garden till she was of a marriageable age, and then to take her to himself as 
his wife. He obeyed. He called her Bahouna, and she became the mother of all races 
of men.' The relation of this and similar Malagasy tales to Biblical teaching is discussed 
by J. A. MacCulloch in J. Hastings EncyclopcBdia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 191 2 
V. 708 b. F. Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde Heilbronn 1879 P* 49° n. ** { = id. in Germania 
i860 V. 479) cites a variant from J. W. Wolf Deutsche Mdrchen und Sagen Leipzig 
1845 p. 599 (on no. 198); 'Die Einwohner von Madagaskar erzahlen, Adam habe stark 
gegessen und in Folge dessen einem natUrlichen Bediirfnisse genligen mtissen, was sich 
aber gleich im Paradiese durch den Geruch verrathen. Darob sei er vom Teufel verklagt 
worden und Gott habe ihn aus dem Paradiese geworfen. Einige Zeit nachher ware 
sein Bein aufgeschwollen und man habe ein jung Madchen heraus geholt, welches er 
geheirathet.' 

(7) In Norse cosmogony Ymir, ancestor of all the giants, went to sleep, fell into 
a sweat, and brought forth a female- child and a male-child from under his arm-pit, while 
from the union of his two feet he produced a six-headed son (G. Vigfusson — F. York 
Powell Corpus Poeticum Boreale Oxford 1883 i. 66= Vaf\ru^nis-inal 2. 31 ' Woden. 
Seventhly, tell me, etc.. How did this sturdy giant beget sons, since he knew not giantess? 
— Wafthr. A maid-child and man-child grew together from under his arm-pit. Foot 
begat with foot a six-headed son to that wise giant,' K. Simrock Die Edda"^ Stuttgart 
1878 p. 252 = Gylfaginning 5 'Da antwortete Har : Wir halten ihn mit nichten fur einen 
Gott: er war bose wie alle von seinem Geschlecht, die wir Hrimthursen nennen. Es 
wird erzahlt, als er schlief fing er an zu schwitzen: da wuchs ihm unter seinem linken 
Arm Mann und Weib und sein einer Fuss zeugte einen Sohn mit dem andern. Und von 
diesen kommt das Geschlecht der Hrimthursen; den alten Hrimthurs aber nennen wir 
Ymir'). See further J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology txa-ns. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 
ii. 559, K. Simrock Handbuch der Deutschen Mythologie^ Bonn 1878 pp. 17, 35, 
E. H. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 p. 145, P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye 
The Religion of the Teutons Boston and London 1902 p. 342, P. Herrmann Nordische 
Mythologie Leipzig 1903 p. 574. 

(8) Persephone Xeipoyovia (Hesych. Xei-poyovia ' rj I\.epae(t)bvri) has been variously 
explained. I. Vossius in the notes to J. Alberti's edition of Hesychios (Lugduni 
Batavorum 1766) ii. 1546 n, 30 asks: 'An quod manuum labore nascantur fruges?' 
M. Schmidt in Philologus 1858 xiii. 220 replies: 'Vielmehr Xeipoyiveia, was aus 'Ax^tpo- 
y^veia entstanden sein konnte ; doch hangt vielleicht 'Ax^cpw mit 'E77^pi;s Eccere Ceres 



Plate XVI 




i.2ii: 



,-yi »j-v;J>gl;»AiSS' 



Hydria at Queens' College, Cambridge : 
Apollon visits the Lesbian oracle of Orpheus. 



See page 99 f. 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 99 

Phantoms were in fashion. The Platonic Phaidros, perhaps 
taking a hint from StesiehorOs^ or Euripides^, tells how the gods, 
indignant that Orpheus was unwilling to die for love, sent him 
back empty-handed after showing him a mere phantom of his wife, 
not her very self^. 

In this connexion the design on a red-figured hydria in my 
possession is deserving of notice (pi. xvi)^ It is Attic work 
dating from the last quarter of the fifth century B.C. In the centre 
stands a slender, youthful Apolion. He wears a bay-wreath on his 
flowing locks and a chlamys with weighted corners over his left 
arm. In his right hand he holds a long bay-branch; in his left, 
a lyre. Both hands are lowered, and the god looks downwards at 
the head of Orpheus, which with parted lips and upturned face is 

zusammen [Hesych. s,v. " Kxnp^ ('Axetpa; cod.)].' G. J. Vossius De theologia Gentili, et 
physiologia Christiana'^ Amsterdami 1668 i. 224 = lib. 1 cap. 28, F. Creuzer Symbolik und 
Mythologie'^ Leipzig and Darmstadt 1842 iv. 330, Gerhard Gr. Myth. i. 452, Preller — 
Robert Gr. Myth. i. 781 n. 3 take the appellative to describe Persephone as a goddess of 
birth. E. Maass De Aeschyli Siipplicibus conunentatio Gryphiswaldiae 1890 pp. xix, 
xxxvi f. suggests that Xeipoyovia must be daughter of a Zeus * Xecpoydvos, ' qui ut infans 
nascatur manu efficit.' He compares, not only the Zeus AexedrTjs of Aliphera in Arkadia 
(Paus. 8. 26. 6 Kai Alos re IdpuaavTO Aex^drov ^oifxov, are evravda ttjv ' Adiqpav reKovTos) and 
the Zeus evcodiv of Nonnos [Dion. 48. 974 f- koX debs d^UTreXoets irarpooiov aidepa ^aivcju \ 
irarpi abv evcodiui fiLrjs '4\pavae Tpaire^i^s. See further Stephanus Thes. Gr.Ling.'ni. 2532 b), 
but also (Zeus) Agamemnon *'Opo-i\oxos assumed to account for Iphigeneia 'OpaiXoxta 
(Ant. Lib. 27) and Zeus *"E7ra0os assumed to account for Dionysos 'E7rd0ios (Orph. 
h. Lys. Len. 50. 7 and h. triet. 52. 9 cited supra p. 4 n. o). Id. Aratea Berlin 1892 
p. 349 adds : 'Ac fortasse de Dactylorum etymo hac eadeni ratione edocebimur quid sibi 
velit. Quid? si xeipoybvoi credebantur et digitis placide ventri immissis contrectando 

efficere, ut parerent parturientes? Essent igitur AaKTvXoi = AaKrvXoyovoi Coniectura 

haec est, nihil amplius.' Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 860 n. 2 concludes : 'Orsilocheia und 
Persephone Cheirogonia ...sind selbst Geburtsgottinnen gewesen, nicht nach (Zeus) 
Agamemnon *Orsilochos oder Zeus * Cheirogonos...genannt.' F. Liebrecht locc. citt. 
would bring Persephone into line with Prithu [supra (2)): 'Persephone heisst die 
Fingergeborene [xeipoyovia.) und deshalb audi wieder aus den Fingern Gebarende.' This 
is attractive, but cannot claim the support of any actual myth. The preceding statement 
'die Paliken erscheinen als Fingergeburten ' is erroneous, the whole context being pre- 
sumably copied from J. J. Bachofen Versuch Uber die Grdber symbolik der Altett Basel 
1859 p. 174 'Darum erscheinen die Paliken auf bekannten Vasenbildern als Finger- 
geburt ; darum heisst auch Persephone selbst ILeipoyovio., die Fingergeborne, und deshalb 
auch wieder aus den Fingern Gebarende.' 

^ O. Kern in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 1323, citing A. Hug's commentary on 
Plat. symp. p. 43. 

^ O. Gruppe in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 1158. 

^ Plat. symp. 179 D 'Op(p4a 8e rbv Oldypov dreXr) dTr^irefjixpav e^"At5ou, <j)d<TiJ.a del^avres 
TTJs ywaiKbs ecp' tjv rjKev, atiTrjv 8i ov dbvres, 6tl fiaXdaKi^eadai iboKei, are (jov Kidapcfdbs, /cat 
oil ToXfidu 'iv€Ka rod ipojros dirodvri(TK€Lv (Hxrirep "A\Kri<JTii, dXXd dta/xrjxo.vdadai ^Qu dfftepai 
€is"Ai5ov. 

^ The vase (height 8| inches) was found in Attike, and was acquired by me in 
1933- 



lOO The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 

chanting an oracle from the ground ^ Behind Orpheus stands a 
young woman, presumably the Pythia. She too looks down, and 
holds her right hand with a deprecatory gesture above the head. 
She has a beaded fillet and upright bay-leaves in her hair, and she 
is clad in d^ peplos with long overfold and girdle. Behind Apollon 
stands another woman, closely swathed in chiton and himdtion. 
She also gazes at the head of Orpheus, but with loosened hair and 
a look of such obvious distress that we must surely identify her 
with Eurydike^. I take the whole design to portray the visit of 
Apollon to the Lesbian oracle of Orpheus — a scene graphically 
described by Philostratos^ the Athenian early in s. iii A.D. : 

'He {sc. Apollonios of Tyana) put in at Lesbos and made his way to the 
ddyton of Orpheus. The story goes that once on a time Orpheus here practised 
seercraft with pleasure, until Apollon took notice of him. For men no longer 
resorted to Gryneion for oracles, nor to Klaros, nor yet to the Apolline tripod*; 
but Orpheus alone gave oracles, his head having lately arrived from Thrace. 
Wherefore the god came upon him as he was chanting an oracular strain and 
said : " Leave my business to me : I have borne long enough with your 
singing".'^ 

Hitherto the only available illustration of this narrative was the 
design on a red-figured kylix now in the Lewis collection at Cam- 
bridge, published many years ago by G. Minervini (fig. 35) and noted 
by A. Furtwangler as Attic work referable to the time of the 
Peloponnesian War^ The obverse of this vase shows Apollon's 

^ Philostr. her. 6. 4 i) KetpaXi] yap /xerd to tQv yvvaiKQv '4pyov is Kia^ov KaracrxoOaa 
pijy/jLa TTJs Aicr^ov c^Kyjae kolv koCKtj rfj yfj expv^/J-ifSei. 66ev exp(*iVTb r avr^ to, jxavTiKa 
Aia^Loi re Acat rb dWo irav AioXiKbv /cat "Iwj'es AioXevai irpbaoLKoi, xp77(r/ioi 5e rod ixavreiov 
TOVTOV Kal is Ba/SuXwva aveirifnrovro. ttoWcl yap Kal is rbv dvu) ^aaiXia i] K€<paXr] rjde, 
KiJpy re ry apxo-'i-^ XPV^^f^^^ ivrevdev eKdodrjvai. Xiyerai, ^^rdfid, w Kvpe, crd," k.t.X. 

2 The only other possibility would be to regard her as ' the Muse herself that Orpheus 
bore,' whether Kalliope or another (O. Gruppe in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 1073 f.). But 
this is not the type of any known or recognisable Muse. 

^ Philostr. V. Apoll. 4. 14 p. 133 f. Kayser. ^ Sc. Delphoi. 

^ The concluding words are ifplararal ol xp77(r/A(fj5oui'Ti 6 Qebs Kal "Tr^Traucro" ^<prj 
^^tGjv i/xQv, Kal yap dr] (/cai) q-bovrd ae iKavQs ijveyKa.'' Possibly the original source of the 
story (Damis of Nineveh? Maximus of Aigai? see Philostr. v. ApolL i. 3 p. 3f. Kayser) 
had a hexameter passage such as %p?7(T/x<^5ol'j^ti debs ttot icf>i<TTaTo Kal irpoaieiire \ ' Travaai 
ifiCbv, Kal ydp g iKavds ^bovr ijveyKa' or 'tQv 5' dp' ifxCjp — Kal ydp a iKapQs rjveyKa — 
Tri-rravao.* But the later oracles of Apollon tend to drop verse for prose (Frazer Pausanias 
V. -238). It is curious, if no more, that the words rd iiid occur again in the oracle 
spoken by Orpheus' head to Kyros the Elder (Philostr. her. 6. 4 rdiid^ w KOpe, crd.) 

6 G. Minervini 'Oracolo di Orfeo e dell' Apollo Napeo in Lesbo: vaso dipinto di 
fabbrica nolana' in the Btdl. Arch. Nap. 1858 vi. 33 — 39 pi. 4, i (= my fig. 35) held 
that on one side Pelops is taking down an oracle pronounced by the head of Orpheus 
under the protection of Apollon l&airoXos (schol. Aristoph. nub. 144), and that on the other 
Kalliope has picked up her son's lyre and a second Muse the strap from which it was hung. 
Reinach R^p. Vases i. 493, 2 is more cautious: '(A) La tete coupee d'Orphee rend des 



The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth loi 

visit to the oracle of Orpheus' head; its reverse, the finding of 
Orpheus' lyre by a couple of Lesbian women (hardly Muses). The 








Fig. 35- 

new vase also amplifies the oracular visit by the addition of two 
women, but lends a far greater significance to them by making one 
the devotee of Apollon, the other the wife of Orpheus. And, if that 



I02 The Clouds personified in Cult and Myth 




is the case, Eurydike must necessarily be present in phantom form — 
a figure comparable with the ghost of Klytaimestra as she appears 
on more than one Greek vase^. Mr C. T. Seltman further points 
out to me that both these Orpheus-vases presuppose an interest at 
Athens in the sacra of Lesbos and handle the theme with a light- 
hearted semi-humorous touch understandable enough during the 
Athenian domination of the island in 427 — 412 B.c.^ 

Lastly, there is the phantasmal Aeneas, whom luno in Virgil's 
epic fashions out of 'hollow cloud 'and decks with Dardanian armour 

oracles, qu'un ephebe (Pelops?) transcrit sur un diptyque en presence d'Apollon (?). 
(B) Deux femmes, tenant I'une la lyre d'Orphee, I'autre le baudrier auquel elle etait 
suspendue.' A. Furtwangler in the Winckelmannsfest-Progr. Berlin 1. 163 ' eine 
ausgezeichnete Schale im Stile der Zeit des peloponnesischen Krieges zeigt den 
abgeschlagenen Kopf des Orpheus, der singend Orakelsprilche ertheilt, welche ein 
Jiingling in ein Diptychon aufzeichnet, wahrend Apollon als 
Orpheus Beschiitzer mit ausgestreckter Hand hinter dem Kopfe 
steht' is followed by O. Gruppe in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 1177 f. 
fig. 3. But Furtwangler Ant. Geinmefi iii. 247 ff. fig. 139 has more 
to say : ' Als Beschiitzer des Kopfes [Ov. met. 11. 50 tr., cp. Stob.y?*??-. 
64. 14 Phanokles (ed. Gaisford ii. 418 f., Wachsmuth — Hense iv. i. 
461 f.)] und Herr des Ortes erscheint Apollon offenbar auch auf dem 
Vasenbilde. Auf der Rlickseite derselben Schale scheint die Lyra 
des Orpheus in den Handen einer Muse dargestellt, wahrend eine 
zweite eine Tanie bereit halt, um die Leier damit als Weihgeschenk 
zu umschlingen. Das Bild scheint darauf anzuspielen, dass die Leier 
dem Apollon geweiht ward [Loukian. adv. indoct. 11].' C. Robert ' Das orakelnde Haupt 
des Orpheus' in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 191 7 xxxii. 146 f. fig. i rightly 
holds that the vase-painter, like Philostratos, is depicting the myth of Apollon's protest. 
See further C. D. Bicknell in thejourn. Hell. Stud. 192 1 xli. 230 pi. 12, H. Philippart in 
n Antiquity Classique 1935 iv. 209 pi. 27, i. 

To the gems discussed by Furtwangler Ant. Gejunien iii. 245 f. add a sliced chalcedony 
in my collection (fig. 36 scale f), which resembles his i pi. 20, 53 = pi. 22, 5, cp. 6, ii. 
100, 107. A chip above the young man's head has been crudely altered by some later hand 
into a would-be p^tasos. See too the Etruscan mirrors figured on my pi. xvii, and a 
' Campanian ' amphora oi c. 450 — 425 B.C., now in the Musee Borely at Marseille, inter- 
preted by Prof. P. P. Jacobsthal, to whom I am greatly indebted for my pi. xviii, as 
a youth consulting the oracular head of Orpheus. 

^ O. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1244 ('Das Schattenbild Klytaimestras '). The 
greatest resemblance to our Eurydike is shown by the phantom Klytaimestra of a krat^r 
from Armento {c. 420 B.C.), now in the Louvre (J. de Witte in the Ann. d. Inst. 1847 xix. 
413 ff., Mon. d. Inst. iv. pi. 48 = Reinach Rip. Vases i. 132, 2, Overbeck Gall. her. Bildw. 
i. 714 f. Atlas pi. 29, 7, F. Hauser in Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasen?nalerei ii. 
330 ff. pi. 120, 4, Pfuhl Malerei u. Zeichniing d. Gr. ii. 576, 597 f., iii. 356 fig. 798, 
L. Sechan Etudes stir la tragidie grecque dans ses rapports avec la ciramique Paris 1926 
p. 97 ff. pi. I, 2), who likewise occupies a position on the extreme left of the group. 

'^ Mr Seltman also suspects that the story told by Philostratos about Kyros the Elder 
{supra p. 100 n. i) belongs more properly to Kyros the Younger. If the former captured 
Babylon in 538, the latter had designs upon it in 401. If the corpse of the one was be- 
headed by Tomyiis, that of the other was beheaded by Artaxerxes. Confusion might result, 
and some points of the story suit the Younger better than the Elder. Be that as it may, 
Philostratos' mention of Babylon suggests that he may here be indebted to Damis of Nineveh. 



Fig. 36. 



Plate XVII 





X^' 



^•^i>. 





(>) (2) 

Etruscan mirrors representing the oracular head of Orpheus, 
(i) A mirror from Clusiuiii, now in the Casuccini collection (no. 176), Villa Marcianella, Chiusi. The head of Orpheus (3ctDQV) looks up from the ground with parted lips, while a young inan on the right takes down the oracle (B. Handinelli in the Man. d. Ltm. 1925 xxx. 
542 — 552 fig. 10, \V. K. C. (Juthrie Or/>/ifus and Greek Religion London 1935 p. 35 f. fig. 6). 

(2) .\ mirror, now in Paris (Ue Ridder Cat. Bronzes dii Louvre ii. 50 no. 1724), of similar design, but without names (E. Gerhard in the Ahh. d. berl. Akad. 1861 I'hil.-hist. Classe p. 407 f. pi. 2, id. Etr. Spiegel m. 275 f., 325 ff. pi. 257 a, B. Bandinclli he. tit. p. 547 (■). 

(3) A fragmentary mirror, formerly m the Borgia collection and now presumably at Naples, which had once a similar design (E. Gerhard Eir. Spiegel iii. 190 pi. 196, B. Bandinelli loc. cit. p. 54S). 

See pugc 102 'I o. 



Plate XVIII 




Early ' Campanian ' amphora in the Musee Borely at Marseilles : 
a youth consulting the oracle of Orpheus' head (?). 

See page 102 //. o. 



Men believed to control the winds 103 

in order to lure Turnus from the fights The Roman poet probably 
based his figment on a passage of the Iliad, in which Apollon rescues 
Aineias from Diomedes by carrying off his protege and substituting 
a phantom resembling him in person and equipment^. We are not, 
however, told that the Homeric phantom was made of cloud ; indeed, 
it would appear that in genuine Greek myth, as distinct from the 
inventions of a Euripides or a Virgil, the cloud-effigy was always 
female, since the cloud itself was feminine. 

§ 7. Zeus and the Wind, 

(a) Men believed to control the winds. 

The Greeks, like other imperfectly civilised nations^, credited 
certain persons with the power of controlling the winds. At Athens 
the Heuddneinoi or 'Lull-winds' had an altar near the Metroon*: 
they seem to have been a clan tracing their descent from an 
eponymous founder Heuddnemos, who was revered as an angel in 
Christian times ^ At Eleusis too there was a well-known altar of 

^ Verg. Aen. lo. 633 ff. haec ubi dicta dedit, caelo se protinus alto | misit agens 
hiemem nimbo succincta per auras, | Iliacamque aciem et Laurentia castra petivit. | turn 
dea nube cava tenuem sine viribus umbram | in faciem Aeneae (visu mirabile monstrum) | 
Dardaniis ornat telis, clipeumque iubasque | divini adsimulat capitis, dat inania verba, | 
dat sine mente sonum gressusque effingit euntis; | etc. After enticing Turnus to follow him 
on board the ship of Osinius, the phantom disappears: ib. 663 f. turn levis baud ultra 
latebras iam quaerit imago, | sed sublime volans nubi se immiscuit atrae. 

2 //. 5. 449 ff. avTap 6 etdojXov rev^' dpyvporo^os 'AttoWojv (interp. Serv. in Verg. Aen. 
2. 601 says inadvertently : Aeneas a Neptuno opposita nube liberatur) j avT(^ r kive'ia 
LKeKov KoX Tivxeai rotov, \ dfx(pl 5' dp' eldcoXii} TpcDes Kal dioi 'Axcttoi | dyovv dWrjXcou dfji(f)l 
(TTrjdeaaL jSoems | dcnridas evKVKXovs Xata-rjl'd re TrrepoevTa. W. Leaf adloc. comments: 'The 
mention of the "wraith" is not like Homer, nor does it appear on other occasions when 
a hero is snatched away by a god. It plays no further part in the action, nor does there 
seem to be the least surprise shown at the reappearance of the original Aineias in the 
field, 1. 514. Thus 449 — 453 are probably interpolated; the last two lines come bodily 
from M 425 — 6.' 

On heroes etc. wrapped in a cloud and carried off by god or goddess see F. von Duhn 
De Menelai itinere Aegyptio Bonnae 1874 p. 38, A, von Premerstein in Philologus 1896 
Iv. 636, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 996 n. i, 1153. 

'^ Frazer Golden Bough^ \ The Magic Art i. 319 — 331 ('The Magical Control of the 
Wind'), The Scapegoat pp. 176, 178 ff.. Balder the Beautiful ii. 232 f. 

* Arrian. an. 3. 16. 8 koX Taijras {sc. Antenor's group of Harmodios and Aristogeiton) 
^AdrjvaloLS diriaoj Trefxirei ^AXe^avdpos, Kai vvv Keivrai 'Ad-qv-qaLV €v Kepa/ieiKip at eiKOpes, 
y dvLfxev ^s TToXiv, KaravTiKpi) fidXiara rod MrjTpcpov, <ov {ins. N. Blancardus/<?i'/ B. Facii 
*non procul')> fxaKpdv tQu ^vdav^fiojv rod ^cofxov' oVris di fxejmjrjrai ralu deaiv ev '^XevcrtvL 
(G. Loeschcke, followed by J. Topffer, cj. iv 'EXevaiviu:. But K. Wachsmuth in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 2335 notes other examples of ^EXevcrluL wrongly altered to 'EXeu- 
(nviiij), oWe Tov (so A. G. Roos for tov cod. A.) 'Evdavifiov rbv ^cofiou (B. Vulcanius reads 
TOP EuSai'^/u.ou ^dj/iibv) eiri rod dawidov 'dvra. 

^ Hesych. EuSdi/e^tos- dyyeXos, irapd ^AdTjualois. H. Usener Gotternatiien Bonn 1896 
p. 259 n. 28 cj. yho% for dyyeXos. Alii aliter: see C Wachsmuth Die Stadt Athen im 



I04 Men believed to control the winds 

Heuddne7nos'^\ and that the Heiiddnefnoi had something to do with 
Eleusinian ritual appears from the title of a speech fathered upon 
Deinarchos, viz. ' The Heuddnemoi v. the Kerykes in re the 
Basket^' — presumably the sacred basket of Demeter^ At Corinth 
there was a similar clan of Aneinokoitai or 'Wind-layers/ whose 
business was to hush the winds to sleep*. Even in the days of 
Constantine Sopatros of Apameia, a pupil of lamblichos^, was 
accused of having bound the south winds and so prevented the 
corn-ships of Egypt, Syria, and Phoinike from reaching Byzantion : 
his enemies actually induced the emperor to order his execution®. 

With regard to the precise rites practised by the wind-layer 
there is a dearth of evidence. Perhaps the harmful gale was conjured 
into a jar^ or bag^. Empedokles of Akragas was surnamed 

Alterthum Leipzig 1890 ii. i. 441 n. 3. Mommsen Feste d. Siadt At hen p. 209 n. o con- 
cludes : ' Hesych. v. EySdve/Aos bleibt uns dunkel. Ob der Glossator Ei;5dj'e/Aos geschrieben, 
das flir eiibios dve/no^ genommen und nach Anleitung von Hebr. i, 7 6 ttoiQv tovs dyy^Xovs 
avTov TTveijfxaTa interpretiert hat, oder wie er sonst zu seiner Glosse gelangt ist, lasst sich 
nicht sagen.' Hesychios seems to imply that the pagan eponym became a Christian angel 
without losing his special function of tempering the wind. 

1 Supra p. 103 n. 3. 

^ Dion. Hal. de Dmarch. 11 ( =J. G. Baiter — H. Sauppe Oratores Attici Twxxzx 1850 
ii. 323b 9f.) ALadiKacria Ei^Sav^/AWV Trpos KrjpvKas virepTOv KauQs' k.t.X. 

'•■ Infra Append. P, cp. i. 530 n. 2. J. Topffer Attische Genealogie Berlin 1889 p. 112 
would detect 'eine Anspielung auf irgendwelche mit den Heudanemen in Beziehung 
stehende liturgische Handlungen' in Hermesianax ^ra^. 2, 17 ff. Diehl, 7, 17 ff. Powell, 
ap. Athen. 597 D r\ re ttoKvv fJuja-TrjffLV (so C. J. Blomfield for TroXvfjLvrjcTTrjLcrLv cod. A. 
E. Diehl prints 7roXi)</x> /x^cTrjiaiv) ''EXevclpos irapa ire^av \ evaa/xbv Kpv^iojv i^etpbpet 
Xoyiojv, I 'Pdpioi' opyiiav duifjLip dLairoLTrviJovaa \ Arnurjrpq,' yuwcTTT] 5' ^ari Kai eiv'Aidrj. But 
in the crucial line 19 the reading of cod. A. dpyLOjuavefxojt was corrected by J. G. J. 
Hermann into opyeiCovi. vofxcp, by C. J. Blomfield into opyeiQua vo/xip. Hermann is followed 
by Diehl, Blomfield by J. U. Powell: in either case the allusion to wind-laying disappears. 

* Hesych. 'At'e/xo/coZrat * oi dveixovs KOLfxi^opTes. yevos de tolovtSv (paaiv vTrdpx^LP iv 
Kop/j/^Cfj = Souid. s.v. ' Ave/JLOKoiraL, cp. Eustath. in Od. p. 1645, 4^^- XPW^A^'"' ^^ ^'^ '^^ 
dvifxovt iravifxevaL {Od. 10. 22) /cai to 'AvefioKoiTai, yivos iv Kopipdij} dpepiovs KOLfjii^opres. 

° O. Seeck in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii a. 1006 f. 

^ Eunap. V. Aedes. 41 koX ol irdXai ^aaKaipopres, evpr)KevaL Katpop 7]y ov/xepoL KaXXiarou, 
"dXXa ScoTrarpos 76," ^(pacrap, "6 Trapd aov TLfxibp-epos KaT^drjae rods dpefiovs 81.' vTrep^oXi^p 
ao(pias, rjP /cai olvtos iiraipets, Kal 8c' rjP eri toTs ^aaiXelois iyKddrjTai dpopois.^^ Kal 6 
Ko}P(TTaPTCPOs Tttura dKo^aas Kal (Tv/xTreiadels KaraKOTTTJpai /ceXeuet top dp8pa, Kai iyipeTO 
810. TOVS ^aaKaipoPTas raOra OcLttop ij iXeyeTO. 

"^ Cp. the Indian 'jar of the winds' {infra § 7 (b)). It was believed that a toad 
eraprisoned in a new jar and buried in the field would safeguard the crops against stormy 
weather (Plin. nat. hist. 18. 294 Archibius (on whom see M. Wellmann in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. ii. 466) ad Antiochum Syriae regem scripsit, si fictili novo obruatur rubeta 
rana in media segete, non esse noxias tempestates). The same remedy served to protect 
millet against sparrows and worms (Plin. nat. hist. 18. 158 multi ad mili remedia rubetam 
noctu arvo circumferri iubent, priusquam sariatur, defodique in medio inclusam fictili. 
ita nee passerem nee vermes nocere, sed eruendam, priusquam metatur ; alioquin amarum 
fieri, Geopon. 1. 18. 14 'AttouXt^Ios 5^ 077<rt (see L. von Schwabe in Pauly — Wissowa Real- 
Enc. ii. 249, E. Oder ib. vii. 1221 f. ), irpip aKacprjpaL tt]p dpovpap, (ppupop, tovtI(xtl ^aTpaxop 
X^paaloPf PVKTOS irepi avT7]p irepiepeyKdPTa KaTaKXeccrai ip aKeiei KepafiLali^ Kal ip fiidi^} 



Men believed to control the winds 105 

Alexanemas, *Averter of Winds^,' or Kolysanemas, 'Preventer of 
Winds/ because once, when the Etesian Winds were spoiling the 
crops, he had asses flayed and bags made of their skins : these bags 
he proceeded to set round the hills and mountain-tops in order to 
catch the wind^ His choice of the ass was certainly not accidental, 
for at Taras a sacred ass was allowed to run wild till it was sacrificed 

Afaraxoio'ai ttJs dpoijpas' /card Se tou Kaipbv rou crirbpov duopv^ai to aKCvos, Kai eK^aXeiv ttjs 
dpovpas, 'iva /xr] wiKpos 6 Kapirds y^frjTUL, id. 2. i8. 15 6 aurds 5^ ' ATrovXril'ds <f)r)<ri, rois 
aTreLpofxevois xpvyj'at irapapnyuivai dXiyrjv <paK7Jv ' <f>{)(xeL yap avTiffrareT irpbs to xa^f 'Woi' tcDj/ 
dvifxixjv). And very similar beliefs on French soil are noted by P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de 
France Paris 1906 iii. 264 f. In Italy toads are said to spring from the first large rain- 
drops of a storm (A. de Gubernatis Zoological Mythology London 1872 ii. 379 n. 2), and 
in France to announce the coming downpour by repeated croaks (P. Sebillot op. cit. iii. 
260) or leaps [id. ib. iii. 267). In Switzerland a toad crawling across the road betokens 
rain (H. Bachtold-Staubli in the Handwbrterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens Berlin — 
Leipzig 1933 V. 609). 'Eine " Dreissgenkrote " im Estrich aufgehangt, zieht in Tirol 
alle "bosen Winde," an einem Faden in der Stube aufgehangt, im Kt. Bern alle giftigen 
DUnste in sich' {id. ib. p. 619). 

8 Infra § 7 (b). 

^ Porph. V. Pyth. 29 'AXe^ctj/e/Aos pJev 7]v to iirdw/nov 'E/x7re5o/cXeous= Iambi, v. Pyth. 
136 'AXe^dye/ios iikv ov to iiribuvpiov ''E/nredoKX^ov^. Cp. Eustath. in Od. p. 1645, 42 f. els 
6irep {supra p. 104 n. 4) Se^tcDs XeyeTai diaKeTadai /cat 'E/uiTredoKXTJs. L. C Valckenaer in 
his note on Eur. Phoen. 120 restored dXe^ave/nas as the right reading in Iambi, loc. cit. 

2 Timaiosyra^. 94 {Frag. hist. Gr. \. 215 f. Miiller) ap. Diog. Laert. 8. 60 <l>'(]<sl hh Kal 
Tt/tatos iu TTJ oKTUKaideKaTTi /card iroXXovs Tpdvovs TedavfJucrdai tov &vdpa. /cat yap eTrja-lcov 
TTore cr(podpC}s irvevcrdvTOJv cbs roi)s Kapwovs Xvfxrjvacrdai, /ceXei^cras ovovs iKdapijuai /cat dcKOVs 
TTOLeTo'daL irepl tov^ Xocpovs Kal rds dKpc^pelas diiTeive irpbs r6 crvXXa^ecv Tb wvevfia' Xi^^aPTOs 
de, KojXvaavifiav KXrjdrjvai. Souid. s.v. dirvovs cites the same passage, but reads IS^uiXvad- 
ve/xov. The incident is said to have happened at Akragas (Clem. Al. strorn. 6. 3 p. 445, 
II ff. Stahlin 'E/^TreSo/cXTys re 6 'A/Cjoa7aj/rti'os KwXua'aj'^^tas iireKX-qdyi. X^yeTai ovv drrb tov 
'AKpdyavTos opov^, irv^ovTbs Tore dve/xov ^apv /cat voffQdes tois ^7xw/3iots, dXXd /cat rats 
yvvai^lv avTwv dyovias alriov yLVOfi^vov, iravaai tov dpefxov 810 Kai avTOS iv rots '4we(n ypd<p€i 
{/^ag. Ill, 3 ff. Diels)* rra^creis d' dKafxaTUV dvefiuu fxeuos oit eTriyaiav | opvij/xevoi SvTjTolcri 
KaTacpdiuvdovaiv dpovpas ' \ Kal toXlv, e5r' edeXrjada, TraXtVrtra irvedfxaTa drjcreLS, Souid. s.v. 
dfivKXaf ...^E/xTredoKXijs... ^/caXetro 5^ KojXv<t avefxas 5td to ttoXXovs dviixovi eindeixevovs ttj 
'AKpdyavTi i^eXdaai, avTov, dopds 'ovuiv irepidevTa tyj irbXei — a note re-inserted with the 
variation dv^fxov iroXXov eTride/xivov s.v. 'E/ATreSo/cX-^s and thence transcribed s.v. 8opd, where 
it is omitted by codd. V. C). Here and there, in less credulous quarters, we observe a 
tendency to minimise the marvel. Plutarch substitutes a practical wall for the bag-magic 
(Plout. de curiositate i 6 de ^vaiKOS 'EfiiredoKXijs opovs Tivd 5La<T(pdya ^api/v Kai voadodrj /card 
tS)v Trediojv Tbv v6tov ipLirveovcrav ifxcppd^as Xoi/xbu ^bo^eu eKKXeiffac ttjs xwpas, adv. Colot. 32 
'E/i7re5o/cX?7S 8^... ttjv re x^P^^ dTrrjXXa^ev dKapirlas Kal Xol/xov, 8ia<T<pdyas opovs dTToretxtcras, 
5t' uiv 6 j'6ros et's Tb ireblov virepi^aXXe) ; Philostratos, a passing cloud for the persistent 
gales (Philostr. v. Apoll. 8. 7. 8 p. 313 Kayser dKTjKooos 8e Ta'EfiireSoKX^ovs, Bs vetpeXrjs 
dvi<xx^ (popdv eir ' AKpayavTivovs payeia-rfs)', Hesychios, promise for performance (Hesych. 
KcaXvaavifias' b 'E/uLireboKXifs oI^toj KaXeiTai, <hs UTriffXJ'oiyjUei'OS e^i^eiv tovs dv^fxovs). But 
the fame of the exploit lasted on into the twelfth century (Tzetz. chil. 4. 524 ff. rtp -jraveiv 
8' ofi^povs Kal avxP'Ovs Kal irpoyivJiaKeLv irdvTa \ QaXris Kai Hvdayopas re ai/u t<^ ' Ava^aybpq.' | 
'EyU7re5o/cX^s MeX^rwi^os 6 /cat KwXuo-aj/^/ias). 

In the corrupt passage Plout. symp. 8. 8. i /cat Tbv bfidbvvfjiov efxol ry iravaafi^vip 
JlvdayopcKQs Tcpaiveiv rd 8byp.aTa (XTiyovcrai. <ppevbs k.t.X. it is probable that we should read 
Kal TOV bfxibvvfiov i/xol Tbv iravadvefxov (cp. Aisch. Ag. 214 TravaavijULOv . . .dvffias) UvOayoptKUfs 
napaiveiv rd 86y/j.aTa (TTiyeiv ^(xco <f>pevbs k.t.X. or the like (see D. Wyttenbach ad loc). 



io6 Aiolos Hippotades 

to the Winds^. And his employment of bags recalls the methods 
used by unsophisticated folk to capture souls ^ 

The same power of controlling violent winds was ascribed by 
the Greeks to Pythagoras, Epimenides, and Abaris^ Indeed, any 
and every wonder-worker could claim the prerogative — even 
Sophokles^ Nowadays, it would seem, the mere mention of the 
great man's name will suffice. In the Macedonian district of 
Liakkovikia, during an anemospldda or 'whirlwind,' people often 
mutter the charm: 'Alexander the Great liveth, aye he doth live 
and reign ^' 

(b) Aiolos Hippotades. 

A figure interesting in this connexion is that of Aiolos 
Hippotades. He appears in the Odyssey^ as Lord of Aiolie, a 
floating island^ with sheer rocky sides crowned by a wall of un- 
breakable bronze. Here he feasted with his six sons, whom he had 
united in wedlock with his six daughters. Here too he entertained 
Odysseus for a month, at the end of which time he slew an ox, made 
a bag of its skin, bound the blustering winds within it, and gave it 
as a parting gift to the hero, fastening it with a silver cord on board 
his ship. He also supplied him with a west wind to waft him on his 
way homewards. But later, while Odysseus slept, his comrades, 
under the belief that the bag was full of treasure, untied it and, to 
their own discomfiture, let loose the warring winds. 

Now Aiolos is said to have been established as keeper, or king, 

1 Hesych. duefxdjTas ' ovos d<p6Tos (so Salmasius for ovoixa d(p€KT6s cod.), iepos, roZs'Ay^/xots 
dvdfxevos iv TapavTLVOis, et. mag. p. 103, 33 f. dve/iivTas (su)- irapd TapavrboLi 6 ovos 6 
Av^/LLois dvo/xevos. Supra ii. 464. Cp. the sacrifice of asses to Apollon among the 
'Tirep^opeoi 'at the back of the North Wind' {supra ii. 463 f., 494 ff., 843). 

^ Frazer Golden Bough^: Taboo pp. 46 ff., 52 f., 64, 67, 75 f., id' Folk-lore in the Old 
Testament \\. 5ioff. 

^ Porph. V. Pyth. 29 TrpopprjcreLS re yap dirapd^aToi aeicrfiQv dLafivrjfxovedoPTaL avTov 
[sc. ToO TLvdayopov) /cat XoifxQv diroTpoTral (t^v rdx^i- xai dvifiojv ^laicvu xa^ci^wj' r' e/cx^crews 
KaraaToXai Kal kv/jlcltuv TroTaixlwv re koI daXaTricov direvdiafffiol irpbs ev/maprj rwv iraipiov 
did^aaLV. uv yueraXa/Soi'ras'E/xTreSo/cXea re /cat '1^7rL/j.€vi5T}P Kal" A^apiv TroXXax?} eTTLTereXeK^vai 
rotaOra. /c.r.X. = Iambi, v. Pyth. 135 Trpopprjaei^ re aeia/nQv dirapd^aroL /cat Xol/hQu diroTpoiral 
<Ti)V rctxei xal dvefjuav ^la'nav xaXafwi' re xi^fcws TrapavriKa KarevvqaeL^ Kal Kv/xdrwu woTafxiwv 
re Kal daXacraiiou dwevdiaa/xol rrpos evfiaprj tQv eralpoju dcd^aaiv. <J}v fx-eraXa^ovras '^/xire- 
8oK\^a re tov' AKpayavrlvov KaVl^wifxevidrji/ rbv KprJTa KaVA^apiv top 'Tirep^opeov TroWaxTJ 
Kal avTods roiavrd TLva eiriTeTekeK^uai. k.t.X. 

•* Philostr. z>. Apoll. 8. 7. 8 p. 313 Kayser evvorjaas 5e 2o0o/cXea rbv 'Adrjvalov, 6s 
X^7erai /cat due/xovs O^X^ai rrjs wpas ir^pa nvevaavTas. A. von Blumenthal in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. iii a. 1047 comments: ' Hier hat wohl das Empedoklesbild einge- 
wirkt.' 

° G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 250 f. Z^, ^-q koX ^acriXe^ei 6 
Mdyas 'AXi^avdpos (from A. A. Tovaiov ''H Kara rb TLdyyaiov Xdbpa' p. 79). Possibly 
AX^^avdpos has acquired the virtues of 'AXe^aj/e/xas. 

6 Od. 10. I ff. '^ Infra Append. P (i). 



Aiolos Hippotades 107 

of the winds by Zeus^. And Aethlios, son of Aiolos, was reputed to 
be the son of Zeus^. There is therefore something to be urged for 
Usener's suggestion that Aiolos himself was 'a sort of Zeus^.' 
Perhaps the same thought occurred to Ovid, when he made lupiter 
shut Aquilo in the caves of Aeolia and send forth Notus to cause 
a deluge* 

Others, however, have rightly insisted that the Homeric Aiolos 
is not as yet fully deified ^ Hence his description as *dear to the 
immortal gods^' Rather, he is a subordinate power, not improbably 
a dead tribal chieftain, who lives on in his Otherworld island"^ and 
is conceived as a superhuman magician, the wind-controller par 
excellence. His bag of winds recalls an odd superstition recorded by 
Tzetzes and the scholiast on the Odyssey^ \ 

'Artful contrivers and those who write on infamous practices declare that, if 
a man flays a dolphin and makes its skin into a bag and then keeps it at home, 
he will cause to blow whatever wind he may choose.' 

Somewhat similar is Philostratos' account of Indian weather-magic^. 

Apollonios of Tyana and his party are visiting the cloud-capped 

hill of the Brachmanes, four days' journey from the city Parax : 

'And they say that they saw two jars of black stone, filled with rains and 
winds respectively. The jar of the rains is opened, if India should be oppressed 

^ Od. 10. 21 TafjLLTjv dvifjLwv irol-qae K/ooj'i'wi',. Verg. Aen. i. 52 rex Aeolus, 65 f. divom 
pater atque hominum rex | et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento. 

^ Paus. 5. 8. 1 elvai yap (pacri /cai 'KidXtov MoKov, Aios 5e iiriKXricrtv. It is clear from 
the context that this Aiolos was the father of Kretheus. It is an assumption that he was 
one with Aiolos Hippotades. 

^ H. Usener in the Rhein. Mus. 1898 liii. 346 ff. [ = id, Kleine Schriften Leipzig — 
Berlin 1913 iv. 275 fif.): ' wie eine Art Zeus' (p. 346 (= p. 276)). We need not, of course, 
subscribe to Usener's view that AifoXos was the 'Zig-zag' lightning of Zeus (cp. Pind. 01. 
9. 42 aioXo^povra Aids aicra), or that his six pairs of children were the twelve months of the 
year. G. Libertini Le isole Eolie nelV antichitd- greca e roniana Firenze 192 1 p. 61 f. argues 
that Plippotes was a degraded form of Poseidon "iTTTrtos, Aiolos an ex-appellative of Zeus 
(Pind. 01. 9. 42 aloXo^povra, Orph. A. Zeus 15. 10 aioXSfxopcpe) or perhaps rather of 
Poseidon, the ever-changeful. ^ Ov. meL r. 262 ff. 

^ A. H. Keane in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1908 
i. 255, G. Foucart ib. 191 7 ix. 782. 

^ Od. 10. 2. ^ Cp. supra i. 239, 243. 

^ Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 738 = schol. Od. 10. 2 <pa.(sl yap ol firixO'V (-Koi (J. Potter cj. 
Ixa-yiKol G. F. Thryllitzsch cj. fMadrffiaTiKoi M. C. G. Mliller prints fJLayoc, but notes: 
'Vtrumque tamen, fxayoc et ix-qx^-viKol, bene se habet') koI ol ra dpprjTovpycKa ypdcpovres 
ws, idv Tis SeX<piua Troirjari dcTKOv iKdeipas avTov Kai ^xwi' Trap' iavTi^, Troirjaec irvelv du 
B.V ^o6XoiTo dvefxou. E. Scheer ad loc. cp. Eustath. in Od. p. 1645, 59 f. Trap' oh Kal aderai 
6 pridels Tov AlSXov dcr/cos deXcpivos elvai dip/na, ib. p. 1646, 8 fif. otl 5^ dcKol ov fxbuov ol 
crvvTjdojs €^ alyQv /cat ^oQv dXXd Kal e^ er^pwv 8rjX6u eari. deXcfuvhs re yap 6 prjdels dcTKOS 
TeTeXeff/xivos elrovv yeyoT^revfihos k.t.X. 

'-* Philostr. V. Apoll. 3. 14 p. 92 f. Kayser Kal 8ltt(jj icopaK^vaL (pacrl rridcj Xidov fieXavoi 
Ofx^pojv re Kal du^ficov ovre. k.t.X. Euseb. -rrpos tovs virkp ' Air oXXujviov rov Tvaveios 
'lepoKX^ovs X670US 22 p. 388 Kayser scoffs at ^povras Kal dvifiovs iv iridois. But the 
incident is by no means incredible. 



io8 Aiolos Hippotades 



by drought, and sends up clouds to moisten the whole country ; but if rains 
should be in excess, it is shut up and puts a stop to them. The jar of the 
winds, I suppose, plays the same part as the bag of Aiolos ; for they open the 
jar ever so little and let one of the winds blow in season, whereby the country 
is refreshed.' 

Other parallels to Aiolos Hippotades are collected by Sir James 

Frazer^ The closest hails from the Slavonic area : 

'It is said that Perdoytus, the Lithuanian Aeolus, keeps the winds enclosed 
in a leathern bag ; when they escape from it he pursues them, beats them, and 
shuts them up again 2.' 

Certain features in the myth of Aiolos invite further investiga- 
tion. His bag full of winds, opened by the prying followers of 
Odysseus, bears at least a superficial resemblance to the pithos 
or 'jar' containing evils opened by the inquisitive woman in 
Hesiod's Works and Days^, or to the pithos of Zeus containing 
good things opened by the over-curious man in a fable of Babrios*. 
The resemblance is increased if, with Miss J. E. Harrison^, we 
accept O. Gruppe's^ conjecture that Xh^ pithos in question was that 

^ Frazer Golden Bough^ : The Magic Art i. 326 f. 

^ Id. ib. i. 326 n. 5 after E. Veckenstedt Die Mythen, Sagen und Legenden der 
Zamaiten [Litaue?') Heidelberg 1883 i. 153. Sir James Frazer adds : 'The statements of 
this writer, however, are to be received with caution.' 

H. Usener Gotternaitien Bonn 1896 p. 97: '" Perdoytus gott der kaufleute, soxvperdout 
verkaufen '"'' P 21 [i.e. Matthaeus Praetorius Deliciae Frussicae oder Pretissische schaubiihne 
ed. W. Pierson BerHn 1871 p. 27] vgl. SI 91 (18) \i.e. A. Schleicher 'Lituanica' in the 
Sitzungsber. d. kais. Akad. d. Wiss. in Wien Phil. -hist. Classe 1853 xi. 91 {= extr. p. 18)]. 
das ist Parduiojis, nomen agentis von /^rfl^wVz verkaufen. Doch Bardoayts Ag\i.e. Kirchen- 
agende von 1530 ed. J. Bender in der Altpreussischen monatsschrift iv. 97 f.] unter 
Gardoaeten. Ist Perdoytus und seine bedeutung erst von P [i.e. Matthaeus Praetorius] 
um der etymologic willen construiert? vgl. Voigt, Gesch. Pr. i, 593 anm. i [i.e. J. Voigt 
Geschichte Prenssens Konigsberg 1827 i- 593 ^- i Gardetis nadj Cftcrmei)er @. 18 ton 
gardas etne @djaaf:^cerbe... Perdoytos ©om ^2I(t)5reu^. perdauns verfaufen, im Settifdt). pahrdoht 
sevfaufeii, <*)anbet treifcen. 8uca^ 3)aioib 33. I. @. 86 tteranbcvt fcen Seamen in Gardiaito unb 
^artfnod^ @. 142 be!^auptet, baff Gardoaetos unb Perdoytos ein unb berfetbe ®ctt fe^].' 

If Perdoytus was really a wind -god, his name might be related to the Russian 
perdeti, Slovenian prdeti, Trepdo/nai, etc. (Prellwitz Etyni. Wbrterb. d. Gr. Spr.'^ p. 362, 
Boisacq Diet. ity77i. de la Langue Gr. p. 771, Walde Lat. etym. Worterb!^ p. 569) and 
imply a very crude and primitive conception of the wind as ' flatus ventris.' 

3 Hes. o.d. 94 ff. 

■* Babr. 58. i ff. Zeus ev iriQi^ ra XPW'''^ iravra avWi^a'S \ ^6r)K€u avTov Trw/Acicras 7ra/)' 
dv6pd}ir(i}. I 6 5' aKparifS avdpuiro^ eid^vai cnreTLidwv \ t'l ttot' rjv ev avrip, /cat to irCofxa ACif^cras, | 
5t7)/c' direXdeiv avra vpbs dedv o'lKOVs, \ KCLKei ir^TecrdaL ttjs re yijs dvo) ^evycLV. | fjidvrj 5' 
'^ixeLv^v iXiris, rju KaTetXrjcpei \ redkv to TrQ/ma. Toiyap iXirls dydpibirois \ [xbvq aivecTTL, tQv 
ire<p€vy6T(av 7)fjt.ds \ dyadQv 'eKa<7Tov iyyvwix^vt) Suxreiv. This rewriting of the Hesiodic myth 
was obviously prompted by the later estimate of eXirls as a good, not an evil. 

^or the concept of a celestial store-house or treasury see H. Usener Die Sintjluth- 
a^i n Bonn 1899 p. 182 fif. 

^ Miss J. E. Harrison in iht/ourn. Hell. Stud. 1900 xx. 99 ff., ead. Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ 
pp. 169 f , 279 ff. 

^ Gruppe Gr. Myth. Pel. pp. 94, 761 n. 9, id. Myth. Lit. 1908 p. 585 ff. 



Aiolos Hippotades log 

of the earth-goddess Pandora opened once a year at the festival of 
the Pithoigia for the temporary release of souls. For winds are 
notoriously akin to souls^. Indeed, Greeks of the mythopoeic age 
would probably have assented to the direct equation winds are 
souls. It may even be that the very name Aiolos is cognate with the 
Gothic saiwala and the English soiW^. The island of Aiolos would 
on this showing too be an island of souls ^ — a typical Otherworld 
island, as we had already seen reason to suspect. 

Aiolos Hippotades has both in ancient* and in modern^ times 
been identified with Aiolos, the eponymous ancestor of the Aeolians. 
K. Tiimpel^ thinks that the Hesiodic Catalogue'^ described the latter 

^ See e.g. Rohde Psyche'^ i. 248 n. i, ii. 122 n. 2, 264 n. 2, K. Tiimpel in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 2176 fF., R. v.d. Meulen ' Uber die litauischen Veles' in the 
Archiv f. Rel. 1914 xvii. 125 ff., L. Weber ' Androgeos' ib. 1926 xxiii. 249 fF., supra ii. 62 
n. I (the Furious Host), and the history of such words as due/nos, animus, a}ih7ia\ irvo-f), 
TTvevjiia', \pvx<j>, 4'^X'hi etc. 

^ So R. Koegel in the Gott. gel. Anz. 1897 clix. 655 (relates west-German saiwala 
seula sela to aX6\o<i, for * aaLfoKos, 'beweglich, regsam,' and cp. Al'oXos), C. C. Uhlenbeck 
in the Beitrdge ziir Geschichte der deutschen Sprache iind Liter atur 1905 xxx. 305 (accepts 
saiwala : aXbXoi), J. Scheftelowitz in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogermanischen sprachen 
1905 xxix. 44 ('got. saiwala "seele": gr. af(/')oXos "beweglich"'), Boisacq Diet. ity77i. 
de la Langue Gr. p. 26 ('atoXos "mobile, agite"<*atoX6s<:*ateXos cf. aiiXovpos]. Schmidt 
KZ. 32, 324. Cf. got. saiwala "ame".' Etc.), and as a tenable alternative K. Brugmann — 
A. Thumb Griechische Grammatik'^ Munchen 191 3 p. 47. See, however, T. von Grien- 
berger in the Sitziingsber. d. kais. Akad. d, Wiss. in Wien Phil. -hist. Classe 1900 cxlii. 
179, A. Walde in Indogermanische Forschungen 1901 xii. 382 f. and in his Lat. etym. 
Worterb.^ Tp. 669 f. s.v. 'saevus, ' W. van Helten in Indogermanische Forschungen 1906 
xix. 198; P. Persson in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogermanischen sprachen 1893 xix. 
276 fif. 

^ G. Gerland Altgriechische Mdrchen in der Odyssee Magdeburg 1869 p. 38 ff., 
F. Hommel Die Insel der Seligen in Mythus und Sage der Vorzeit Mlinchen 1901, infra 
Append. P. 

* Hyg.ya^. 125 ad Aeolum Hellenis filium, cui ab love ventorum potestas fuit tradita. 
M. Schmidt ad loc. obelizes Hellenis, remarking *imo Hippotae.^ Euripides in his 
Melanippe desmotis (Hyg. fab. 186), if not also in his Melanippe sophe (Greg. Kor. in 
Hermog. Tre/ai /xedddov deivdrriTOi 28 in C. Walz Rhetores Graeci Stuttgartiae et Tubingae 
1834 vii. 2. 1 313, 6 ff.), made Melanippe the daughter of one Aiolos and the mother 
of another. Diod. 4. 67 went further in the same direction. His Aiolos, son of 
Hippotes and Melanippe, was great-grandson of Aiolos son of Hellen, and in turn grand- 
father of Aiolos brother of Boiotos. On these fictitious genealogies see further W. H. 
Roscher in his Lex. Myth. i. 192 ff., K. Tiimpel in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 1037, 
1040, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 398 n. 3, 1323 n. 2. 

^ K. Tiimpel in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 1040 f. 

^ Id. ib. i. 1036, 1039, i04i' 

^ Hes./ra^. 25, i f. Kinkel, 7, i f. Rzach ap. Plout. symp. 9. 15. 2, schol. Lyk. Al. 
284, Tzetz in Lyk. Al. 284, exeg. II, pp. 63, 14 f., 134, 22 f. Hermann (printed at the end 
of Draco Stratonicensis liber de metris poeticis ed. G. Hermann Lipsiae i8i2)"EXX7;j'os 6' 
eyivovTO 4>i.\oirTo\ifjiov ^aaiKijos (so schol. Lyk. : for variants see A. Rzach ad loc.) \ AQpos 
re SoO^os re Kai Ai'oXos 'nnrioxo.piui.r]s. The second line is quoted also by schol. Thouk. i. 3 
(p. 5, 20 Hude), and in part by Herodian. Trept fiov-qpovs X^^ews 2. 42 (ii. 647, 24 Lentz). 
Cp. schol. V. Od. 10. 2, Iambi, v. Pyth. 242 with schol. ad loc. (p. 197, 2 f. Nauck). 



no Aiolos Hippotades 

as hippiochdrmes, 'fighting with chariot and horses,' in obvious 
imitation of the patronymic Hippotades applied in the Odyssey to 
the former^ And both epithets might conceivably have reference 
to the frequent conception of the winds as horses^. I should, how- 
ever, prefer to stress another point of contact between Aiolos 
Hippotades and Aiolos son of Hellen, 1 mean the abnormal 
endogamic character of the marriage-custom that obtained among 
their descendants. 

According to Homer, the six sons of Aiolos Hippotades married 
their six sisters^ Greeks of the Hellenistic age, perhaps jibbing at 
the idea, felt it necessary to invent some explanation. Thus 
Parthenios, Virgil's tutor*, making a precis of Philetas' Hermes for 
the benefit of Virgil's friend Cornelius Gallus^ told how Odysseus 
in the course of his wanderings round Sicily had reached the island 
of Meligounis (later called Lipara^) and there fallen in love with 
Polymele, one of Aiolos' daughters; how, after his departure with 
the bag of winds, she had been found in love-sick plight weeping 
over certain spoils of Troy; how Aiolos had reviled the absent 
Odysseus and resolved to take vengeance on Polymele ; and finally 
how her brother Diores, who was enamoured of her, had begged her 
off and persuaded his father to give her to him as his wife*^. 

Now the same peculiar usage occurs again in connexion with 
the other Aiolos, eponym of the Aeolians. For he was king of 
Thessaly^; and the marriage of brother with sister is expressly 
stated to have been an ancient custom among the Thessalians^ 
Moreover, Makedon the ancestor of the Macedonians was, in the 
opinion of Hellanikos-^^, a son of Aiolos. Hence the fact that the 

^ Supra p. 1 06. 

2 W. H. Ko&chtx Hermes der PVmdgoU heipzig 1878 p. 107, E. H. Meyer Indoger- 
manische Mythen Berlin 1887 ii (Achilleis). 451 ff., H. W. StoU in Roscher Lex. Myth. 
i. 2691, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 838 f., 1148, H. Steinmetz 'Windgotter' in the 
lahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 19 10 xxv. 33 n. 5. 

3 Supra p. 106. * Macrob. Sat. 5. 17. 18 with L. Jan adloc. 
^ Par then. narr. a7n. praef. i f. 

^ Kallim. h. Artem. 47 f., Strab. 275, Steph. Byz. s.vv. Aiirdpa, MeXLyovvb. 

^ Parthen. na/'r. am. 2, Tre/Jt noAuyUT^Xi^s {icTTopei ^iXt/tSs 'E/)/a^ (on which poem see 
A. Meineke Analecta Alexandrina Berolini 1843 p. 348 ff., K. Kuiper ' De Philetae Coi 
Mercurio' in H. van Herwerden's Albiwi Gratulatorium Trajecti ad Rhenum 1902 
pp. 143 — 149, J. U. Powell Collectanea Alexandrina Oxonii 1825 p. 91 f. )). 

^ Apollod. I. 7. 3, cp. Konon narr. 2"]. 

^ Archinos QeacaXiKa frags, i, 2 [Frag. hist. Or. iv. 319 Mliller) ap. schol. T. Od. 
10. 7 dpxo.'iov 'idoi, tbs 'Apxij/os (so W. Dindorf for 'Apx^i'oi' cod.) iv QeaaaXiKols. irpwra 
de MoXov 6ixofjir)Tpias K6pas d5eX0ots cvvoida-ai (so W. Dindorf for (TvvoLKTJcrai. cod.). Cp. 
schol. B. Q. Od. 10. 7 dpxoiiov ^6os to (XwoiKL^eiv d5eX0oi/s. Kai 6 Zei>s d5eX0?7 ovcrj crvvoLKei 
Ty"B.pa. K. T. X. For Archinos see E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 541. 
^^ Hellanik. frag. 46 {Frag. hist. Or. i. 51 Mliller) =/rfl;^. 74 {Frag. gr. Hist. i. 126 



Aiolos Hippotades 1 1 1 



Ptolemies married their own sisters is probably to be explained, not 
merely as a concession to Egyptian feeling ^ but also as a survival 
or revival of a practice proper to an old Macedonian family of 
Aeolic extraction. It will be observed that the spelling of the 
Ptolemies' name — Ptolemaws, not Polemaios — certifies their Aeolic 
descent^. Finally, H. D. Muller sought to prove that Hera was 
originally a goddess of the Aeolians^ If so, the conception of her 
as sister and yet wife of Zeus may have arisen on Aeolic ground. 

Be that as it may, I am disposed to conclude that Aiolos 
Hippotades was in pre-Homeric days^ none other than Aiolos 

Jacoby) ap. Const. Porphyrog. de thematibus 2. 1 (iii. 48 Bekker) IxKKoi 5' {sc. derive the 
name Ma/<e5ovta) dTro Ma/ceSdi'os rov AidXov, ujs 'EXAdi'i/cos 'lepetQp TrpdjTTj tQu ^v"Apy€L' 
' Kal M.aKed6uos <toO (ins. A. Meineke) > AloXov, <a<{) (ins. C. Mliller) > o5 (oi/rw cod. 
F. , whence C. Muller prints tovvv) vvv Ma^eSoj^es KoKodvTai, /xovot fxera MvaQv t6t€ 

1 This explanation is advanced by Paus. i. 7. i and defended by Miss R. E. White 
(Mrs N. Wedd) in the /ourn. Hell. Stud. 1898 xviii. 238 ff. For the prevalence of 
Geschwisterehe in Egypt see Diod. i. 27, Philon de specialibus legibus 4 (v. 68 Richter) ; 
A. Erman Life in Ancient Egypt trans. H. M. Tirard London 1894 p. 153 f.. Sir G. Mas- 
pero The Dawn of Civilization^ London 1901 p. 50 f., E. Bevan A History of Egypt 
under the Ptolemaic Dynasty London 1927 p. 158. Examples of it there and elsewhere 
are collected by Sir J. G. Frazer on Paus. i. 7. i (ii. 84 f.), E. Westermarck The History 
of Htiman Marriage^ London 1901 p. 290 ff., P. Wilutzky Vorgeschichte des Rechts Breslau 
1903 i. 55 ff., F. v. Reitzenstein Urgeschichte der Ehe^ Stuttgart 1908 p. 70 f., H. Ploss — 
M. Bartels Das Weib in der A^atur- und Volkerkimde'^^ Leipzig 1913 i. 713, W. H. R. 
Rivers in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 191 5 viii. 425 b, 
F. LI. Griffith ib. viii. 444 a. 

Frazer Golden Bough^: The Dying God p. 193 f. comments: 'On this hypothesis we 
can understand why the custom of marriage with a full or a half sister has prevailed in so 
many royal families. It was introduced, we may suppose, for the purpose of giving the 
king's son the right of succession hitherto enjoyed, under a system of female kinship, either 
by the son of the king's sister or by the husband of the king's daughter; for under the new 
rule the heir to the throne united both these characters, being at once the son of the king's 
sister and, through marriage with his own sister, the husband of the king's daughter. Thus 
the custom of brother and sister marriage in royal houses marks a transition from female 
to male descent of the crown 1 [^This explanation of the custom was anticipated by 
McLennan. ..{The Patriarchal Theory, based on the Papers of the late John Ferguson 
McLennan, edited and completed by Donald McLennan (London, 1885), p. 95)]. In this 
connexion it may be significant that Cronus and Zeus themselves married their full sisters 
Rhea and Hera, a tradition which naturally proved a stone of stumbling to generations 
who had forgotten the ancient rule of policy which dictated such incestuous unions, and 
who had so far inverted the true relations of gods and men as to expect their deities to be 
edifying models of the new virtues instead of warning examples of the old vices ^ [^Compare 
Cicero, De natura deorum,\\. 26. 66; [Plutarch], Devitaet poesi Honieri, ii. 96; Lactantius, 
Divin. Inst. i. 10; Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionuvi, xii. 4].' 

2 O. Hoffmann Die griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1891 i. 123, 224, ib, 1893 ii. 344 f., 
502 f., id. Die Makedonen, ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum Gottingen 1906 p. 173, 
A. Thumb Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte Heidelberg 1909 pp. 207, 240, K. Brugmann 
Griechische Grammatik^ Munchen 1913 p. 174. 

^ H. D. Muller Mythologie der griechischen Stdmme Gottingen 1857 i. 251 ff. 

* E. Forrer ' Vorhomerische Griechen in den Keilschrifttexten von Boghazkoi ' in the 



112 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

eponym of the Aeolians, a great tribal chief who after his death 
was beheved by his people to live on in his island of souls. Such 
an one might well supply the hero of the Otherworld visit -^ with the 
souls or winds that he needed to waft him back to Ithake^ 

(c) The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis. 

The results of the last section throw a new and welcome light 
on one of the outstanding problems of Greek religion — the true 
character of the mysterious powers known to the ancients as 
Tritopatores or Tritopatreis^. 

Phanodemos, a Hellenistic historian interested in religious 

Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient- Gesellsc haft zu Berlin Marz \()i\ Nr. 63 pp. i — 22 
makes out a strong case for an Aeolian occupation of Pamphylia in Hittite times: p. 10 
' Der dritte Name ist der Name des Volkes, dem Tavag(a)lavas angehort ; er wird namlich 
einmal genannt : a-ja-va-la-as-K6nig und dies ist offensichtlich aipoXos " Aolier-Konig".' 
p. 21 'Fassen wir zum Schluss zusammen, was uns die Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkoi an 
grundlegenden Angaben iiber die Griechen liefern: i. Der Konig des Landes Ahhijava = 
'Axai/ra war seit etwa 1330 vor Chr. als Grosskonig und damit als "Bruder" des Hatti- 
Konigs anerkannt. 2. Er war zugleich als Vasall des Hatti-Konigs mit Pamphylien 
belehnt. 3. Er war ein Ajavalas — Aolier. 4. Ahhijava = Achaia und Lazpas = Lesbos 
waren seine Kernlander. 5. Ant(a)ravas = Andreus war rund 1350 — 1325 vor Chr. Konig 
von Ahhijava und Lazbas, vgl. Punkt i. 6. Tava-g(a)lavas = Eteokles war sein Sohn und 
Nachfolger seit etwa 1325 vor Chr. 7. Um 1250 vor Chr. vertreibt Attarissijas, Konig von 
Ahhija, den Madduvattas, den Fiirsten des siidlichen Kariens.' Etc. 

^ Supra i. 239 f. 

- A. D. Eraser 'The origin of Aeolus' in The Classical journal 1933 xxviii. 364 — 366 
cites inter alia a parallel from the north-east coast of Scotland (D. A. Mackenzie Tales 
from the Moors and the Mountains Glasgow 1931 pp. 62 — 67 'A weather witch, Stine 
Veg, supplies a party of fishermen with a collection of winds confined in a water jar whose 
mouth is stopped with a wisp of straw. Like the Ithacans, they are a prey to curiosity 
and, upon unstopping the jar, are blown back to their starting-point'). Prof. Eraser 
concludes : ' The tradition apparently accompanied the Achaeans in their wanderings 
from some point near the Baltic to the Mediterranean, while a somewhat different version 
was carried by another branch of Indo-European speaking people into the heart of India.' 

^ P. Kretschmer in Glotta 1920 x. 41 showed that TpTToiraTpeis was originally a verse- 
form of TpiTOTTaTopes {'Wenn TptroTrdro/jes in daktylischem Versmaass gebraucht werden 
sollte — moglicherweise wurde der Name in Hymnen, Gebeten oder Epigrammen genannt — 
so war diese Eorm mit ihren fiinf Ktirzen selbst bei metrischer Dehnung der ersten Silbe 
noch nicht anwendbar und mag daher durch TplToirarpijes TplroiraTpe'is ersetzt worden 
sein, wobei man die auch im Epos nicht ganz seltene Kurze vor Muta cum Liquida mit in 
Kauf nehmen musste'). 

The attempt of M. Budimir, a Serbian scholar, to invalidate this conclusion, reported 
by L. Radermacher in the Berl. philol. Woch. Marz 4, 1922 p. 199 f. ('Dass diese Form 
nur eine epische Bildung aus rpiTowaTOip sei des Hexameters wegen, -wie P. Kretschmer 
meint, ist nicht anzunehmen, da Cicero und attische Inschriften, die Prosa schreiben, 
ausschliesslich die Form TpLToirarpevs — TpLToirarpeis [sic] kennen. Es ist also auch aus 
diesem Grunde der Name der attischen dvanes von dem gutblirgerlichen Verwandtschafts- 
namen TpiTorrdroip zu trennen... und die attischen TpLToiraTpeis haben mit TptToirdropes 
nichts zu tun'), fails to reckon with the fact that an epic appellative may pass into popular 
parlance and acquire ritual (<?.^. TaLrjoxos : supra p. 10 ff.) or mythical {e.g. 'Icpiy^veia) 
importance. The point is one deserving of further investigation. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 113 

antiquities^ states that the Athenians alone offered sacrifices and 
prayers to the Tritopatores, when about to marry, for the procreation 
of children 2. This statement is, in part at least, confirmed by 
tangible traces left by the cult in question. 




Fig. 37. 

Excavations in the Kerameikos at Athens, conducted by A. 
Briickner and G. Oikonomos from February 1909 to September 
1910^ led to the discovery of an important group of remains in the 
angle between the Road to Eleusis and the Street of Tombs. A 

^ W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Miinchen 1920 ii. i. no n. 3. 

'^ Phanodem./ra^. 4 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 367 Miiller) ap. Harpokr. s.v. TpLTOirdropes- ... 
^avodrj/jios d^ ev S"' <f>7)(Tlv on fxdvoi 'Adrjvaloi ddovai re /cat eiixovTUL avroh vwep yev^creios 
Traidcov, orav yaixelv /m^Woicnv K-.T.\. = Phot. /ex. s.v. TpLTOTrdropes = Somd. s.v. TpLTo- 
TTciTopes = <?/. mag. p. 768, 5 ff, =Favorin. /ex. p. 1775, 45 flf. 

3 A. Bruckner 'ANASKA^AI KEPAMEIKOT' in the Hpa/cr. dpx- ^r. 19 10 
pp. loi — III with figs. I — 3 and pi. A' ( = my fig. 37). 

c. III. 8 



114 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

broken boundary-stone, found at the north-eastern corner of the 
truncated triangle (fig. 37, no. i) and inscribed 

[HAB]ATON 'Not to be trodden/ 
showed that the spot was taboo ^. Behind it were vestiges of a low 
circular tomb marked out by large stones. Beyond that in turn was 
a four-walled enclosure roughly trapezoidal in shape. In front of its 
two eastern corners stood a pair of similar boundary-stones (fig. 37, 
nos. 2 and 3), both inscribed in lettering of c. 450 — 400 B.C. 

HOPOZ : HIEPO 'Boundary of the sanctuary 

TPIToPATPEoN of the Tritopatreis. 

HABAToN Not to be trodden.' 

Yet another ancient stone, built into the southern wall of the 
precinct, reads: 

HIEPoN [TPIToPAJTPEoN 'Sanctuary of the Tritopatreis.' 
Here, then, in immediate juxtaposition with the Street of Tombs, 
was the simple dbaton of the fifth-century Tritopatreis. Within 
a stone's throw of it stood till recently the modern Church of the 
Hagia Trias (fig. 37), which by a curious coincidence, if no more^, 
recalls the triple character of the local nmnina. 

U. Kohler^ in 1879 published a similar but somewhat later 
boundary-stone, which he had copied years before in the Central 
Museum at Athens. It is inscribed in letters of ^. 400 — 350 B.C. 

OPOIIE 'Boundary of the sanct- 

POTPITO uary of the Trito- 



PATPEAN 


patreis 


H 





> 




7s 


n> 


-< 


CM 


> 




> 


t 


:d 





1 A. Bruckner loc. cit. p. 104 suggests that the actual apex, where the road forked, was 
probably consecrated to Hekate. 

2 A. Struck Griec hen land V^'iQn u. Leipzig 191 1 i. 131 f. {sup7'a i. 171). 

The Church of the Hagia Trias was removed in 1931. Excavations conducted by the 
German Archaeological Institute in the mound beneath it and in some neighbouring areas 
proved that the whole site had been used as a cemetery from the Protogeometric period 
down to the Byzantine Age (K. Kiibler, R. Eilmann, and W. Kraiker 'Ausgrabungen im 
Kerameikos' in \.\vt/ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1932 xlvii. Arch. Anz. pp. 183—208 
with plan, sections, and figs., K. Kiibler and W. Kraiker ib. 1934 xlix Arch. Anz. 
pp. 196—245 with plan and many figs., E. P. Blegen in the Am. /ourn. Arch. 1932 xxxvi. 
351—357, H. G. G. Payne in the/ourn. Hell. Stzid. 1932 lii. 238, 1933 liii. 269). 

3 U. Kohler ' Horosstein der Zakyaden ' in the Ath. Mitth. 1879 iv. 287, id. in the Corp. 






The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 115 

Whether the Zakyadai, whose name does not occur elsewhere, 
formed a genos or a phratria, has been disputed^. But it is clear 
that the addition of the last word was meant to limit the circle of 
worshippers to members of a specified tribal division, bound together 
by real or fictitious community of descent. 

The sacrificial calendar from Koukounari in the Epakria district, 
which again belongs to the earlier part of s. iv B.C.^ mentions among 
the annual rites of Marathon that in Skirophorion before the Skira 
a sheep was offered to the Tritopatreis and another to the 
Akamantes^ also among the trieteric rites of the same place that 
at the same time of year a table was set for the Tritopatreis*. The 

5^AA\ANTf-n.l^O$lAnAHTIKAIArN-^IKAlBABAAn\ 

/PAAHAPANOPnnaBAT-1/^ tT-rLTrLAPXArETAKA/ 

'|Tp|TOPATE-p.aNKAiAnoa>./MYA\AtTnTAAEA4»rL ( 

APAAAA0PHANOPA^<^^EKA/>^EoYKo:erAA^N-a; 

|TnNZ^g|AP-n.NQ^lAPANTl \ 

Fig. 38. 

context in both cases is suggestive of fertility and fertilisation. 
P. Maas^ claims that the Tritopateres are again connected with 
the Akdmantes in an important ritual text of s. iv B.C. found at 
Kyrene and first published by S. Ferri in 1927 (fig. 38)®; and 

inscr. Att. ii. 2 no. 1062 = Michel Recueil cf Inscr. gr. no. 741 = Dittenberger Syll. inscr. 
Gr? no. 443 = ?^. ib."^ no. 925 6'pos ie|/)o TpiTo|7raTp^wj' | Tio.Kvo.hQ)\y\ 

1 J. To'^^Qx Attische Genealogie Berlin 1889 P- 3^3 ^^7^ • ' ^^^ Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass 
letztere ein '^ho% waren, ist meiner Meinung nach mindestens ebenso gross, wie die, dass 
sie eine Phratrie bildeten.' G. Lippold in the Ath. Mitth. 191 1 xxxvi. 106 n. i decides 
for a 7^j'os on the ground that the HvppaKidaL {infra p. 118) certainly were such. On the 
other hand, U. Kohler locc. citt.^ U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff ^rw/£>/'^/^j" und Athen 
Berlin 1893 ii. 268 n. 11, W. Larfeld Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik Leipzig 1898 
ii. I. 187 (* wohl einer Phratrie '), and W. Dittenberger locc. citt. prefer to assume a ^parpia. 

2 R. B. Richardson in the Am.Journ. Arch. 1895 x. 220 f. 

^ J. de Prott Leges Graecorum sacrae Lipsiae 1896 Fasti sacri p. 46 ff. no. 26 B, 
30 ff. "SiKipoipopiCovos ' TTpo ^Kipujv' 'TxTTji'iwi TO, cl>/3a[t]|a oh Ahf". ^opoTp6<p(i}i x^'po^ 
hhh) Upojffvva \-\-\. I TpiTOTraTpevffL oh, iepuiavva. \-\-. 'AKdfiacriv | oh Ahh? l^pibcvva 

hh 

■* Id. ib. p. 46 ff. no. 26 B, 51 ff. ^KLpo^opiQvos' irpo HKlpcav TaXlcai Kpios A HhjJ 

iepdjffvva hh* (pp^aros Ph* T^ptroTrarpeOfft. \ rpdire^a (-• 

^ P. Maas in the Deutsche Literaturzeitung 1927 xlviii. 1953 {^' AKafxapriiou von Heilig- 
tiimern der 'A/cdjttaj/res?'). 

^ Reading and rendering are alike in dispute. S. Ferri 'La "Lex Cathartica" di 
Cirene' in the Notiziario Archeologico ig2'j iv. 91 — 145 w^ith pis. 14 — 17 and a facsimile 
(part of which = my fig. 38) § 4, 21 ff. [aif] Ka pLavricap 6<rla iravrl kuI ayvQc Kal |3a^aXw[t '] | 
TrXdi' ttTr' dvdpihTTia BdTr[w] rtD rw 'Apxay^ra /fa[t] | TpiToirar^pwv /cat diro 'Ovvfxd<rT(a tio 



ii6 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

K. Latte^ suggests that these 'Unwearied Ones ' might be either wind- 
spirits^ or else a euphemistic^ expression for the dead (kamontes). 

One other example of actual cult has been furnished by the 
French excavations in Delos*. Close to the south-east angle of the 
great precinct of ApoUon, at a spot where three roads meet, 
G. Leroux in 1906 uncovered a paved triangular place of small size 
(25"^ by 12"^). Towards its southern end was a circular structure of 
white marble consisting of curved slabs (0*54"^ high), which rest on 
a raised course of masonry and carry a projecting cornice with 
bevelled top (fig. 39). The ring-wall is broken on the north-west 
by an aperture (o*8o"^ wide). Inside is a pavement of gneiss, from 
which sundry slabs are missing. Above this pavement were found 
sherds of coarse vases, a piece of stag's antler, ashes and fragments 
of carbonised wood. Below it, excavations pursued down to the 

AeX0<S[j'] (?), I d7r' aXXw Sttt; dpdpuTros ^Ka/jt-e ovk oaia ayvdol^i]' \ tQu de lapQv bala Travri, 
*(Alla domanda) se (in materia) di oracoli (esista ugual) religio per ognuno, e per il puro 
e per I'impuro, (Apollo rispose) : tranne che (per gli oracoli provenienti) dall' uomo Batto, 
quello deir Archegeta e dei Tritopateres e da Onymastos, quello di Delfi, da qualunque 
altro (libro) dove uomini hanno lavorato non vi e religio per il puro (cioe : il puro non e 
obbligato a conformarvisi ; oppure: deriva empieta al puro che se ne serva). In materia 
di sacrifici (?) vi e invece ugual religio per tutti indistintamente.' 

G. De Sanctis 'Le decretali di Cirene' in the Rivista difilologia e di istruzione classica 
1927 Iv. 185 — 212 gives §4, 21 ff. \0''C\ Ka jxavr'nau data iravrl koI ayvCiL koI /3aj8a\w[i*] | TrXai' 
air avdpdoTTfj} BaTr[ci;] [[ra)]] rw 'Apxo-y^Ta /ca[t] | rpiTowaT^puy koI airb 'Opv/ndaru rcT 
AeX0w I (xtt' dXXw Sttt; dudpojiros ^Ka/ne ovk baioL d7i'c3[i,] | tw 5e iapcou baia iravrl, 'Se vi e 
liceita sacra di oracoli (presi nelle tombe) e pel puro e per 1' impuro. Salvo che dall' 
uomo Batto, 1' Archegeta, e dai Tritopateri e salvo che da Onimasto di Delfi, da altro 
(oracolo) ove un uomo mori {cioe dove e un morto) non vi e liceita sacra (di far consulto) 
al puro. Di sacrifizi (alle tombe) vi e liceita sacra per tutti. ' 

U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 'Heilige Gesetze. Eine Urkunde aus Kyrene' in 
the Sitzungsber. d. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin Phil. -hist. Classe 1927 pp. 155 — 176 prints §4, 
21 ff. a'i Ko. fxavricav baia, ttuvtI Kai dyvui Kai j3aj8dXa)[t], | ttXcij' (ztt' dudpcoTrci), Bdrrw rw rcD 
dpxo.y^TO. /ca[i] I TpLTOirarepcov kuI aTrb ' Ovvfxdaroj rw AcX0c5 [/cat] | cxtt' dXXw, ottt) dvOpioiroi 
^Kafxe, OVK bffia dyvOtli]. \ tQv bk iepwu baia Travri, and translates ' Wenn bala der Seher ist, 
ist sie es fur jeden, den Reinen und Profanen; nur von einem Menschen, Battos dem 
Konige, und den Urahnen und von dem Delpher Onymastos und jedem anderen, wo ein 
Mensch Ruhe gefunden hat, ist keine baia fiir einen Reinen ; aber von den Tempeln ist 
bffla fiir jeden.' 

See further G. Oliverio in the Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 1928 Ivi. 
222 ff. 

1 K. Latte 'Ein sakrales Gesetz aus Kyrene' in the Archivf. Rel. 1928 xxvi. 41 — 51. 

^ Cp. Emped.^^<2^. iii, 3 Diels Trai^creis 5' d/fayu.drwj' aj'^^awi' /xei'os /c.r.X., Soph. Track. 
1 12 TToXXd yap uicrr aKajmavros 7} vorov rj ^opea ris K.r.X. 

3 Supra \\. iii2n. 7, 1125 n. i. 

^ Pending the full publication in Dilos vii. 2, there is an interim-reTporthy M. Ilolleaux 

in the Co?nptes rendus de V Acad, des inscr. et belles-lettres 1907 pp. 353^ — 356 with a photo- 

raphic cut. The general lie of the land can be well seen from the chart in the Bull. Corr. 

Hell. 1906 XXX pi. 9; but the only plan hitherto published that marks the sekos of Trito- 

pator is that by J. Replat given in Dilos vii. i opposite p. 2. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 117 







1 1 8 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 



level of the virgin soil discovered not only ashes and charcoal, but 
also the bones of small cattle. Trial pits sunk outside the ring-wall 
beneath the paving of the triangular place brought similar debris to 
light. It was obvious that the cult here celebrated was older than 
the construction of the circular edifice. And an inscription (fig. 40) 
incised on the inner surface of one of the curved slabs, beneath the 
cornice, reads as follows^: 

TpiroTrarco/) 
IlvppaKidaiv 

The first two lines are engraved stoichedon in careful lettering of 



' Tritopator 
of the Pyrrhakidai 
from Aigrilia.' 



::j:^?XTrT-Nv^-y^ 



^^^ 



^>vv ^w ^s^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ »Wsn>s v^ 







fe'f%T P I T O P AT'np'^^^/ 

mt-4 PY R,P A r I A/\N '^'' 

f f/v ■ %• ATFi AT ^ -N^ 



'^^■^'f 






Fig. 40. 



c. 400 B.C. The third line is less well cut and appears to have been 
crowded, as an afterthought, into the narrow margin left by the 
other two. M. Holleaux notes that the Pyrrhakidai were an Attic 
genos, familiar to us from Delphic records of the Athenian Pythais^, 
and P. Roussel points out that their archegetes Pyrrhakos is described 
as a contemporary of Erysichthon^, who went from Athens to 



^ M. Holleaux loc, cit. p. 354: 'Des huit lettres qui la composent, on n'a pu jusqu'a 
present dechiffrer surement que la premiere et les trois dernieres. ' But P. Roussel 'Deux 
families atheniennes a Delos' in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1929 liii. 166 ff. (167 — 179 
Pyrrhakidai, 179 — 184 Erysichthonidai) gives fresh photographs of the monument 
(figs. I — 4, of which 2 and 4 = my figs. 39 and 40) and makes it clear that the inscription 
should be read as here printed. He rightly connects the g^nos with the Attic deme 
X.h/iki6, (v. Schoefifer in Pauly— Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 39 f.)' TptrwTrarwp in the Am. 
Journ. Arch. 1931 xxxv. 179 is a mere blunder. 

2 See Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr.^ no. 711 D^, 30 f. n. 13. 

^ Hesych. Iluppa/cos' r/'pws Kar ^^pvaix^ova yeyovcos. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 119 

Delos^ and there set up the first wooden statue of Apollon^. On 
this showing the circular structure found by Leroux would be in the 
nature of a Delian family heroon^. Immediately to the south of it 
are the remains of a Byzantine church. Was this another case of 
the pagan Tritopatores being replaced by the Christian Trinity? 

Putting together these various indications of popular worship, 
we perceive that the Tritopatores from the fifth century onwards 
had been established at the cross-roads (Kerameikos, Delos), where 
a hypaethral enclosure, either trapezoidal (Kerameikos) or circular 
in plan (Delos), was set apart for them in a roughly triangular 
space. The cult there carried on might be limited to members of 
a particular clan (the Zakyadai at Athens, the Pyrrhakidai in Delos) 
and involved the sacrifice of sheep etc. (Marathon, Delos). In some 
respects, therefore, the Greek Tritopatores recall the Lares 
Conipitales, who were likewise worshipped at the cross-roads — that 
immemorial rendez-voiis of family-ghosts* This disposes us to see 
in the former, as in the latter^ ancestral spirits watchful over the 
welfare of their descendants. 

Literary evidence with regard to the nature of the Tritopatores 
follows two lines of tradition, one supporting, the other supple- 
menting, the inferences drawn from the monuments. 

^ Phanodemosyra^. i [Frag. hist. Gr. i. 366 Miiller) ap, Athen. 392 D. 

- Plout. ap. Kuseh. praep. ev. 3. 8. i. 

^ P. Roussel in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1929 liii. 177 : 'D'apres les observations faites 
par G. Leroux, un culte etait celebre depuis longtemps sur remplacement ou s'eleva le 
monument du Tritopator. Tout le quartier a ete si profondement remanie jusqu'a la 
basse epoque romaine qu'il est difficile de determiner I'aspect qu'il pouvait presenter au 
V^ siecle ou precedemment ; mais I'hypothese n'est point exclue qu'il ait jadis fait partie 
d'une vaste necropole dont on a retrouve des traces, d'une part dans la region a I'Ouest 
de la partie septentrionale de la rue du Theatre, d'autre part dans la partie Sud-Est du 
sanctuaire meme d'Apollon, pres de I'autel de Zeus Polieus. On imaginerait volontiers 
que les Pyrrhakidai eurent la tombe reelle ou fictive d'un ancetre en cette region et qu'au 
moment de la purification de 426, on y substitua le monument d'un culte heroique.' 

Id. Dilos colonie athinienne Paris 1916 p. 158 n. 5 had already commented on the fact 
that a similar structure, discovered in 19 12 to the south of the lower reservoir of the 
Inopos, was dedicated to the Niy^u^ai \lvppo.KihQ)v . In the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1929 liii. 171 ff. 
he adds fig. 5 plan, fig. 6 inscription, and fig. 7 restoration of this second monument. 

* See J. A. MacCulloch 'Cross-roads' in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and 
Ethics Edinburgh 1911 iv. 330b — 335b, R. Wiinsch 'Cross-roads (Roman)' ib. 335b — 
336b, K. F. Smith 'Hecate's suppers' ib. Edinburgh 191 3 vi. 565a — 567a, Schrader 
Reallex.'^ p. 335. 

^ Supra ii. 11 59 with n. i. See further E. Samter Familienfeste der Griechen und 
Romer Berlin 1901 p. 105 ff., id. *Der Ursprung des Larenkultes' in the Archiv f. Rel. 
1907 X. 368 — 392, A. von Uomaszewski ib. 1907 x. 336 f. { = id. Abhandlungen %ur 
romischen Religion Leipzig und Berlin 1909 p. 174 f-), Miss M. C. Waites 'The nature of 
the Lares and their representation in Roman art' in the Am. Journ. Arch. 1920 xxiv. 
241 — 261. 



I20 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

On the one hand, the Tritopatores are described as remote and 
mythical ancestors. The author of the work known as the 
Exegetikon, who has been plausibly identified^ with Kleidemos or 
' Kleitodemos, the oldest of all writers on the local customs of 
Athens ^' and would thus be referable to the middle of the fourth 
century B.C.^ stated that the Tritopatores were sons of Ouranos and 
Ge, named Kottos, Briareos, and Gyges^ Philochoros, the most 
important of the Atthidographers, followed suit with the assertion 
that the Tritopatreis were the earliest offspring of Ge and Ouranos, 
and the first to begin generation ^ Elsewhere he gave a slightly 
divergent account. The Tritopatreis were the first of all. At that 
time men believed that the earth and the sun, Ge and ApoUon as 
they called them, were their parents, and that the offspring of these 
were Tritoi Pateres^. The meaning of these two passages is not 
over-clear. But C. A. Lobeck'' makes it probable that, in Philochoros' 
view, the earth fructified by the sun produced the Tritopatreis, who 
acting as procreators for the first time thereby became the parents 
of all mortal men. Cicero, quoting from a Greek Catalogue of the 
gods which seems to have been drawn up in the second or first 
century B.C.^ makes Zeus, 'a very ancient king,' the father by 
Persephone of the first Dioskouroi — a triad of brothers known as 
Anaktes at Athens and named Tritopatreus, Eubouleus, and 
Dionysos^. These varying versions agree in attributing the names 
Tritopatores, Tritopatreis, Tritopatreus to prehistoric progenitors 
of a more or less superhuman sort. It is possible that behind them 

^ See A. Tresp Die Fragf?ienle der griechischen Kultschriftsteller Giessen 1914 
p. no f. 

2 Paus. 10. 15. 5. 

2 F. Jacoby in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xi. 591. 

^ Harpokr. s.v. TptroTrctro/oes = Phot. lex. s.v. T/oiro7rdropes = Souid. s.v. Tptro- 
■jrdTope5\..6 de to '^^rjyrjTiKbv iroi'qcra^ Ovpavov /cat Ti]i (prjcrcp a^Tovs elvai, ovdjuaTa de 
avTuiv KoTTov, Bpidpecov Kal Tvyriv. Cp. e^. mag. p. 768, loff. = Favorin. lex. p. 1775, 49 fif. 

^ Philochor. /ra^. 3 [Fi^ag. hist. Gr. i. 384 Miiller) ap. Phot. lex. s.v. TpiTOTrdrwp' 
TpLT07rdTpeLS...^iX6xopos de tovs irpijOTOvs iK Trji /cat Ovpavou, ap^avras 5e yev^aecos. 

^ Philochor.yr^cr. 2 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 384 Miiller) ap. Harpokr. s.v. TpiToirdTop€s = 
Phot. lex. s.v. TptTOTraTopes = Somd. s.v. TptToirdropes' .. .^i\6xopos de tovs TpiTOiraTpeis 
irdvTwv yeyovivai irpiJoTovs' ttjv jxkv yap yiju Kal top tJXlov (prjcrLv, dv Kal ^ATroWwva TOTe 
KoXeiv, yovels avToov eirlaTavTo ol tStc dvdpujiroL, tovs 5' e/c tovtujv Tpirovs iraTepas. Cp. 
et. mag. p. 768, i ff. (Selene substituted for Ge), Favorin. lex. p. 1775, 45- 

If this passage is rightly assigned by C. Miiller to the Atthis, it may be surmised in 
view of the inscription from Epakria {supi'a p. 115) that the other passage {supra n. 5) 
occurred in Philochoros' treatise on the Attic Tetrapolis (Frag. hist. Gr. i. 410 f. Miiller). 

^ Lobeck Aglaophamus i. 761 f. 

8 Supra ii. 11 35 n. 4. 

^ Cic. de nat. deor. 3. 53 cited supra ii. 1135 n. 4. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 121 

all lay the greater authority of Aristotle, who is said to have used 
the word tritopdtor in the sense of ' great-grandfather^.' 

On the other hand, somewhat to our surprise, the Tritopatores 
are identified with, or at least brought into close connexion with, 
the winds. Demon in his Atthis {c. 300 B.C.) roundly declared that 
the Tritopatores were the winds ^ — a statement implicitly traversed 
by his critic and rival Philochoros^ The author of the Orphic 
Physikd, which was attributed (no doubt, wrongly*) to Brontinos^ 
of Metapontum^ explained that the Tritopatores were 'door-keepers 
and guardians of the winds'^' and gave their names as Amalkeides, 
Protokles, and Protokreon^ — a trio well adapted for hexameter 

^ Aristot. frag. 376 Rose ap. Poll. 3. 17 6 5^ irdinrov -rj T-rjdrji Trarrjp TrpdiraTnros, 
tbs 'l<T0KpdT7}s ' TCLxo- 5' hv TovTov TpiTOTTaTopa ^ ApKTTOTeXrjs Ka\o2. H. Steuding in Roscher 
Lex. Myth. v. 1209 assumes that the name ^Apia-TOTeXyjs has here displaced that of 
^ ApLaTotpdvTjs 6 Bv^avrios — a view put forward by G. Kaibel and U. von Wilamowitz- 
Moellendorff (Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 473 n. 4). See further G. Lippold in the 
Ath. Mitth. 191 1 xxxvi. 106 n. 2 ' Ubrigens hat bei Pollux eine Handschriftenklasse 
(II bei Bethe) t p l irdrcopa. Ebenso Hesych. T/)i Trarpeis' ol irpCoTOi yeuvoofieuoL und das 5. 
Bekkersche Lexikon (Anecdota Graeca I 307, 16): T p l rrdropes : oi jxkv tovs irpcoTovs 
dpx7776Tas, oi 5e Tpirovs dirb rod warpSs, 6 ir^p ecxTL irpoirdTnrovs (vgl. Schmidt zur 
Hesychstelle). Nun ist TpnrdTwp (vgl. t piirairwo^ tritavus Corpus Glossariorum 
Latinorum II 459, 31) die Form, die man fiir ein Wort mit der Bedeutung irpbw air tto's 
(dritte Generation vom Vater an) erwarten sollte, und Wilamowitz (Aristoteles und 
Athen II 268 Anm. 11) hat die Gleichung Trp6iraTnros = T piToirdTOjp fiir grammatisch 
unmoglich erklart. Es ist also sehr gut denkbar, dass das jetzt nur schwach bezeugte 
T p I irdTOjp in der Bedeutung Trpdirairiros bestanden hat und erst in der lexikalischen 
Uberlieferung mit T pir irdrojp, mit dem sich wegen seiner dunklen Etymologic die 
Lexikographen viel beschaftigten, zusammengeworfen wurde. Dann wurde Aristoteles 
als Zeuge fur T p it irdriap ausscheiden. Uber den mutmasslichen Zusammenhang der 
Aristotelesstelle vgl. Rose, Aristoteles pseudepigraphus p. 428, 52 {dea-fxoderQv dvaKpiais, 
el 'AdrjvaioL ei<nv cKarepiadev e/c t piyouias' [Aristot. frag. 374 Rose ap. Poll. 8. 85]). 
But M. Budimir, the Serbian scholar reported by L. Radermacher in the Berl. philol. 
Woch. Marz 4, 1922 p. 199, comes to a very different conclusion: 'Demnach kann 
TpiTOTrdT(t}p '•'' tertium patreni, das heisst irpbirainrov''^ und ^^ eufn cui tertius pater 
superest^' bezeichnen, ebenso TpiwdTup '■'■ euni cui tres patres sunV'^ (wie rpidvoip), was 
aber keinen Sinn hat, und wie rpiyipcov rpidovXos trifur triparcus triscurria, den 
Erzvater, irpoiraTup, dpx'rjybs yeve(xeias, 6 irpQiTos dpx7?7eT7;s. ' On which showing 
Aristotle's name may stand. 

■^ Demon /roo-. 2 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 378 Muller) ap. Harpokr. s.v. TptToirdTopes — 
Phot. /ex. s.v. TpcToirdropes = Souid. s.v. TpLTOTrdropes' Arj/ncov kv rrj 'Ar^tSt (pijcrly dvepLOvs 
elvai Toius TpiToirdTopas. Cp. et. mag. p. 768, i =Favorin. lex. p. 1775, 44 f. TptroTrdropes " 
A-qixoiv dvefiovs elvat (prjai, and Phot. /ex. s.v. TptroTrdrajp • T/airoTTctrpeis oi fxev duifxovs, k.t.X. 

^ Harpokr. s.v. 'Hertou/eia, Souid. s.v. ^tXoxopos: see E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa 
Rea/-Enc. v. 142. 

^ W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Munchen 1924 ii. 2. 984. 

^ Souid. J-.7/. 'Op0ei;s (p. 1175, 11 Bernhardy). ^ Iambi, v. Pyth. 267. 

^ Phot. /ex. s.v. TpLTOTraTOjp' ...iu d^ rois 'O/)0tKots dviixdjv iraiSai is presumably a 
blunder for dviixwv <pv\aKas. 

^ Orph. ^voiKdfrag. 240 Abel, 318 Kern ap. Harpokr. s.v. TptT07rdropes=Phot. /ex. 
s.v. TpiT07rd,ropes= Souid. s.v. TpLTOwdropes- ...iv 8^ ti^ 'Opcp^ojs ^v<tlk^ dvofid^effdai, roi/s 
TpiToirdropas ' A/xa\K€L8r}v Kai UpuroKX^a Kal HpuroKpiovra {UpuTOKXioura Souid.), dvpojpovs 



122 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

versed Others went on to compare them with Aiolos Hippotades^, 
and in so doing all but reached the only satisfactory solution of the 
whole problem. 

For, if the Tritopatores on the one hand are ancestral spirits and 
on the other hand are winds, that is but another proof of our con- 
tention that to naive Greek thinking winds are souls and souls are 
winds ^. The Tritopatores^ the 'Great-grandfathers/ were naturally 
invoked 'for the procreation of children*.' It was they who gave 
life to each succeeding generation in the form of wind or breath ^ 
Nay more, it was they who ivere the life of each generation. Every 
infant lived just because there had entered into its body the breath 
or wind that was the soul of some long-buried ancestor^. That — I 
take it — was the original function of the Tritopatores, dimly 
remembered in fifth-century Athens, but still lingering in the back- 
ground of popular belief, and strong enough to assert itself here and 
there, in a suburb like the Kerameikos, in a country-town like 
Marathon, in a distant island like Delos. 

KoX (pijXaKas ouras tGjv dvificov. Cp. ef. mag. p. 768, 6 ff. = Favorin. lex. p. 1775, 47 ff. ev 
5e Toh 'Op0ews ^vciKoii tovs TpLrovs irarepas 'A/iaX/cetST^j/, JIpuTOKXeiav , Kai UpcoTOKpeovra, 
dvpwpoiis Kal (pvXaKas ovras tQv dv^fioov. Other forms of the names : ' AfiaXKeidTju 
cj. S. Eitrem, ' AfxaKKeib-qv Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 738 = schol. Od. 10. 2, ' A/xaKXeidrju (?) 
noted by Lobeck Aglaophamus i. 773 (' HamacHdes'), 'ApaKXeidrjv cj. A. Fick, ' AXdXKeidrjv 
cj. L. Radermacher. Ilpwro/cX^ Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 738 = schol. Od. 10. 2. UpojKpeovTa {sic) 
schol. P. Od. 10. 2. 

1 £.g. dv^/jLcov de dvpojpoXs /cat (pvXaKeaaiv | < eii^ad^ > 'A/jidXKeidy], IlpooTOKXel', UpooTO- 

KpeOVTL. 

^ Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 738 = schol. Od. 10. 2 koI tovtov eVe/ca e/nvde^aavTO avrov {sc. 
AI6X0V Tov 'Ittttotou) deaTrdrrju elvai dveixojv. o/jLoiios 8e /cat tou ' AfiaKXeidrju /cat IlpuTOKXrj /cat 
npioTOKpiovra, us (p-rjaiv 'Opcpeds. 

^ Supra n. 1039, iii. 109. ^ Supra p. 113. 

^ Rohde Psyche'^ i. 248 n. i 'Entschlagen wir uns aller Speculation, so erkennen wir 
in den Tritopatoren Ahnenseelen, die zu Windgeistern geworden sind und mit anderen 
i/'uxai (die ja auch vom Windhauche benannt sind) im Winde fahren, von denen, als 
von wahren ■jrvoial ^({joyovoi [see Lobeck Aglaophamus i. 760], ihre Nachkommen 
Hilfe erhofifen, wenn es sich um Lebendigwerden einer neuen "^vxh handelt. Seelen als 
Windgeister sind sehr wohl verstandlich ; bei den Griechen ist diese Vorstellung nur 
vereinzelt erhalten und ebendarum werden solche vereinzelt im Glauben lebendig gebliebene 
Windseelen zu besonderen Damonen, die Tritopatoren nicht anders als die Harpyien 
(s. Rhein. Mus. 50, 3 ff.).' Cp. B. Schweitzer Herakles Tubingen 1922 p. 72 ff. (sum- 
marised by E. Fehrle in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1209 f.), who takes the Tritopatores 
to be ancestral spirits conceived as winds (p. 75 f. 'Bei der Begattung tritt sie \sc. Tri'eO/xa] 
aus dem Munde der Eltern aus und vermischt sich mit der wachsenden Frucht. . . Der Name 
bedeutet dasselbe wie irpdTrainros It. tritavus = " Drittvater " . . .also einfach Ahne, dpxvy^TV^ 
des Geschlechts, der "rechte Vorfahr"'). 

^ On the reincarnation of ancestors in their descendants see E. B, Tylor Primitive 
Culture^ Liondon 1891 ii. 3 — 5, Frazer Golden Bough'^: Taboo pp. 365 — 372. Evidence 
drawn from Greek and Roman burial customs, Greek nomenclature, etc. is collected by 
F. B. Jevons 'Greek Law and Folk Lore' in the Class. Rev. 1895 ix. 248 f., J. E. King 
'Infant Burial' ib. 1903 xvii. 83 f. {supra ii. 1059), Frazer Totemism and Exogamy iii. 
298 f. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 123 

So much for the main point. Sundry side-issues have yet to be 
settled. If tritopdtor meant strictly a ' father in the third (ascending) 
generation' and so, more generally, a 'lineal ancestor,' its correlatives 
would be represented by such words as tritogenes'^ and tritokoure'^ . 
G. Lippold^ has ingeniously suggested that an echo of the prayer 
addressed before marriage to the Tritopatores* may be heard in the 
first half^ of the proverbial line: 

Grant me a child that is tritogenes^ not tritogeneia ® — 

in other words, a boy of true descent in preference to a girl of true 
descent. In this connexion the old problem as to the meaning of 
Athena Tritogenes'^ or Tritogeneia^ s\u\'^\y solves itself The epithet 

^ Mostly found as an epithet of Athena {infra n. 7). 

^ Hesych. rpiTOKO^pr}' rj irdpra (rvv{T€)Ti\€<TTai to, eis Toi)S yd/xovs' rivh 8e yv-qala 
irapdhos. Cp. eund. TprjTOKovp-^Tas' yvrjaias yvvaiKas. oi d^ irapdevovs, from which 
L. Dindorf in Steph. TAes. Gr. Lmg. vii. 2473 B restored rpiTOKovprj' rds yvrjalas k. t. X. 

3 G. Lippold 'TPITOnATPEIS' in the At/i. Mitth. 1911 xxxvi. 105. 

•* Supra p. 113. 

^ G. Lippold loc. cit.\ 'Die beiden letzten Worte sind vielleicht nur eine spatere 
Erganzung, urn einen vollstandigen Hexameter herzustellen ; derartige Erganzungen sind 
bei Sprichwortern und sprichwortlichen Redensarten etwas sehr haufiges (vgl. Usener, 
Altgriechischer Versbau 49flf.).' But M. Budimir, as reported by L. Radermacher in the 
Berl. philoL Woch. Marz 4, 1922 p. 198, rightly retorts : 'Die Worte "yUT? Tp^Toyiv eia^^ 
sind kein spaterer Zusatz, ...denn sie geben dem Gebet die notwendige Pointe und bilden 
mit dem Vorherigen einen Hexameter.' 

^ Schol. B- L. T. V. //. 8. 39 Tj 6ti Tpirri ^divovros irex^V' '^^iJ TrapoLfiia *7rats fxoi 
TpcToyeuijs e'i-q, fii] TpiroyiveiaJ' appevdodeis yap at roiavTai yvvalKes. The scholiast's explana- 
tion oi rpLToyheta is, of course, late and worthless (G. Lippold loc. cit. p. 107 f.), but his 
citation of the proverb is important. 

P. Kretschmer in Glotta 1920 x. 42 f. ' Wie erklaren sich nun aber hierbei TpiToyevrjs 
und TpiToy^veLa? — Das ist eine Schwierigkeit, die im erst en Augenblick uniiberwindlich 
scheint ; denn TpiToyevrjs mvisste den in der 3. Generation geborenen bedeuten, und so 
konnte der junge Ehemann doch nicht den Sohn nennen, den er sich wiinscht, und auch 
die Tochter des Zeus konnte so nicht heissen. Die Losung des Ratsels ergibt sich aus 
jenem Prinzip, das Sommer " Kontrarbildung" genannt hat und das ich kUrzlich in 
der Anzeige seines Aufsatzes, Glotta viii 266 f. erortert habe. Nach rptroTrdrwp, das nicht 
mehr wortlich, sondern nur als Stammvater verstanden wurde, wurde rpLToyevrjs im Sinne 
von 'Stammsohn,' rpiToyeveia oder rpLTOKovpr} 'Stammtochter' gebildet' {c^. proavus — 
pronepos^ Grossvater — Grosssohn, grandfather — grandson, etc.). 

G. Lippold's attempt in the Ath. Mitth. 191 1 xxxvi. 106 to explain the element rpiro- 
in TpiToirarpeh, rpiToyev-qs, TpLToyeveca, TptTOKo6pr} as = yvri(noSy yvrjaia breaks down through 
lack of any etymological cognates. 

7 TpcToyevrj^ as an epithet of Athena is not Homeric (T. W. Allen and E. E. Sikes on 
h. Ath. 4 ^piToyevrj), but becomes fairly frequent in later verse (Bruchmann Epith. deor. 
p. 15). The earliest examples of it are Aristoph. eq. 1189 17 Tpiroyev-qs (where 'Hpi.Toyeveia 
is a not very probable conjecture: see F. H. M. Blaydes ad loc.) and oracl. ap. Hdt. 7. 
\Af\—Anth. Pal. 14. 93. 6 ^piroytvd. 

^ TpLToyheia is an appellation of Athena, used normally without her name. It is 
frequent in Homeric and post-Homeric verse (not, however, in tragedy) (Bruchmann 
Epith. deor. p. 15), and occasional even in prose (Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. vii. 
2472 c — d). 

The significance of the titles TpiToyivcLa, TpiToyev-^s as applied to Athena is discussed 
by T. Bergk in ihe /ahrd. /. PhiloL u. Padag. i860 Ixxxi. 305—309 = 2'^. Kleiiic philo- 



124 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

claims that the goddess was the genuine descendant of Zeus, 
Kronos, and Ouranos — a claim whose validity we shall later have 
occasion to test. 

Again, the use of such a term as Tritopatores to signify a line 
of remote ancestors implies the primitive view that 'three' is a 
typical plurality^. And the successive 'three' (= many) generations 
naturally enough leads to the simultaneous 'three' (= many) gene- 
rators. Accordingly, when names are given to the Tritopatores, they 
are a triad such as Kottos, Briareos, Gyges^, or Amalkeides, 
Protokles, Protokreon^, or Tritopatreus, Eubouleus, Dionysos^ 
But this last and latest specification offers quite inadequate support 
to S. Eitrem's hypothesis that the Tritopatores were originally, like 
the Dioskouroi, two in number, the addition of a third being due to 
a mere misconception of their name^ 

Misconception, however, of a sort there certainly was, and 
indeed still is. For as soon as the prose Tritopatores became the 
poetic Tritopatreis, the way was open for the whole group of Trito- 
names to overlap and get entangled with an entirely different group 
of Trito- names, represented by the sea-god Triton, the sea-goddess 
Amphitrite, a river Triton, a spring or lake Tritonis, etc. These 
names presuppose triton or the like as an early word for 'water.' 
E. Boisacq^, for example, following in the steps of E. Windisch"^, 
H. Osthoff^ A. Fick^, K. Brugmann^^, and H. Pedersen^^ relates 

logische Schriften Halle a. S. 1886 ii. 653 — 657, J. Escher Triton und seine Bekdnipfung 
durch Herakles Leipzig 1890 pp. 14 — 19 (*Tritogeneia und verwandtes'), W. Schulze 
Quaestiones epicae Gueterslohae 1892 p. 177 f., Farnell Cults of Gk. States i. 266 — 270, 
Gruppe G?'. Myth. Rel. pp. 1143 "^^ i» ^^'^ '^' 2» ^219 n. 3, M. Budimir ' Atena Trito- 
genija i' aticki Tritopatreiji' in the Glasnik zem. Museja 1920 xxxii. 295 — 328 reported 
by L. Radermacher in the Berl. philoL Woch. Marz 4, 1922 pp. 198 — 203. E. Fehrle in 
Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1146 — 1150 sets out impartially the competing interpretations, but 
ends with a non liquet. 

1 Supra ii. 893 n. o. ^ Supra p. 120. 

^ Supra p. 121. ^ Supra p. 120. 

^ S. Eitrem Die gottlichen Zwillinge bei den Griechen {Videnskabsselskabets Skrifter. 11. 
Historisk-filos. Klasse 1902 No. 2) Christiania"i902 pp. 60 n. 3, 118, Gruppe Myth. Lit. 
1908 p. 628. 

^ Boisacq Diet. Hym. de la Langue Gr. p. 986. 

'' E. Windisch in the Beitrdge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Liter atur 1877 
iv. 268, id. Kurzgefasste irische Grammatik mit Lesestiicken Leipzig 1879 p. 39 § 155. 

^ H. Osthoff — K. Brugmann Morphologische Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der 
indogermanischen Sprachen Leipzig 1881 iv. 195. 

^ A. Fick Vergleichendes Worterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen Gottingen 1894 
ii*. 137. 

^^ K. Brugmann Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen 
Strassburg 1906 ii^. i. 298. 

1^ H. Pedersen Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen G'6\.\.\vigtn 1909 i. 179. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 125 

Triton the god to the Old Irish triath, genitive trethan^ the 'sea.' 
This formidable array of philologists may be supposed to have 
fixed with some certainty the derivation of the names in question. 
And their assumption, that a word once existing in common speech 
may have survived only in a handful of proper names, is fully 
justified by analogous examples^ Confusion between the stems 
Trito- and Trito- undoubtedly modified the meaning of the 
appellative Tritogeneia, which ceased to be thought of as 'Great- 
granddaughter,' the pendant of Tritopdtor, 'Great-grandfather 2,' and 
was re-interpreted as 'Born beside the Triton,' a river variously 
located in Libya ^ Crete ^ Arkadia^, Boiotia^, and Thessalyl This 

1 E.g. bach or bache., a variant of beck^ in the place-names Bacup, Comberbach, Sand- 
bach, etc. (J. B. Johnston The Place-Names of England and Wales London 1915 pp. 120, 
211, 431) and the surnames Bache, Batch, Bage, Greatbatch, Huntbach (E. Weekley 
Surnames London 1916 p. 53). Similarly Old High German aha, Middle High German 
ahe, 'running water' (cp. Lat. aqua), survives as a, aa, ach, ache, etc. in a great variety 
of place-names (W. Sturmfels Etymologisches Lexikon deutscher und fremdldndischer 
Ortsnamen Berlin — Bonn 1925 p. i). 

^ Supra p. 123. 

^ This is the usual version in lexicographers, scholiasts, mythographers, etc.: e.g. 
Phot. lex. s.v. TpLToyevTjs = Souid. s.v. TpiToyevrjS' 17 'Adrfvd' ...rj otl irapa <t(^ {inserui 
A. B. C.) > TpiTWJ't T(^ TTora/xc^ Al^ijtjs eyeuvrjdr), ...fj iirel irapa Tpiriovi iyiuero' ...rj otl 
dveXo^ffaTo iv ry Tpiruvi t<^ Ai^ijr]s worafK^. Cp. Hesych. s.v. TpiroyevifjS' ixideTLKios t] 
' Adrjvd- ...tI Tip Trapd TpiTWui, Tip TroTapup Ai^Orjs, ^fifpaviadrjuai, el. mag. p. 767, 40 ff. 
TpLToy4v€ia, r/ 'Ad'qvd-...fi otl irapd Tip TpiTiovc iroTapup yiyovev, el. Gud. p. 535, 32 f. 
TpLToy4v€La, 17 'Adrjvd, aTrb tou iroTa/xov, 'oirov yevvridetca direKoiaaTo, Orion p. 151, 10 f. 
TpiToy^veia- tjtol i] irapd Tip Tpiyojui (P. H. Larcher corr. TptTitiui) noTapiip yewrjde'Laa, 

Schol. Aristoph. eq. 11 89 iveTpLTibviaev ...t^ ws dirb TpiTOJvos iroTa/JLov Ai^ijrjs, Trap' ip 
iT^x^V V 'Adr)vd, Eustath. in Dionys. />er. 267 otl t] TpiTiavis, evpeia Xi/jlvt], /jL^ar) At^vrjs 
(XKeTaL- irepi rjv Kai ti vrjaidiov icTTopovcnv eluai. dirb TaOTrjs 6 /xvdos ttjv TpiToyeveiav 
'Adrfvdu vapojvofxdaBai ^o^XcTai, cos yevvrjdeiirav trepi avT-qv, id. in II. p. 696, 38 f. 
(= Favorin. lex. p. 1775, 30 f.) ws 5^ Kai dirb tov TpiTOJuo^ At/3u/cou TroTafiov /caXeirat ovt oj 
[sc. TpiToyeveLo), dWaxov drjXovTai, ib. p. 1265, 7 ff. ^piToyiv^io. 8e KdvTauda 7/ 'Adrjvd. Kat 
did tL p,kv ovTO) KaXeiTai, dXXaxbdi SeSTyXwrat. otl 8^ /cat irapd Tbv TpiTiova iroTaixov rf Xe^is 
XeyeTaL, ws e/cet yevprjdeLirrjs ttjs 'Adr^vds, prjT^ov els tovto vvv eKeiuo /cat /xduou, ws k.t.X., 
id. in Od. p. 1473, 11 f. ^pLToy^veLa 5^...'^ e/c TpiTiavos Al^vkov TroTafiov, schol. A.D. //. 8. 
39 OL 8^ veibTepol (paiXL ttjv Trapd Tip Tpirwi't iroTafiip yevvrideiaav, 6s icTTL ttjs Ai^Oris. A fine 
effort of scholiastic harmonism will be found in schol. T. (cp. schol. B. L. v.) //. 8. 39 
MyJTLV TTJV '^Keavou dpLei^ovaav eis iroXXd ttjv /Jiop^rjv Zeifs ^ovXbfxevos Trap' eavTip ^x^"' 
KaT^TTiev '4yKV0v odcav vTrb BpdvTov tov KvkXoottos' TeXecrcpopTjdeicrTjs dc ttjs Traibbs, 6 Zeds 
did TTJS KeipaXijs TeKuv SiScocrt Tip TpiTiovi Tip TroTafiip TpicjteLv • odev TpLToy€veia ^kXtjOtj ibs e/c 
TpLuv <xvvav^7j6ei(To., BpbvTov Atos TpiTiavos ! This is largely based on Apollod. i. 3. 6 — a 
passage discussed infra §9 (h) ii (/c). 

Apollod. I. 3. 6 ws 5e 6 ttjs yevicreias iveiXTrj xp^j'os, TrXyj^avTos avTOV {sc. tov Atos) ttjv 
Ke<f)aXTjv 7re\^/cei UpofiTjd^cjs -Pj KaddTrep oXXol Xiyovaiv 'H^aicTTOv, e/c Kopv<f)Tjs, iTri TroTafiov 
TpLTOJVos, ^Adrjvd avv SttXols dvedope, 3. 12. 3 ^acrt yevvTjdeiirav ttjv 'AdTjvdv Trapa TpiTUfVL 
Tpi<}>e(xdaL, ip dvydTTjp ^v HaXXcis, k.t.X. (quoted by Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 355), Mela i. 36 
super hunc {sc. Syrtim minorem) ingens palus amnem Tritona recipit, ipsa Tritonis, unde 
et Minervae cognomen inditum est, ut incolae arbitrantur, ibi genitae; faciuntque ei 
fabulae aliquam fidem, quod quem natalem eius putant ludicris virginum inter se decer- 



126 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

tantium celebrant, Lact. Plac. mStat. Theb.2. 722 Tritone: fluvius vel palus in Libya, in qua 
Minerva dicitur nata, sicut Lucanus (Lucan. 9. 354) affirmat. unde Graeci earn Minervam 
Tritogeniam vocant, Myth. Vat. i. 124 haec et Tritonia dicitur quia circa Tritonium 
lacum dicitur apparuisse in virginali aetata, 3. 10. i nam quod a Libyca palude hoc 
nomen {sc. Tritonia) meruerit, quia illic a caelo descensum et ad caelum ascensum cele- 
braverit, poeticum esse constat, nam legitur (Lucan. 9. 354) : 'et se dilecta Tritonia {leg. 
Tritonida) dixit ab unda. ' 

Sometimes a rival version is noted : schol. Paris. Ap. Rhod. i. 109 Tpirwj'ts 5e y\ 
'Adr]vd, OTi iu ry Tpirojpi iyevprjdrj ry Atj8u/cy. elai 5e Kal dWoi 860 Tpiruues, els fi^v 
BoLOjTiKds, erepos 5e Qe<T<xa\LK6s. Cp. schol. Paris. Ap. Rhod. 4. 1311 (= Favorin. /ex. 
P- 1776, 5 ff-) T/otrwj/ 5^ TToXis (R. F. P. Brunck corr. iroTaixbs) Ai^Oris. ^ctl dk koI 
BotwTias. irapa daripij) bk to^twp 8ok€? yeyeuTJadai 17 'Adrjva • 5l6 Kai TpcToyepeia X^yerai, 
interp. Serv. in Verg. Aen. 2. 171 a Tritone amne Boeotiae, aut a Tritonide palude 
Africae, iuxta quam nata dicitur. 

* Diod. 5. 72 ixvOoXoyovai 8e /cat {sc. as well as Zeus: see Diod. 5. 70 cited supra ii. 
190 n. 2) rrjj/ 'Adrjvdu Kara tt]u KpifjTrjv e/c Atos ip toIs irrjyais tov Tplrcopoi TroTa/nov 
yepprjSrjpai' deb Kai Tpiroy^peiap opo/JiaadijpaL. ^(Ttl 5^ /cat vvp ^ti irepi rets irrjyds raOras 
lepop ayiop rrjs deov ra^jT-qs, ip <^ rbirij3 ti)p yipecip avrijs virdp^ai fxvdoXoy overt (for Diodoros' 
Cretan sources see E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 678). 

Diod. 3. 70 (Ammon hid Dionysos, his son by Amaltheia, in a (Cretan?) cave) Trpos 8k 
ras dirb rijs firirpvLas 'Peas i-m^ovXds <pvXaKa tov 7rat56s /caracrr^crai TTr)p 'Adrjpdp, fxiKpbp irpb 
ToOrtap tQp xpbff^v yrjyePTJ (papeiaap ewl tov TptTWPos -rroTa/xov, 5t' dp TpLTU}pi8a Trpo<FT)yopev- 
adai (the source here is the 'Phrygian poem' of Thymoites (Diod. 3. 67), on which see 
J. Carcopino La Basilique pythagoricienne de la Porte Majeure Paris 1927 p. 301 ff.). 

These Cretan legends are of little or no authority. They were possibly prompted by 
the fact that coins of Itanos from c. 460 to the beginning of s. iv B.C. have for obverse 
type a sea-god, probably one with the 'Dagon' of Arados {Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins 
Phoenicia pp. xx f., i ff. pi. i, i — ro, E. Babelon Les Perses Achimhiides Paris 1893 
p. 123 ff. pi. 22, I — 9, id. Monn.gr. rom. ii. 2. 511 ff. pi. 116, 4 — 18), since the eponym 
Itanos is described as a Phoenician (Steph. Byz. s.v. 'iTo.pb'i- irbXn ip KpriTr}, awb 
'Iraj'oO ^oipiKos, rj tQp KovprjTcop epos fJiLydbos), but in aspect indistinguishable from Triton 
(J. N. Svoronos Numismatique de la Crete ancienne Macon 1890!. 201 ff. pis. 18, 21 — 37, 
19, I — 9, Babelon Monn. gr. rom. ii. 3. 895 ff. pi. 244, i — 16, Head Hist, num.^ p. 469 f. 
fig. 251, Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Crete etc. p. 51 pis. 12, 6 — 8, 13, i — 4, Hunter Cat. 
Coins ii. 189, McClean Cat. Coins ii. 499 pi. 241, 3 f. , Weber Cat. Coins \\. 532 nos. 
4499 — 4503 pi. 163, Bement Sale Catalogue 1924 ii. 19 no. 1306 f. pi. 45), while from 
c. 376 to the middle of s. iv B.C. the sea-god is replaced by the head of Athena, surviving 
only as an adjunct on the reverse side (J. N. Svoronos op. cit. i. 204 ff. pi. 19, 10 — 27, 
Babelon Monn. gr. rom. ii. 3. 901 ff. pis. 244, 17 — 20, 245, i — 11, Head op. cit.'^ 
p. 470, Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Crete etc. p. 52 pi. 13, 5 — 8, Hunter Cat. Coins ii. 189 f. 
pi. 42, 8 f., McClean Cat. Coins ii. 499 f. pi. 241, 5 — 10, IVeber Cat. Coins n. 533 f. 
nos. 4504 f. pi. 163, 4506 — 4512 pi. 164, Michdilovitch Sale Catalogue 1922 p. 42 no. 629 
pi. 24, Bertier de la Garde Sale Catalogue 1923 p. 92 nos. 2276 — 2280 pi. 64). I show a 
representative series, of which fig. 41= J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 18, 23 Paris, fig. 42 
— Babelon Monn. gr. rom. pi. 244, 4 Jameson collection, fig. 43 = a specimen, from un- 
published dies, in my own collection, fig. 44= Photiades Sale Catalogue 1890 i. 104 
no. 1293 pi. 7, fig. 45= J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 19, 6 de Luynes collection, 
fig. 46 = J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 19, 9 Paris, fig. 47 = Babelon Monn. gr. rom. 
pi. 245, 4 de Luynes collection. 

A somewhat similar deity on an unpublished bronze coin of Karystos in my collection 
(fig. 48) is presumably Glaukos, from whom the athlete Glau-kos of Karystos traced his 
descent (Paus. 6. 10. i). Obv. head of Zeus; rev. KA Sea-god to right, grasping fish 
(holed). 

^ Paus. 8. 26. 6 'AXi<f>7)p€vai 8k t6 fikp opofia Ty irbXei ykyopep drrb 'AXKprjpov AvKaoPos 
7rat56s, lepd 8k 'AaKXrjTriov Ti eart /cat ' Adrjpds, rjp deQp (xi^oPTaL fxaXicTa, yepkadai /cat 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 127 



Tpa<p7jvai irapa <T<pl(nv avTrjv Xiyovres- Kal Atos re ISpiaavTo Aex^o-Tov (Gedoyn cj. 
Aox^drov) ^u/iibv are ivTdvda ttjv 'Adrivdv reKovros, Kal Kprjvrjv /caXoOcri TpLTwvida, rbv eirl 
rip TTorafjup t(^ Tplrcoui olKeiov/mevoL \6yov. k.t.X. [supra ii. 782). W. M. Leake Travels in 
the Morea London 1830 ii. 79 with plan on p. 73 identified this Tritonis with a spring on 
the north-eastern side of the hill of Aliphera. 




Fig. 45- 



Fig. 46. 





Fig. 47- 



Fig. 48. 



^ Paus. 9. 33. 7 pel d^ Kai irorafibs evravda [sc. near Alalkomenai) ov pL^yas Xf^A^cippos- 
dvofid^ovffL d^ Tpirujva avrSv, 6ti tt]v 'Adrjvdv Tpa(p7juai wapd Trorapiip TplruvL ^xei \6yos, (hs 
87] TovTov rbv Tpirupa ovra Kal ovxl Tbv Ai^ijujv, 6s is T7]v irpbs Ai^Or) (so F. Sylburg for 
Ai^irqv codd.) ddXaaaav eKdidojaLu iK ttjs Tptrojvidos Xlfxvrjs. See also schol. Paris. Ap 
Rhod. I. 109, 4. 1311 (=Favorin. kx. p. 1776, 5 ff.), interp. Serv. in Verg. Aen. 1 
171, all cited supra p. 126 n. o. The Boeotian towns Athenai and Eleusis (Paus. 9 
24. 2, Steph. Byz. s.v. ^ Adrjvai) were situated on the banks of the Triton (Strab 
407), which W. M. Leake Travels in Northern Greece Cambridge 1835 ii. 135 f 
identifies with the stream near the village of Sulinari. K. O. Miiller Orchomenos und die 



128 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

re-interpretation, a commonplace of classical mythology, is not 
expressly recorded till the Graeco-Roman period, though there are 
stray hints of it as early as the fifth century B.C.^ 

Whether the same confusion of Trito- with Trito- ever brought 
the Tritopatores or Tritopatreis into relation with the water-powers 
seems to me more problematic. M. Budimir, who claims that the 
Tritopatreis had something to do with wells, quotes from the 
Epakria calendar certain 'priestly dues on account of the well for 
the Tritopatreis^.' Unfortunately — as may be seen from J. von 
Prott's edition of the text^ — the priestly dues and the well belong 
to one clause, the Tritopatreis to another. The two are juxtaposed, 
but not connected. Apart from this, Budimir has to fall back on 
the somewhat remote analogy of the Vedic god Trita, who sits in 
wells and presses soma'^. 

No doubt, the deities of wind and water do draw together in 
late classical belief. Horace^ describes the South-wind as the 

Mightiest power that Hadria knows, 
Wills he the waves to madden or compose. 

Mhiyer'^ Breslau 1844 p. 349 ff. argued that the 'Ursitz' of Athena Tpiroyeveia was 
Boiotia, whence the myth spread with the Minyai to Libya. Similarly Farnell CuUs of 
Gk. States i. 266 ff. holds that Athena ^piToyeveia originated in Thessaly or Boiotia, and 
thence passed to Kyrene. 

'^ Schol. Paris. Ap. Rhod. i. 109 cited supra p. 126 n. o. There are traces of the 
name even further north, cp. Steph. Byz. s.v. Tpircovos- iroXixvi-ov MaKedovias. 

1 Aisch. Etim, 292 ff. dXX' et're x^P^^ ^^ rdnois Ai/Suort/c^s (so Auratus for AijBvaTiKois 
codd.) 1 Tpirwvos dfX(pi x^^f^^ yevedXiov irdpov \ Tid-qcnv opBbv ?) Karrjpecpij iroba {sc. 'Adrjm), \ 
K.T.\., Hdt. 4. 180 to6t(i}v 5^ ^xoj'rat tQv Max^ijuv Avaies' ovtol 8k koI ol MaxXvesir^pi^ 
rr}v TpLTwvida Xi/xvrjv ohiovcn, to jxicov 8e <x(f>L ovpi^ei 6 TpiT(i}p...6pTrj dk evLavairj^Adrjvairjs 
ai irapd^voL avrdv dixo. dtaaTdcraL fiaxovrat irpos dXX?7Xas Xidoiai re kuI ^ijXoLai, t<^ avdiyevei. 
dei^ X4yovaaL ra xdrpia diroTeXeeiv, tt]v Adrjuairju KaX4ofJL€v. rds 5e aTrodvri<jKo()(yas tQp 
irapd^vwv €K rdov Tpco/maTuv \}/€vboirapdivovs KoXiovai. irplv 8e dvelvai avrds yu.d%€cr^at, rdde 
TToievcn. KOLvrj- irapdivov ttjv KaXXiarevovaav eKdarore Koc/jirjaavTes Kvverj re ILopLvdlrj /cai 
iravoirXirj "EXXrjviKfj /cat eir cipfia dua^i^daavTes irepidyovaL ttjv Xiixvqv kukXc^. driocai 5e to 
TrdXat, eKOfffieov rds irapdevovs irpiv i] (r(f>L"EXXr)i'as TrapoiKccrdTJuaL, ovk ^xw eiTrelv, doK^o} 5' wv 
AiyvirTLoicn 67rXoLcn Kocfxeeadai avrds' ...ttjv 8e 'Adrjuairju (pad Iloo'eiSeWos dvat dvyuTepa 
Kai TTJs TpLTwvidos XLjjLvrjs, /cat jlliv ixep-ipdeicdv tl t(^ iraTpl dovvai eojVTrjv t<^ Ati, tov 8e Ala 
eojvTov flip TTOLTjaaadaL dvyaTepa, Eur. Io?z 871 ff. /cat ttjv iir ifxals ctkott^Xokxi dedv \ Xifivrjs 
r' ivvdpov Tptrwi'tdSos | iroTViav dKrdv, Aristoph. Lys. 346 ff. /cat ere /caXuJ (rvfjL/xaxov, 
c5 I TpLToy4v€i\ ijv TLS iK€i\vas VTroTrL/jLTrprjaiv dvqp, \ (pepeiv Ddcop /xed' ijfxQv. 

2 M. Budimir reported by L. Radermacher in the Berl. philol. Woch. Marz 4, 1922 
p. 202 ^lepdbcrvva (ppeaTos TpiTOTraTpevat.' 

2 The text is given supra p. 115 n. 4. 

^ J. Escher Triton und seine Bekdmpfung diirch Herakles Leipzig 1890 pp. 9 — 13 
(' Vorgeschichte des Triton und Ableitung des Namens, ' dealing fully with Vedic Trita, 
Zend Tkrita, etc.), E. W. Hopkins The Religions 0/ India Boston etc. 1895 pp. 104, 431 
n. 3, M. Winternitz A concise Dictionary of Eastern Religion Oxford 19 10 p. 589, 
A. A. Macdonell in J. Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1921 
xii. 604 b. 

^ Hor. od. I. 3. 15 f. trans. J. Conington. 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 129 

In art, as H. Steinmetz^ pointed out, wind-gods approximate to 
the Tritonian type. Lucian^ touches in the portrait of Thrasykles 
the philosopher with a few effective phrases: 

'Here he comes — beard all a-spread, eyebrows arched, arrogance in the air, 
an up-against-Olympos look, the tresses waving over his forehead, a very Boreas 
or Triton in the manner of Zeuxis.' 

En revanche Triton, blowing a blast with his sonorous conch, easily 
takes on the duties of a wind-god. A mosaic^ found in 1833 at Saint 
Rustice, north-west of Toulouse, among the ruins of a Roman bath, 
represents a huge head of Okeanos* surrounded by various marine 
subjects. These include sea-divinities mounted on Tritons, all 
labelled in Greek lettering of the third century A.D.^ Adjacent 
bays on the right show Thetis carried by Triton^ Panopea by Borios ; 
on the left, Doto by Nynphogenes, Palemon and Ino by Glaiikos. The 
artist's signature is incomplete — ...genios Sikiliotes. Here then we 
have a genuine Triton wearing a fish-skin as a chlamys^ but actually 
bearing the name of a wind-god B6r{e)ios. More than that, one 
interesting monument made Triton in a sense the ruler of all the 
winds that blow. The Horologion of Andronikos Kyrrhestes^, built at 

^ H. Steinmetz 'Windgotter' in \.\iQ J^ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1910 xxv. 35 
n. 13, F. R. Dressier in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1203. 

^ Loukian. Z'z'w. 54 dXXa ri tovto; ov Qpa<rvK\TJs 6 (pi\6cro(pos ovtos iariv ; ov ^ikv ovv 
aXXos • e/CTrerdo-as yovv t6v Truyojva Kal ras 6(f>pvs dvareivas Kal ^peudvofxeuds tl irpos avrou 
^pX^rai, TiTavQdes ^Xiwoov, avaaeffo^-qixivos tt]v eirl Tip fxerfjoirip Ko/nrfp, AvTOJBopeas rts r) 
Tpirojp, o'iovs 6 ZeO^is ^ypaipev. 

3 J. de Witte in the Butt. d. Inst. 1834 pp. 157 — 159, A. L. C. A. Du Mege in the 
Histoire et Mimoires de Pacadhiiie royale des sciences^ inscriptions et belles-lettres de Toulouse 
1834 — 1836 (Toulouse 1837) iv. 2. 30 — 51, id. Arch^ologie pyrindenne Toulouse 1858 
Atlas i pi. 14, Reinach R^p. Peint. Gr. Rom. p. 38 no. i. 

"* P. Gauckler in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. iii. 21 15 n. 10. 

5 Inscr. Gr. Sic. //. no. 2519 a TGN | IOC || CIKIIAICO |THC, b nANOHHA || 

BOPioC, c eexic n tpitcon, d acotco i| NYNct^oireNHc, rAAvkoC || 

nAAeMCON II INO). 

^ J. Stuart and N. Revett The Antiquities of Athens London 1762 i. 13 — 25 with pis. i 
(view), 1 (plan), 3 (restoration), 4 (vertical section), 5—9 (architectural detail), 10 f. (sun- 
dials), 12 — 19 (wind-gods),J.Matzin Baumeister Z>^7Z/^w. iii. 21 12 — 21 15 figs. 2365 (chart), 
2366 (restoration), 2367 (vertical section), 2368 (plan), 2369 {klepsydra), Harrison Myth. 
Man. Anc. Ath. pp. 200 — 203 fig. 9, Collignon Hist, de la Sculpt, gr. ii. 615 f. fig. 324 
(Boreas), Frazer Pausanias ii. 187 f., E. A. Gi2iXi\viQ.x Ancient Athens London 1902 pp. 24, 
488 — 491 (date either s. ii or early in s. i B.C.) with fig., W. Judeich Topographie vott 
Athen Munchen 1905 pp. 92 n. 11 (date s. i B.C.), 333 f. with fig. 41, ib.'^ 1931 pp. 97, 
374 f., Reinach Rep. Reliefs i. 57. 

P. Graindor in Le Must^e Beige 1906 x. 353 ff. and in Byzantion 1926 iii. 29 ff. notes 
the discovery in Tenos, about the year 1906, of a tower like that of the Winds at Athens. 
This new tower has an inscription {Inscr. Gr. ins. v. 2 no. 891, cp. A. Rehm in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 2427) which shows that Andronikos, the constructor of both, 
was a native of Kyrrhos in Makedonia (not Kyrrhos in Syria) and that the tower at Athens 
must be dated in the time of lulius Caesar. 

c. ni. Q 



130 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

Athens in the first century B.C. and better known to us as the 'Tower 
of the Winds/ was an octagonal structure of white marble containing 
a water-clock. The upper part of its exterior was decorated with 
eight reliefs of the wind-gods, arranged in accordance with the 
wind-rose of Eratosthenes \ — Boreas, Kaikias, Apeliotes, Euros, 




Fig. 49. 

Notos, Lips, Zephyros, Skiron. And the roof was crowned by the 
bronze figure of a Triton, who swung round in the wind and pointed 
with his rod to the appropriate deity I 

1 H. Steinmetz De ventorum descriptionibus apud Graecos Romanosque Gottingae 1907 
pp. 42 ff., 80, id. 'Windgotter' in i\\^Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1910 xxv. 34 f. 

2 Vitr. I. 6. 4, cp. Van-, rer. rust. 3. 5. 17- 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 131 




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132 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

If Triton thus played the part of Aiolos, can we go further and 
maintain that the former, Hke the latter, was a keeper of souls in 
some island of the Otherworld? It must, I think, be admitted that 
Tritons on occasion were viewed as protectors of the dead. A stele 
of Pentelic marble in the Peiraieus Museum (fig. 49), assigned by 
A. Briickner-'^ to the end of the second or the beginning of the first 
century B.C., represents the dead man standing in an architectural 
niche {naiskosT) with his left hand on the head of a Siren at his side. 
Below this group are carved in slight relief two bearded Tritons, 
wreathed with reeds (?), who confront one another, each blowing a 
conch and shouldering a paddle. Why are they there? Bruckner 
describes them as 'das mythologische Ornament,' which is true but 
not particularly helpful. I take it that Triton with his echoing horn, 
like the cock with his lively din^, was believed to keep maleficent 
spirits at a distance. And this may well account for the persistent 
popularity of Tritons on sarcophagi diwd other sepulchral monuments 
of Graeco-Roman and Etruscan art^ They are often accompanied 
by a train of Nereids and sea-beasts, with diminutive Erotes here, 
there, and everywhere. I figure a couple of sarcophagi, one made 
for a Roman lady in the third century A.D. (fig. 52)*, the other made 

^ A. Bruckner in iheAth. Mitth. 1888 xiii. 377 — 382 pi. 4 ( = my fig. 49), F. R. Dressier 
in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1174 with fig. 13. 

^ See E. Baethgen De vi ac significatione galli in religionibus et artibus Graecoruin 
et Romanorufn Gottingae 1887 pp. 20 — 23 ('De galli vi averruncanti'), P. Perdrizet in the 
Revue des dtudes anciennes 1904 pp. 12 — 17, S. Seligmann Der bose Blick und Verwandtes 
Berlin 1910 i. 125 f., 319, ii. 82, 120, 140, 151, 153, 155, 311, O. YssiWe.x Die antike Tierwelt 
Leipzig 1913 ii. 141, F. Orth in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 2532 f. , Mrs A. Strong 
Apotheosis and After Life London 1915 p. 257, C. T. Seltman in the Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 
1923 — 1925 xxvi. 100 f. 

^ F. R. Dressier Triton und die Tritonen in der Litteratur und Kunst der Griechen 
und Rd?ner Wurzen 1892/3 ii. 13 — 23 (§25 'Tritonen (auch Tritoniden) in Reliefs an 
Sarkophagen hauptsachlich in Verbindung mit Nereiden, Eroten und Seetieren'), 23 — 25 
(§26 '...in anderen Sepulcralmonumenten'), 26 (§27 ' Fischschwanzige Daimonen an 
etruskischen Grabdenkmalern'), id. in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1193 — 1198, ii98f., ii99f. 

T. L. Shear in the Am, Journ. Arch. 193 1 xxxv. 428 ff. figs. 5 — 10 reports the finding 
of Roman chamber-tombs cut out in the hard clay of a hillside S.E. of Cheliotomylos near 
Corinth. One of these, originally constructed towards the end of s. i A.D. (fig. 5 = my 
fig. 50), had a circular well-shaft (0*95™ across, 2 •30"" deep) in the floor of its inner 
chamber — perhaps to quench the thirst of the departed (Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 831 
n. I , infra § 9 (d) ii (a)) — and was decorated with several paintings. That on the tympanum 
of the niche in the S. wall of the outer chamber (fig. 6 = my fig. 51) shows a large kratir 
(orange ground, red lines) flanked by a pair of plunging dolphins, above which are two 
Tritons (orange and red bodies, greenish-blue tails), each blowing a long reed and holding 
a wand. Wavy blue strokes below the dolphins indicate the sea. On the N. wall of the 
outer chamber, at the E. end of the grave is a large trident painted on the transverse wall. 

^ Clarac Mus. de Sculpt, pi. 207 fig. 196 ( = Reinach Rip. Stat. i. 95 no. 3) with Texte 
ii. 502, Frohner Sculpt, du Louvre i. 405 f. no. 440, F. R. Dressier in Roscher Lex. Myth. 
v. ii94f. fig. 25. A sarcophagtis-ixowt of Luna marble. Height o'ss'". Length 2*15'". 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 133 






about the same time but used for a Christian burial perhaps two 
centuries later (fig. 53)^ 

The significance of this marine 
cortege has been differently conceived 
by different critics. F. Buonarroti ^ in 
1698 held that graceful Oceanic figures 
were believed to escort deserving souls 
to the Islands of the Blest. His view, 
accepted by archaeologists of the 
eighteenth century, was extended by 
E. Q. Visconti^ who remarked that 
sea-processions of the sort were 
suggestive of a Bacchic thiasos. 
E. Petersen* caught at the notion and 
regarded the riot of sea-creatures as 
an attempt to symbolise the joyous 
revels of pious souls on entering the 
Otherworld. He observed that the 
movement of such groups is centri- 
petal, not processional, and conse- 
quently abandoned the idea of an 
escort to the Islands of the Blest. He 
failed, however, adequately to explain 
why ordinary mortals should thus 
suffer a sea-change. Neither Ino^ nor 
Enalos^ is typical of commonplace 
humanity. W. H. Roscher"^ suspected 
that the clue lay in the Samothracian 
mysteries. Sundry myths of the 

^ C. L. V(isconti) ' Sarcofago con rappre- 
sentanza di Nereidi e Tritoni' in the Bull. Comm. 
Arch. Comun. di Roma 1873 i. 192 — 200 pi. 4 
( = my fig. 53). Found near the western side of the 
large square porticus to the right of the Basilica of 
S. Lorenzo at Rome. Height 0*65'". Length a'TO"". 
The acclamation PROMOTE | HABEAS (for 
Promote^ aveas) is followed by a Latin cross with spread ends. 

^ F. Buonarroti Osservazioni istoriche sopra alcuni medaglioni antichi alP Altezza 
serenissima di Cosimo III, gj'an duca di Toscana Roma 1698 pp. 44, 114. 

^ Visconti Mus. Pie-CUm. iv. 240 ff. pi. 33. 

* E. Petersen in the Ann. d. Inst, i860 xxxii. 396 ff. 

^ Pind. 01. 2. 28 ff., cp. supra i. 674. ^ Supra i. 170. 

7 W. H. Roscher in the Berl. philol. Woch. Juli 8, 1893 p. 886 f., id. in the 
Literarisches Zentralblatt fiir Deutschland 1893 p. 1054 f. 




134 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 









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The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 135 

Tyrsenian Pelasgoi, who founded these mysteries, told how mortals 
were transformed into sea-deities or sea-creatures — witness Ino 
Leukothea, Halia, Kombe, Palaimon, Glaukos Pontios, Enalos, and 
the Tyrsenian pirates metamorphosed into dolphins. Accordingly 
Roscher conjectured that any Samothracian mystic drowned at sea 
was said to have become a deity or a denizen of the deep. Hence 
the frequency of these 'Samothracian' designs. H. Steuding^ replied 
that, if so, we ought to see the deceased himself portrayed as one 
of the marine powers rather than his effigy borne aloft in their 
midst. The matter is still in dispute. Personally, I am impressed 
by F. G. Welcker's^ claim that these sarcophagi are descended from 
the famous group by Skopas, of which Pliny ^ says: 

'But most highly esteemed of all his works is the group in the temple built by 
Gnaeus Domitius in the Circus of Flaminius : it comprises Poseidon himself with 
Thetis and Achilles, Nereids riding on dolphins and sea monsters or on sea horses, 
and Tritons and the train of Phorkos, with sea beasts and a tumult of creatures 
of the deep, the whole by the same hand, a wondrous work, even were it that of 
a life-time.' 

If, as is commonly supposed ^ the Scopaic group — almost cer- 
tainly a pedimental group — represented the passing of Achilles to 
the Islands of the Blest, or more precisely to Leuke or Borysthenis 
in the Black Sea^ it is at least legitimate to interpret the scene on 
the sarcophagi as that of a safe and superhuman convoy moving 
forward^ to some Otherworld island^. And here it will be 
remembered that the magnificent stucco-relief, which fills the semi- 
dome of the subterranean basilica outside the Porta Maggiore at 
Rome, depicts an analogous scene (pi. xix)^. Before us lies a stormy 

^ H. Steuding in the Woch.f. klass. Philol. Nov. 29, 1893 p. 1307. 

^ Welcker Alt. Denkm. i. 204 — 206. 

^ Plin. nat. hist, 36. 26 trans. Miss K. Jex-Blake. 

* L. Urlichs Skopas Leben und ^^r^^ Greifswald 1863 p. 132 fif., id. Griechische Statuen 
im republikanischen Rom Wlirzburg 1880 p. 17 ff., Overbeck Gr. Plastik^ ii. I9f., 420, 
J. Sieveking 'Der sogenannte Altar des Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus' in ihejahresh. d. 
oest. arch. Inst. 1910 xiii. 95 — loi, G. Lippold in Pauly — Wissowo. Real- Enc. iiiA. 573 f. 

^ Fleischer in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 53 — 58, J. Escher-Biirkli in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. i. 240 f., W. Tomaschek ib. iii. 739, Farnell Gk. Hero Cults p. 286, Preller — 
Robert Gr. Myth. ii. 1194^ 

^ This escapes E. Petersen's objection that the movement of the group is centripetal, 
not processional {supra p. 133). 

^ Mrs A. Strong Apotheosis and After Life London 1915 p. 215 'The dolphins and 
marine monsters, another frequent decoration, form a mystic escort of the dead to the 
Islands of the Blest, and at the same time carry with them an allusion to the purifying 
power of water and to the part assigned to the watery element in Mithraic and solar cults. ' 
I am not satisfied that we need to assume any such further implipations. 

^ Good photographs of the relief were published by E. Strong and N. Jolliflfe in the 
Journ. Hell. Stud. 1924 xliv. 103 ff. pi. 4 and by J. Carcopino La basilique pythagoricienne 
de la Porte Majeure Paris 1927 p. 371 ff. pi. 24. Better still is the definitive publication 



136 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 

sea with threatening breakers. A rock-bound coast looms up on 
either hand. From the headland on the right, where a tree is 
growing, a veiled woman with a lyre steps down towards the water, 
attended by Eros. In front of her a Triton, or perhaps rather a 
personification of the Wind, holds a mantle to serve as her ferry- 
boat across the flood. On the cliff to the left sits a man, who leans 
his head on his hand in an attitude of deep dejection. In front of 
him a second and unmistakable Triton turns away, blowing a blast 
on his horn. Finally, in the distance is seen a rocky island, on which 
stands Apollon holding out his hand as if to welcome the woman. 
F. Fornari^, one of the two scholars first privileged to publish this 
wonderful composition, saw at once that the subject must be the 
last voyage of the soul over the waters of death to the Islands of 
the Blest. Much has been written on the relief since then^, and, 
though various points of content^ and style* remain uncertain, it 

by G. Bendinelli in the Mon. d. Line. 1926 xxxi pis. 11 (=:my pi. xix), 12 (centre), 13 (right 
side), 14 (drawing). To photograph well an apsidal relief in such a position is something 
of a technical triumph. 

1 F. Fornari in the Not. Scavi 191 8 p. 49, being part of the initial publication (E. Gatti 
and F. Fornari 'Brevi notizie relative alia scoperta di un monumento sotterraneo presso 
Porta Maggiore' in the Not. Scavi 1918 pp. 30 — 39 and 39 — 52). 

'^ The bibliography given by J. Carcopino La basilique pythagoficienne de la Porte 
Majeure Paris 1927 pp. 388 — 391 mentions thirty-nine articles, paragraphs, and letters 
dealing directly with the basilica. And the end is not yet. The most important accounts 
are the following: F. Cumont 'La basilique souterraine de la Porta Maggiore' in the 
Rev. Arch. 1918 ii. 52 — 73, R. Lanciani 'II santuario sotterraneo recentemente scoperto 
ad Spent Veterem'' in the Bull. Cotnm. Arch. Comiin. di Roma 1920 pp. 69 — 84, R. Leopold 
' La basilique souterraine de la Porta Maggiore ' in the Melanges (f Arc h^o logic et d'' Histoire 
1921 xxxix. 165 — 192, G. Bendinelli 'II mausoleo sotterraneo altrimenti detto Basilica di 
Porta Maggiore' in the Bull. Comm. Arch. Comun. di Roma 1922 pp. 85 — 126, 
H. Lietzmann 'Orphisch-neupythagoraische Katakombenkunst in Rom' in Xhe/ahrb. d. 
kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1922 xxxvii. Arch. Anz. pp. 348 — 351, id. 'Der unterirdische 
Kultraum von Porta Maggiore in Rom' in the Bibliothek IVardurg: V^ortrdge ig22 — ig2j 
ii. 66 — 70, J. Hubaux 'Le plongeon rituel' in the Mus^e Beige i<)i^ p. 5 ff., E. Strong and 
N. Jolliffe 'The Stuccoes of the Underground Basilica near the Porta Maggiore' in the 
Journ. Hell. Stud. 1924 xliv. 65 — 1 11. To these must be added the clear-headed and well- 
documented monograph of J. Carcopino op. cit. pp. i — 414 with 24 plates and 6 plans, and 
finally the sumptuous publication of G. Bendinelli ' II monumento sotterraneo di Porta 
Maggiore in Roma' in the Mon. d. Line. 1926 xxxi. 601 — 860 with 54 figs, and 43 pis. 

^ It is a priori probable that the conch of the apse represented a myth rather than a 
belief. There was therefore something to be said for the suggestion of C. Densmore Curtis 
'Sappho and the "Leucadian Leap"' in the Am. /ourn. Arch. 1920 xxiv. 146 — 150 that 
the stucco portrays 'a well-known story, namely the famous " Leucadian Leap" of Sappho 
in her attempt to be freed from her hopeless love for Phaon' (Ov. her. 15. 157 — 184). 
F. Cumont 'La basilica sotterranea presso Porta Maggiore a Roma' in the Rassegna 
d' Arte 192 1 pp. 37 — 44 held that this explanation of the scene was possibly compatible 
with his own Pythagorean hypothesis. J. Carcopino 'Encore la Basilique de la "Porta 
Maggiore"' in the Rev. Arch. 1923 ii. i — 23 turned possibility into something very like 
certainty by pointing out that the Pythagoreans were much concerned with the myth of 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 137 

Sappho and Phaon (Plin. nat. hist. 22. 20 ob hoc {sc. male root of white eryngo) et Phaonem 
Lesbium dilectum a Sappho, multa circa hoc non Magorum solum vanitate, sed etiam 
Pythagoricorum). E. Strong and N. jollifife 'The Stuccoes of the Underground Basilica near 
the Porta Maggiore' in \}\q Journ. Hell. Stud. 1924 xliv. 65 — 1 1 1 justly observe (p. 103 f.) : 
' It is true that Pliny says nothing about the death or leap of Sappho, nothing therefore 
bearing on the subject of the apse stucco, yet we may now reasonably assume that the 
whole Sappho legend entered into Pythagorean lore, and that M. Carcopino by this 
timely discovery has disposed of any doubt as to the Pythagorean character of the basilica, 
or as to Sappho's leap being the subject of the apse stucco.' They themselves go further 
and, taking a hint from H. Stuart Jones {ib. p. 103 n. 124 a), interpret the relief as a 
scene of apotheosis by water (cp. G. Glotz Vordalie dans la Grhe primitive Paris 1904 
pp. 24 — 50 ('Le saut de Leucade')) — 'the root idea of baptism.' See further P. Boyance 
'Leucas' in the Rev. Arch. 1929 ii. 211 — 219 — an interesting discussion of VXxvif ^ Candida 
erynge = Vopy6veLov, fxQiXv, i/xepros, etc. (Dioskor. 3. 21 (24) p. 363 f. Sprengel), dei^ojov 
(Mart. Cap. 141, where cod. A has Xeu/cws with gloss herda albiila at quidam lilium). 




g- 54- 



Whatever be thought of this catena of interpretations, it can hardly be denied that 
Ovid's description of Sappho and the Leap does fit the design of the relief with remarkable 
aptitude. The single tree overlooking the water (Ov. her. 15. 159 f. quem supra ram os 
expandit aquatica lotos, | una nemus), Apollon on his rock (165 Phoebus ab excelso, 
quantum patet, adspicit aequor), the woman stepping down from the cliff (172 nee saxo 
desiluisse time), the personification of wind with a mantle for a boat (177 f. aura, 
subito : I et mea non magnum corpora pondus habent), the attendant Eros (179 tu quoque, 
mollis Amor, pennas suppone cadenti), the lyre carried by the woman (181 inde chelyn 
Phoebo, communia munera, ponam), — almost every point in the picture can be paralleled 
from the poem. 

^ The art-type of Sappho stepping off the rock for love of Phaon was, I think, derived 
from the earlier art-type of Aphrodite stepping on to the ferry-boat of Phaon, as shown 
by a red-figured krai^r found in 1909 'nella proprieta Tamburini fuori Porta Castiglione' 
and now at Bologna (Pellegrini Cat. vas. gr. dipint. Bologna pp. 133 — 135 no. 288'^'^ 
fig. 77 ( = my fig. 54). 

Apollon, according to C. Densmore Curtis in the Am. Journ. Arch. 1920 xxiv. 150, 
appears to be the Apollon Aeu/cctrTys of a coin of Nikopolis struck by Trajan {supra i. 
345 n- 8). 

The dejected man on the rocks to the left has been compared by F. Cumont in the 
Rassegna d'' Arte 192 1 p. 39 with analogous figures on Attic sepulchral stelai. 

But much has yet to be done by way of investigating the antecedents of these and other 
individual motifs. 



138 The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 






Ml 



The Tritopatores or Tritopatreis 139 

is now generally admitted that the whole design illustrates the 
entrance of the soul into the Otherworld as conceived by some 
Pythagorean sect in the middle of the first century A.D. But we are 
concerned with the Tritons only, who here as on the sarcophagi are 
present to control the winds and waves, thereby averting the perils 
of the last dread voyage. If on the sarcophagus in the Galleria 
Corsini at Rome (fig. 55)^ they are exceptionally equipped with the 
thunderbolt of Zeus^, the helmet sword and shield of Ares, the 
arrows and torch of Eros, etc., that is tantamount to saying that 
Tritons and the like in this connexion are not merely graceful 
gambollers but the equivalent of a whole heavenly host. 

To sum up, it would seem that the Tritons came to be regarded 
as, like the Tritopatores, at once controllers of the wind and guard- 
ians of the soul. But this was a matter of similarity, not of identity. 
If Tritogeneia meant first 'Great-granddaughter' and then 'Born 




Fig. 56. 

beside the Triton^,' that was a case of sheer verbal confusion. Nor 
have we the right to infer from it a real relationship between the Trito- 
patores and the Tritons. And, in the absence of any inward identity, 
I find no sufficient reason for thinking that the Tritopatores were 
ever outwardly figured as Tritons with fishy tails; still less, for 
supposing that they already had the Tritonian type in the sixth 
century B.C. Accordingly, I definitely reject the view of Furt- 

^ O. Jahn 'Sarcofago della Galleria Corsini a Roma' in the Ann. d. Inst. 1859 xxxi. 
27 — 32, Mon. d. Inst, vi pi. 26 ( = my fig. 55), C. Cavedoni in the Bull. d. Inst, i860 
p. 206, E. Petersen in the Ann. d. Inst, i860 xxxii. 402 f., 412 n. i, L. Stephani in the 
Compte-rendu St. Pet. i860 p. 11 n. 2, Matz — Duhn Ant. Bildw. in Rom ii. 368 f. no. 
3164, Reinach Rep. Reliefs iii. 223 nos. i — 3. 

2 E. Vinet in the Rev. Arch. 1853 p. 100 ff. with fig. ( = my fig. 56) published a gem- 
impression, obtained from T. Cades, which shows a Triton equipped with thunderbolt 
and trident. Vinet thought him Aigaion. 

^ Supra p. 125. 



140 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Kudnemos^ Bdreios 

wangler^ who gave the name of Tritopatores to the three-bodied 
snake-tailed giant of the earliest Hekatompedon at Athens. That 
view, though it has commended itself to M. Budimir^ B. Schweitzer^ 
and others, seems to me far less probable than the older identifica- 
tion of the giant with the 'three-bodied Typhon' of Euripides*. 

(d) Zeus OhrioSf ikmenos, Euanemos, Bdreios, 

The primitive fancy that winds are the souls of ancestors dead 
and buried was followed, and largely superseded, by the more 
intelligent notion that winds are atmospheric forces controlled by 
a sky-god. 

This transition from a lower to a higher view was, it would seem, 
facilitated by long-standing local beliefs. The Aeolians held that 
the winds were kept by an eponymous forefather Aiolos^ who dwelt 
in Aiolie a floating island^ perhaps originally located in the Black 
Sea', like Leuke or Borysthenis the final abode of Achilles^. Further, 

^ A. Furtwangler in the Sitzungsber. d. kais. bayr. Akad. d. Wiss. Phil. -hist. Classe 

1905 P- 433 f- 

^ M. Budimir ' Atena Tritogenija i' aticki Tritopatreiji' in the Glasnik zeni. Museja 1920 
xxxii. 295 — 328 (reported by L. Radermacher in the Berl. philol. Woch. Marz 4, 1922 
pp. 198 — 203). 

^ B. Schweitzer Herakles Tubingen 1922 p. 72 ff. (summarised by E. Fehrle in Roscher 
Lex. Myth. v. 1209 f.), supra p. 122 n. 5. 

^ Eur. H.f. 127 1 f. TpiaiofMaTovs \ TvcpQvas, where P. Elmsley would not have con- 
jectured Trjpvdvas, had he lived to see the triple monster of the Hekatompedon (supra ii. 
805 n. 6) or that of the black-figured kyltx at Florence (T. Wiegand Die archaische 
Poros-Architektur der Akropolis zu Athen Cassel and Leipzig 1904 p. 76 f. fig. 84 a and b). 

^ Supra p. 106 ff. ^ Infra Append. P (i). 

^ This is nowhere stated. But the early connexion of Aeolians with Asia Minor 
(V. G. Childe The Aryans: A Study of Indo-European Origins London 1926 p. 47 f., 
supra p. iiT n. 4) and that of Achilles with Leuke (first in the Aithiopis of Arktinos ap. 
Prokl. chrestomath. gramm. 2 in Epic. Gr. frag. i. 34 Kinkel — a source referred by 
W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Miinchen 191 2 i. 63 and 97 to s. viii B.C.) 
combine to give the surmise some measure of probability. Later, of course, Aiolie was 
located in the west, being identified with one of the Liparenses Insulae. But K. Tlimpel 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 1032 ff. makes it clear that this transference from Aegean 
to Sicilian waters was the work of Chalcidian colonists. 

W. W. Merry in his note on Od. 10. 3 writes : ' May not the whole story of the floating 
island with its precipitous sides be a poetical reproduction of the story of some Phoenician 
sailors, who had voyaged far enough to the north to fall in with an iceberg? The sheer 
face of ice and the glittering summit seem to be perfectly described by the words xaX/ceoj' 
rdxo<i and XLaar) avabibpofxe tt^t/ot;.' When it comes to the interpretation of an ancient 
myth, rationalism is usually wrong {supra i. 418). Nevertheless Merry's suggestion should 
not be scouted ; for a perusal of Append. P will suffice to show that the floating islands 
of the Greeks and Romans have almost invariably some foundation in fact. Moreover, 
icebergs in the Black Sea are not beyond the pale of possibility. W. B. Carpenter in The 
Encyclopaedia Bntannica^ Edinburgh 1875 iii. 797 says: 'It is reported... that in 401 A.D. 
the surface of the Euxine was almost entirely frozen over, and that when the ice broke up 
enormous masses were seen floating in the Sea of Marmora for thirty days \Chron. Pasch. 
307 B (i. 568 Dindorf)]. In 762 A.U., again, the sea is said to have been frozen from the 



Zeus Ourios^ tkmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 141 

there is good reason to think that AeoHan kings (Salmoneus, Keyx, 
Ixion, etc.) were at one time regarded as human embodiments of 
Zeus^. Indeed, modern mythology is indined to conjecture that 
Aiolos himself began life as an appellative of the same god 2. It 
would not, therefore, be surprising to find that in saga expanded 
from Aeolian lays a favouring wind was deemed the special gift of 
Zeus, or that the cult of Zeus as sender of such a wind persistently 
clung to the Aeolian coast-line. 

In point of fact both expectations are justified. It is often and, 
in my opinion, rightly supposed that the Homeric poems were 
essentially the dactylic lays of Aeolian Thessaly put together in 
hexameter form by a poet or poets who somewhere on the fringe of 
Asiatic Aiolis, not improbably at Chios, used an Ionic dialect with 
an inevitable admixture of Aeolisms^ Hence Homer, true to Aeolic 

terminal cliffs of the Caucasus to the mouths of the Dniester, Dnieper, and Danube ; and 
contemporary writers assert that the quantity of snow which fell on the ice rose to the 
height of from 30 to 40 feet, completely hiding the contour of the shores, and that on the 
breaking up of the ice in the month of February, the masses of it carried by the current 
into the Sea of Marmora reunited in one immense sheet across the Hellespont between 
Sestos and Abydos [Theophan. chron. i. 670 Classen, Zonar. 15. 7, Glykas ann, 4 p. 527 
Bekker]. No similar occurrence has been subsequently recorded.' According to Chambers' s 
Encyclop(2dia London and Edinburgh 1923 ii. 206 s.v. 'Black Sea,' 'AH the coasts are 
high, with good harbours, except between the mouths of the Danube and the Crimea; 
there the land is low, and the danger of navigation greatly increased in winter by the 

presence of floating ice The shores from Odessa to the Crimea are ice-bound during 

January and February ; and although the harbour of Odessa is never frozen up, yet the 
drift-ice frequently renders the entrance to it dangerous.' See further Hdt. 4. 28 (cited 
Gell. 17. 8. 16, Macrob. Sat. 7. 12. 31), Verg. georg. 3. 349 ff., Strab. 73 and 307, Ov. 
trist. 3. 10. 31 f., ex Pont. 3. i. 15 f., 4. 9. 85 f., Sen. H.f. 539 f., Mela i. 19. 115, 
Macrob. Sat. 7. 12. 32 f. 

^ Supra p. 135. 1 Supra ii. 1088, 1122 f. ^ Supra p. 107 n. 3. 

^ Literature on the subject is cited and in part criticised by W. Christ Geschichte der 
griechischen Litteratur^ MUnchen 191 2 i. 68 f., K. Witte in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
viii. 2220 f., Liibker Reallex.^ p. 473, P. Cauer Griindfragen der Hojuerkritik'^ Leipzig 
1 92 1 i. 136 — 179. The topic is dealt with here and there by D. Mulder 'Bericht liber die 
Literatur zu Homer (Hohere Kritik) fur die Jahre J912 — 1919' in tht Jahres bericht iiber 
die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1920 clxxxii. i — 164 and 'Bericht 
liber die Literatur zu Homer (Hohere Kritik) aus den Jahren 1920 — 1924' ib. 1926 ccvii. 
I — 90, 171 — 255. I follow the lead of my friend Dr P. Giles in the Cambridge University 
Reporter for March 9, 191 5 p. 696, as does that trenchant critic T. W. Allen Homer: the 
Origins and the Transmission Oxford 1924 p. 103 (who, however, will not admit any 
'Aeolic lays'). But see now M. P. Nilsson Homer and Mycenae London 1933 p. 167 ff., 
who argues afresh that the Homeric language is a ' Kunstsprache ' and concludes a most 
temperate discussion thus: 'We may surmise that the first Ionic minstrels took over 
Aeolic epics — but not the songs which we read to-day — perhaps rather mechanically 
substituting their own dialect and admitting chiefly such Aeolic stock expressions, words, 
and forms, for which metrically equivalent Ionic forms were wanting. As the songs were 
constantly rehandled and even new songs composed, the close fusion of Aeolic words and 
forms with an Ionic basis was the ultimate result. It is impossible to guess how long a 
time such a process may have taken. We can only be certain that it must have been long. 



142 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 

tradition, recognises Zeus as natural lord and master of the winds. 
The Odyssey speaks of ships 'delighting in the fair breeze of Zeus'^ 
or 'driven by the fair breeze of ZeusV and tells how 'Zeus sent a 
fair breeze' to certain Phoenician mariners^. Similar expressions 
occur in later poetry*, sometimes with special reference to a westerly 
gale^ or to the etesian winds ^. 

Again, Zeus as sender of the fair breeze {pilros) bore the cult-title 
Ourios at least as early as 475 B.C. For, writing about that date, 
Aischylos makes the suppliant Danaides appeal to Zeus Ourios'^. 
They had travelled far and would fain reach the haven of their 
desires. Who should waft them on their way, if not the great Argive® 
god from whom through Epaphos they traced their descent^? 

Zeus Ourios had a sanctuary on the Asiatic side of the Thracian 

Bosporos ^^. This was known to the Greeks as Hteron, the ' Sanctuary ' 

par excellences^. The tabula P eutingeriana at Vienna, a road-map 

of the Roman world drawn and painted at the beginning of the 

because the evolving of such an artificial language is a slow process. We have further to 
admit that this formation of a traditional epic language took place twice, first in Aeolic 
dialect and for a second time in the Ionic dialect, the creation of the fundamentally Ionic 
language of Homer with an Aeolic admixture.' Etc. 

^ Od. 5. 176 ayaWofJievai At6s oiipip. 

2 Od. 15. 297 eTreiyofxivq Aios o\jpi^. Strab. 350 quotes the passage as reading ayaWo- 
fxevr} Albs oi^pcp, in which form the line recurs in /i. Ap. 427. 

^ Od. 15. 475 k-wX de Zei>s ovpov laWev. 

^ Ap. Rhod. 4. 1223 f. ifkvde 5' ovpos \ dKparjs rjLodev vireK At6s, Tzetz. atttehom. 97 es 
"ZTrdpTTjv iwayaWdfxevos Aibs ifKvdev oiipois. 

^ H. Ap. 433 f. ■'yX^' dvefxos ^i^vpos ixeyas aWpios, iK Aibs alcnys, | Xd^pos eiraiyl^iav i^ 
aidipos, K.T.X. 

^ Ap. Rhod. 2. 498 f. ■^pi 5' irriffiat (so G. W. Mooney with one of the Paris codd. 
irrjcrioL vulg. ) avpai iirexpo-ov, at r' dvd Trdcrav \ yaiav b[xQ}S TOirjde Aibs irveiovaiv dpooyrj 
(A. H. Matthiae's cj. dvooyrj can claim the support of four Vatican codd.), 2. 524 ff. roio 
5' €KT]TL I yalav iircxj^uxovaiv eTrjaiaL (so G. W. Mooney for iTqaioL vulg.) e/c At6s avpai \ 
ij/xara TecraapaKoura. 

' Aisch. suppl. 591 ff. avTos 6 varrip (pvTovpybs avrbx^f-p dva^, \ yivovs iraXaibtppoiv 
fxkyas I TeKTOju, rb irdv fxrixo-p, ovpios Zeus. 

^ The word fxrjX^-P ^^ Aisch. /oc. cit. hints at the Argive cult of Zeus M?7xaj'ei5s {supra 
ii. 1 144 n. 2). 

^ So the context definitely asserts. For detailed proof see the stemmata in Gerhard 
Gr. Myth. ii. 234. 

^^ Arrian. peripl. Pont. Eux. 37 [Geogr. Gr. min. i. 401 Muller) e/c 5e Kuaj'e'wi' kirl 
rb^Iepbv tov Atos toG Ovplov, Ivairep rb crbfia rov YlbvTov, (XTadiot recraapdKOVTa. 

^^ Marcian. Heracleens. epit. peripl. Menipp. 7 f. {Geogr. Gr. min. i. 568 f. Muller) 
Korrd rbv QpgiKLOP Bbawopov /cat rb crTOfxa tov Eu^etvou Uovtov iv rois Se^tots riys 'Acrtas 
fxkpeaip, direp earl rod 'BidwCiv ^dvovs, KeiraL xw/)ioj/ '\epbv KoXovfievov, ev ^ vedos iari Atos 
Ovplov Trpo(rayopev6/xepos. tovto d^ rb xwpioj' dcperrjptbv iam tQv ets rbv HbvTov TrXebvTUV . . . 
dirb 'lepov Atos Ovplov ets 'Frj^av Trora/nbv elai aTadioi. / =Sinon. per ip/. Pont. Eux. I and 3 

{Geogr. Gr. min. i. 402 f. Muller). See further E. Oberhummer in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. iii. 752 f. with large-scale map ib. 749 f. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Kudnemos^ Boreios 143 

thirteenth century, but based on an archetype of 130 — 150 A.D.^ 
duly records the place as iouis tirius (fig. 57) ^ The cosmographer 
of Ravenna, whose seventh-century work, perhaps composed in 
Greek, is extant in a ninth-century Latin version^, terms it both 
leron^ and Urion^, while the Italian geographer Guido in 11 19 A.D. 
borrows from him the name leron^ or Hieron'^. P. Gilles (Gyllius) 
in his learned commentary on Dionysios of Byzantion, whose 
Voyage tip the Bosporos^ he had discovered c. 1549, gives for the 
first time a detailed description and history of the spot^. E. D. Clarke 
in 1 8 16 notes that a town in the vicinity bears the name Joro or 
Joron^^. And the Genoese castle at Anatoli Kavaghi is still called 







Fig- 57- 



^ M. Schanz Geschichte der rd??iischen LiiteraHir^ Mtinchen 1899 ii. i. 288 f. 

2 K. Miller Die Weltkarte des Castorius genannt Die Peutingersche Tafel : Einleitender 
Text Ravensburg 1887 p. 96, id. Weltkarte des Castorius genannt Die Peutinger'' sche Tafel 
Ravensburg 1888 segmentum ix. 1 (a full-sized reproduction in the original colours, from 
which my fig. 57 is taken). Note the proximity, in segmentum ix. 3, of the Ins. Achillis 
sive Leuce dicta. 

^ H. Funaioli in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i A. 305 — 310, M. Schanz Geschichte der 
romischen Litteratur Mtinchen 1920 iv. 1, 126. The Thes. Ling. Lat. Index p. 89 says : 
*saec. fere ix ex exemplo graeco saec. vii versa.' 

* Ravenn. anon, cosmogr. i. 17 p. 38, i Finder — Parthey. 

•^ Id. ib. 5. 9 p. 364, I Pinder — Parthey. 

^ QyyidiO geogr. 100 p. 529, 21 Pinder — Parthey. 

7 Id. ib. 121 p. 548, 13 Pinder — Parthey. 

^ A work formerly believed to have been written before 196 a.d. (E. Oberhummer 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 755), but more probably of later date (H. Berger 
ib. V. 971). 

^ GyUius in Dionys. '^^z. frag. 47 {Geogr. Gr. inin. ii. 57 MuUer) z.\\A frags. 58, 59 
{Geogr. Gr. ?}ii7i. ii. 75 — 81 Miiller). The same fragments are printed in the editions of 
Dionysios the Byzantine by C. Wescher (Parisiis 1874 p. 27, 5 ff. (Ixxv) and p. 29, 16 ft'. 
(xcii, xciii)) and by R. Gungerich (Berolini 1927 p. 27, 16 ft". (75) and p. 29, 30 ft'. (92, 93)) 
without the remarks of Gyllius. 

^^ E. D. Clarke Travels in various countries of Europe Asia and Africa^ London 18 16 
i. 439 n. 4. 



144 Zeus Ourios^ tkmenos^ Ejudnemos^ Boreios 

by the Turks loros Kalessi^. Here on a bold promontory, com- 
manding both the sequestered bay of Beuyukdere and the broad 




Fig. 58. 

waters of the Black Sea, J. Millingen brought to light substantial 
remains of Greek architecture, which he attributed to the temple 

^ E. Oberhummer in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 752. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 145 

(fig. 58)^ These comprise a fine gateway of Parian marble flanked 
by two columns some i8 ft high; they rest on a great marble 
threshold and are spanned by a lintel 12 ft 6 ins long and 6 ft 
broad. Above this rises an archway in the castle-wall, topped by 
a Byzantine cross; and finally a marble slab on the right-hand 
tower is inscribed with the ancient formula 'The light of Christ 
shineth over alP.' It is possible that a large Ionic capital found by 
E. D. Clarke on the neighbouring headland of Argyronion came, as 
he supposed^, from the same site. Philostratos of Lemnos in the 
first half of the third century A.D. describes a picture of the Bosporos, 
and bids us notice various details of its coast-scenery 'until we reach 
Hieron. And' — he continues — 'I think you can see the temple 
there and stelai set round it and the beacon at the mouth of the straits, 
hung aloft as a signal to ships sailing from the Pontos*.' One at least 
of the said stelai^ has come down to us — a marble base found by 
J. Spon and G. Wheler on their Levantine tour (1675 — 1676) in a 
house near the church oi Kadi-Kioi (Kalchedon), and now preserved 

^ J. Millingen in The Illustrated London News for Dec. 12, 1863 p. 592 f. with woodcut 
( = my fig. 58). See further Sir J. E. Sandys' n. on Dem. Lept. 36. 

^ R. A. S. Macalister The Excavation of Gezer igo2 — /^oj" and igoy — igog London 
1912 p. 357 pi. 104, 3 (tomb 147), p. 366 f. pi. no, 10 (tomb 160), p. 376 f. pi. 118, 16 
(tomb 196) and C. M. Kaufmann Handbuch der christlichen Archdologie'^ Paderborn 19 13 
p. 606 publish lamps from Gezer, Jerusalem, etc. with the liturgical phrase 0a;s 'y^picrroxi 
(pivi { = <paiv€i) rrdffiv rjfxlp variously distorted, abbreviated, and amplitied. Cp. F. Miltner 
in \he. Jahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1929 xxiv Beiblatt p. 175 f. no. 77 fig. 74 (0ws XpLarov 
(palvei waaiv iv o'LKif). This legend is accompanied by a stylised form of the seven-branched 
candlestick. I add two similar lamps in my possession, one (fig. 59, a, d, c) said to have 
come from Samaria, the other (fig. 60) from Am el Sultan on the site of Jericho. Such 
lamps suggest that the inscription recorded by Millingen had reference to a cresset or 
beacon — perhaps the irvpaos mentioned by Philostr. mai. imagg. i. 12. 5 {infra n. 4) and 
handsomely illustrated in the tabula Peutingeriana {supra p. 143 fig. 57). 

2 E. D. Clarke op. cit.^ ii. 440 f. : ' We there found the capital of a very antient column, 
of the Ionic order, not less than two feet and an half in diameter. It had been hollowed ; 
and it now serves as a vase, near to the residence of the Dervish, who relates the idle 
superstitions of the country concerning the mountain, and the giant supposed to be there 
buried' [sc. Amykos, as Clarke notes, citing Val. Flacc. 4. 200 gigans. See further 
H. W. StoU in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 327, K. Wernicke in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
i. 2000, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 320 n. 5, 570 n. 2, Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. ii. 
842 fif.]. Clarke ib.'^ p. 441 n. 6: 'During a subsequent visit to the same place, the author 
was accompanied by Mons. Preaux, artist in the service of Mr. Spencer Smith, late 
Minister at the Porte. Mons. Preaux made a drawing of this Ionic capital ; which is now 
in Mr. Smithes possession.' 

^ Philostr. mai. hnagg. i. 12. 5 — '^cr hv e</)' 'lepdv d^iKdo/jieda. /cat rov cKel veCov olixaL 
6pq.s Kai (TTTjXas, at irepddpvvTaL (so C. L. Kayser for irepidpvvTai Lugd. alt. iraplbpvvTai cet.) 
ai)T(fj, Kai Tov iiri rQ arbfiarL -wvpabv, 6s -fjprrjTaL (J. J. Reiske and H. A. Hamaker cjj. 
TJprai) es (ppvKTUjplav tQu veQv, at irXeovcLV iK tov YlbvTov. 

^ For another see Michaelis in the Arch. Zeit. 1864 xxii. 198 — 202 pi. 192. This slab 
. is now at Berlin {Ant. Skulpt. Berlin p. 383 f. no. 945 fig., R. Kekule von Stradonitz 
Die griechische Skulptur"^ Berlin 1907 p. 173 fig.). 

C. III. 10 



46 Zeus Ourios, ikmenos^ Eudnemos, Boreios 





t;^r\ 



Fig- 59' ^ 




Fig. 59, b. 




Fig. 59' ^' 






:% 




Fig. 60. 




^6) fe 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Bdreios 147 

in the British Museum (fig. 6i)^ It once supported a votive statue 
of Zeus Ourios, and still sings his praises in passable elegiacs: 

The mariner who sets his sail 
For the Blue Eddies, where the gale 
Rolls a big breaker on the sand, 
Or backward bound for fatherland 
Would cross the Aegean — let him call 
From poop to Pilot of us all, 
Zeus of the Fair Breeze, aye and put 
His cakes before this statue's foot ; 
For here above the watery waste 
Antipatros' son Philon^ placed 
The god who meets us as we roam 
With promise of safe voyage home. 

OYPIONEKPPYMNHZTIZOAHrHTHPAKAAEITn 

IHNAKATAFRoToNnNISTloNEKrETASAZ 

EITEFIKYANEAZAINASAPoMoSENOAnoZEIAnN 

KAMnVAoNEIAIZZEIKYMAFAPAtAMAOolZ 

EITEKATAirAIHNPoNToYrAAKANoSToNEPEYNAI 

NEISOnTniAE8AAnNtAlSTAnAPA3EoANni 

nAEToNEYANTHTONAEIOEoNANTITTATPoYnAIZ 

ZTHZE(()IAnNArAOHZZYMBOAONEYnAOIHZ 

Fig. 61. 

As to the foundation of this popular cult, tradition was twofold. 
Poly bios {c. 201 — c. 120 B.C.) describing the Asiatic shore of the 
Bosporos begins with ' Hieron, at which place they say that lason 

^ Corp. inscr. Gr. ii no. 3797 = Kaibel Epig. Gr. no. 779=:Cougny Anth. Pal. 
Append, i. io8 = F. H. Marshall The Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British 
Museum iv. 2. 156 f. Oxford 1916 no. 1012 with fig. ( = my fig. 61) Oiipiov e/c Trpvfxvrjs ns 
odrjyrjTTJpa /caXeirw | Zrjva Kara irpoTovuiv 'kttlou eKwerdaas' | etV iiri Kvav^as dlvai dpofios, 
ivda HocreLdQv \ Kap.ir{)\ov el\i<jcei KVfia irapa ^j/afiddots, | etre /car' Aiyairjv irbvTOv vXaKa 
vdffTOV ipevvdi, \ veladcx) jQtde jSaXtoj/ i/'aicrd irapd ^oducji. \ c35e tov evdvrrjTOP del deov 
^AvTiwdrpov irdls \ (XTTjae i'tXiov, dyadijs (Ttjix^oKov evirXotrjS. 

2 F. Bucheler in the Rhein. Mus. 1881 xxxvi. 338 ff. identifies this Philon with the 
Philon Antas of a sepulchral inscription at Brundisium published by G. Fiorelli in Not. 
Scavi 1880 p. 255, a : Philon | Antas Antipatri | Tyri filius v(ixit) a(nnos) LX | h(ic) 
s(itus) I Marcia C. 1. Syntyche. His father, Antipatros of Tyre, was presumably the 
Stoic philosopher who died at Athens shortly before 44 B.C. (H. von Arnim in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 2516). He in turn appears to have been descended from Antipatros of 
Sidon, the epigrammatist, who was born at Tyre {Anth. Pal. 7. 428. 11 f. Meleagros) and 
flourished c. 150 — 120 B.C. (W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Mlinchen 
1920 ii. I. 327). On this showing the inscription from Chalkedon may be dated at the 
end oi s. i B.C. or the beginning oi s. i a.d. Hence too the poetic merits of Philon, who 
perhaps — as Bucheler conjectured — chose to describe Zeus by the rare epithet t\jdvTt\ro% on 
account of his own name'Ai/Tas. 

10 — 2 



148 Zeus Ourios^ tkmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 

on his return from Kolchis first sacrificed to the twelve gods'^. 
Pomponius Mela (c. 43/4 A.D.) puts it more curtly: 'The god of the 
temple is Zeus, its founder lason^.' But Timosthenes of Rhodes, 
who commanded the fleet of Ptolemy ii Philadelphos, makes the 
altar to the twelve gods a dedication of Phrixos^ And Dionysios 
of Byzantion recognises two sanctuaries, one on the European, the 
other on the Asiatic, side of the strait. Of the former he notes: 
'They say that here lason sacrificed to the twelve gods'^ Of the 
latter he states: 'Hieron, the "Sanctuary," was built by Phrixos, 
son of Nephele and Athamas, on his voyage to Kolchis '^ The 
founder, then, was either lason or Phrixos. Both attributions amount 
to much the same thing. For lason was son of Aison, son of 
Kretheus, son of Aiolos; while Phrixos was son of Athamas, son 
of Aiolos^. The cult was essentially Aeolian, and Zeus Oiirios was 
but a later religious manifestation of Aiolos himself. 

If Zeus Oiirios may thus be traced back to a buried tribal 
ancestor, we can understand an otherwise puzzling feature of his 
art-type — its markedly heroic character. The Zeus Ourios whose 
statue Verres carried off from Syracuse was known to the Romans as 
Imperator'^, and is almost certainly represented on a Syracusan coin 
as a dignified male figure leaning upon his spear^ As such he 
closely resembles the Zeus Strategos of Amastris in Paphlagonia^. 
We divine that the old warrior-king, who had led his Aeolians to 
victory during life, continued to supply them with favouring winds 
after death, and sent the same from his island-home in the Black 
Sea. 

^ Polyb. 4. 39. "^ Mela i. loi. 

^ Timosthenes ap. schol. Ap. Rhod. 2. 532 (Ti/aoo-^^j'?;5 cod. Paris. ArjfMocd^vrjs vulg.), 
cp. Harpokr. s.v. i<p' 'Iep6p {Tifxoa-devrjs vn\g. Arj/xoa-d^urjs codd. B.G.), Souid. s.v.'Etpiepov 
{leg. €(p' 'l€p6vt cp. [Dem.] c. Polycl. 17, 18, 58). 

* Dionys. ^yz. frag. 47 {Geogr. Gr. viin. i. 57 Miiller). 

5 Dionys. '^yz. frag. 58 {Geogr. Gr. min. i. 75 Miiller). 

^ Stemmata in Gerhard Gr. Myth. ii. 223 f. 

^ Cic. in Verr. 2. 4. 128 quoted supra ii. 917 n. o. Cic. in Verr. 2. 4. 129 f. knew of 
three statues representing Zeus Oilpios^Iupiter Imperator-. (i) a statue brought from 
Makedonia c. 197 B.C. by T. Quinctius Flamininus and dedicated on the Capitol at Rome 
(Liv. 6. 29 makes it brought from Praeneste to Rome in 380 B.C. by T. Quinctius Cincin- 
natus — an obvious blunder copied by the so-called P. Victor de regionibus urbis Romae 
reg. 8. 49 signum lovis imperatoris a Praeneste devectum (in H. Jordan Topographie der 
Stadt Rom im Alterthum Berlin 1871 ii. 308)); (2) the statue on the shore of the Bosporos ; 
{3) that stolen by Verres from Syracuse. 

The cjj. lovis Inibricitoris (cp. Apul. de mundo 37), Imp. ( = Ifnpuberis !), Temperatoris, 
and Induperatoris ^ recorded by A. Drakenborch on Liv. 6. 29, are all examples of ingenuity 
misplaced. 

5 Supra ii. 708 fig. 643. ^ Supra ii. 707 figs. 639 — 641, ii. 918 n. o. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 149 

It is not difficult to imagine the prayers that would be addressed to 
this helpful deity. Somewhere in his precinct stood the bronze effigy 
of a boy with outstretched arms, about which gathered a variety of 
idle tales ^. It is probable that a copy of it, if not the original, has 
come down to us in the 'Praying Boy' of the Berlin Museum 
(fig. 63)^ — a masterpiece justly identified^ with the adorans by 



^ Dionys. Byz. frag. 59 {Geogr. Gr. min. ii. 78 f.) 'in fanc.statua aerea est antiquae 
artis, aetatem puerilem prae se ferens, tendens manus. causae multae afferuntur, cur haec 
statua sit in banc figuram conformata. quidam...aiunt audaciae signum esse navigantium, 
deterrens temeritatem navigationis periculis plenam, atque ostendens redeuntium salutis 
felicitatem et pietatem : non enim sine terrore utrumque est. alii dicunt puerum in littore 
errantem aliquanto post venisse quam e portu navis soluta esset, salutisque desperatione 
affectum manus ad caelum tendere ; pueri autem preces deum exaudientem reduxisse navem 
in portum. alii aiunt in magna maris tranquillitate, omni vento silente, nave diu retardata, 
nautas inopia potus laborasse; navarcho autem visionem insedisse iubentem ut navarchus 
filium suum sacrificaret, non enim alio modo posse assequi commeatum et ventos: navarcho 
necessitate coacto et parato puerum sacrificare, manus quidem puerum tetendisse, deum 
vero misericordia motum ob absurdum pueri supplicium obque pueri aetatem sustulisse 
puerum et ventum secundum immisisse. haec quidem et his contraria, ut cuique placuerit, 
credibilia existimentur.' Dionysios' gossiping explanations run from bad to worse. The 
third, and worst, works in reminiscences of Agamemnon at Aulis, Abraham and Isaac, 
Zeus and Ganymedes ! 

Gyllius ad he. cp. Philostr. mai. imagg. i. 12. 3. But the passage (/cai 6"Epws kirl rrf 
irirpq, relvei tt]v xetpa is t7}v daXarrav, k.t.\.) alludes to a wholly different figure (B. Sauer 
in Philologus 1908 Ixvii. 306 f., H. Lucas in the Neuejahrb.f. klass. Altertum 191 2 xxix. 
1 19). E. Oberhummer in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 752 (* anscheinend dieselbe ' etc.) 
is definitely wrong. 

^ Ant. Skulpt. Berlin p. 2 ff. no. 2 with fig. (bibliography to 1891). Good illustrations 
are given by Brunn — Bruckmann Denkm. der gr. und rom. 
Sculpt, pi. 283, H. Bulle Der schbne Mensch im Altertum'^ 
Munchen und Leipzig 19 12 p. 122 pi. 64, F. Winter Kunst- 
geschichte in Bildern^ Leipzig (1925) i. 340 fig. 3. See also 
Collignon Hist, de la Sculpt, gr. ii, 483 f. fig. 252, R. Kekule 
von Stradonitz Die griechische Skulptur"^ Berlin 1907 p. 269 ff. 
fig., C. Picard La sculpture antique Paris 1926 ii. 200 with 
figs. 82, 229. My fig. 63 is from the Brunn— Bruckmann 
photograph, but a fresh restoration of the arms [infra p. 151 
n. 4) is needed, which should square with J. D. Ramberg's draw- 
ing of the unrestored statue as published by A. Conze in the 
Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1886 i. 9 fig. ( = my fig. 62). 

^ L. Stephani Parerga archaeologica St Petersburg 1851 — 
1876 no. 2, B. Sauer 'Der Betende des Boedas' in Philologus 
1908 Ixvii. 304—310, H. Lucas 'Der betende Knabe des 
Boidas' in the Neue Jahrb. f. klass. Altertum 191 2 xxix. 
112— 123 with pl. of 9 figs., H. Lechat 'Boidas (ou Boidas)' 
m the Revue des itudes anciennes 191 3 pp. 153 — 155. 

The history of the Berlin bronze is discussed by A. Conze 
' Der betende Knabe in den koniglichen Museen zu Berlin ' in 
\he Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1886 i. i— 13 with 
3 figs., id. * Zum betenden Knaben ' ib. p. 223, A. Furtwangler 
'Zum betenden Knaben' ib. pp. 217—219 with fig. ( = my 
fig- 64), O. Puchstein 'Zum betenden Knaben' ib. pp. 219 — 




Fig. 62. 



50 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Bdreios 




Fig- 63- 



Plate XX 




A NUBIAN 
WORSHIPPER ? 




Bronze statuette from Ephesos, now at Queens' College, Cambridge 

a praying Negro. 

See i>age 151 n. 4. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Kudnemos^ Boreios 151 

Boidas^ of Byzantion^, son and pupil of Lysippos^ The boy uplifts 

his face towards Zeus and, with hands turned outwards in the 

customary attitude of prayer*, asks for the fair breeze to speed him 

on his way. This, the most spiritual of all extant Greek bronzes^, is 

of course a votive offering, public or private, and stands for the 

success of some venturesome quest. One thinks of Pindar's lason^: 

A golden bowl he took, and at the stern 

Called on the Father of the Sons of Heaven — 
Zeus of the Lightning-Lance, 
Called on quick waves and winds' advance. 
Called on the nights and tracks thro' deep seas driven, 
For friendly days and fortune-blest return. 

Nevertheless it would be rash to identify the 'Praying Boy' with 
lason, or — as L. Stephani suggested "^ — with Phrixos. He is a 
Lysippian modification of an earlier athletic type^. More than that 

223; its technique, by E. Pernice in iht /ahresh, d. oest. arch. Inst. 1908 xi. 223 — 225 

fig- 97- 

^ H. Lucas loc. cit. p. 118, H. Lechat loc. cit. p. 154. 

'^ Vitr. ^ praef. 2. ^ Plin. nat. hist. 34. d^i, cp. 73. 

^ E. Voullieme {sic) Qiiomodo veteres adoraverint Halis Saxonum 1887 p. 26 ff. ('De 
gestu manuum sublatarum') gives a very full collection of literary passages and con- 
cludes : ' Precantes brachiis in eandem regionem ita ad caelum sublatis, ut palmae inter 
se aspiciant, eas pariter resupinabant, quo modo ita vertuntur, ut ad caelum spectent.' 
Id. ib. p. 36 fF. adds a survey of the monumental evidence and a pi. of the Berlin 
* Praying Boy' with arms correctly restored. See also C. Sittl Die Gebdrden der Griechen 
iind R'dnier Leipzig 1890 p. 305 ff. and the bronze statuette (height \\ ins) of a Praying 
Negro, from Ephesos, now in my collection (pi. xx). 

^ The interpretation of it as a ball-player about to catch a ball (J. J. Cornelissen 
' Archaeologica' in J/«^w£'jr)/w^ N.S. 1878 vi. 424 — 431, W. Raabe The Hunger- Pastor 
trans. Arnold London 1885 ii. 34, A. Mau 'Der betende Knabe' in the Rom. Mitth. 1902 
xvii. loi — 106) is incompatible with the position of the arms (M. Goepel in the fahrb. 
d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1904 xix Arch. Anz. p. 187, id. 'Zum betenden Knaben und 
zur springenden Amazone' ib. 1905 xx. 108 ff., H. Lucas in the Neue Jahrb. f. klass. 
Altertum 1912 xxix. 113) and grotesquely inadequate. Some critics have no souls. 

To group the statue as a suppliant with that of a warrior brandishing lance and 
shield (A. Herzog Studien ziir Geschichte der griechischen Kunst Leipzig 1888 p. 40, cp. 
two bronzes represented on the kjflix by 'the Foundry Painter' (Furtwangler Vasensamml. 
Berlin ii. 593 ff. no. 2294, Furtwangler — Reichhold — Hauser Gr. Vasenmalerei\\\. 81 — 86 
pi. 135, Hoppin Red-fig. Vases i. 454 f. no. i, J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des 
rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 187 no. 2)), or as Taras with that of a colossal 
Poseidon (H. Willers Studien zur griechischen Kunst Leipzig 1914 pp. 125 — 159 with 
pis. 9 — 13 ('Der betende Knabe vor Poseidon')), is a risky, not to say a reckless, expedient. 

6 Pind. Pyth. 4. 193 ff. 

' L. Stephani Parerga archaeologica St Petersburg 185 1 — 1876 no. 2 
cited by A. Conze in ih^ Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1886 i. 11 
n. 25 and B. Sauer in Philologus 1908 Ixvii. 304 n. i. 

^ A. Furtwangler 'Zum betenden Knaben' in the Jahrb. d. kais. 
deutsch. arch. Inst. 1886 i. 217—219 with fig. (=my fig. 64) of a 
beautifully cut, but badly flaked, cornelian at Berlin {id. Geschnitt. Steine 
Berlin p. 257 no. 6905 pi. 51, id. Ant. Gemmen i pi. 44, 32, ii. 214), 




152 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Rudnemos^ Boreios 

we do not know. Yet it may be permitted us to wonder whether 
the fame of this soHtary figure standing with outstretched arms on 
the shore of the strait reached the ears of Virgil and prompted one 
of the most wonderful couplets in the Aeneid, his description of the 
souls on the banks of Acheron : 

stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum 
tendeba?ttque mantis ripae ulterioris amore^. 
They stood and prayed to be first ferried o'er, 
Yearning with outstretched hands for the further shore. 

Be that as it may, there was inspiration both literal and 
metaphorical about Zeus Oilrios, and the poets were duly impressed. 
The epigram of Philon^ can be capped by another of Meleagros^: 

Sea-going ships that thread the Dardanelles 

Deep-laden, while the north your canvass swells. 

If on the Coan shore ye chance to see 

My Phanion looking o'er bright waves for me. 

Say this to her, good ships, — Love speeds me fast : 

I come afoot, waiting no other blast. 

Should you thus bear my message without fail, 

Zeus of the Fair Breeze fill your every sail. 

Merchants trading with the Euxine introduced the cult of Zeus 
Ourios to Delos*, where it acquired an almost cosmopolitan 
character. Worshippers from far and near linked the name of this 
Zeus with those of their own special deities and recorded their vows 
in priniis to him. Thus a citizen of Askalon, who had escaped from 
pursuing pirates^, attested his gratitude by erecting a neat little 
cylindrical altar inscribed in lettering oi s. i B.C. (fig. 65)^: 

which gives us 'die Vorstellung von einer alteren Stufe derselben Composition.' Scale: 
rather less than f . 

^ Verg. Aen. 6. 313 f. 

^ Supra p. 147. 

^ Anth. Pal. 12. 53. i — 8 Meleagros. In the last two lines W. R. Paton prints eiyap 
TovT elVotr', evayyeXoL (so N. Piccolos for eS t4\ol cod. with space after e5), avTiKa koI 
Zeus I oiipios v/ji€T4pas Trvei^aeTai €ls 6d6vas. Other emendations are discussed by F. Dubner 
ad loc. 

* P. Roussel Les cultes egyptiens h Delos du III^ an I^'^ siecle av. J.-C. Nancy 1916 
p. 152, id. Delos ^ colonie athhtienne Paris I9i6p. 275. 

^ On the prevalence of these pests in the Aegean during s. ii — i B.C. see J. M. Sestier 
La piraterie dans Vantiquite Paris 1880. 

^ C. Clermont-Ganneau in the Comptes rendus de V Acad, des inscr. et belles-lettres 1909 
pp. 307 — 317 with fig., G. Leroux in Delos ii. i. 58 fig. 81 (=my fig. 65). The 
altar (height 0*53'": lower diameter o'4i™), found during August 1907 in a Byzantine wall 
to the south of the 'Hypostyle Hall,' is inscribed: Att Ovpiojt Kal 'AardpTrji HaXaicrTLuriL, \ 
(Clermont-Ganneau here wrongly inserts /cat) ' AcppodiTrit Ovpaviai, deois iirrjKooLS, \ Aafxiov 
Arjfii^Tplov 'A(TKa\o)uLTr]s, \ aojdeis avb ireiparuiv, \ evxw and in smaller lettering ov deixLTOv 
5^ irpoadyeiv \ atyeiov, vI'kov, /3oos drjXeias. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 153 

To Zeus Ourios and Astarte Palais tine ^ 
Aphrodite Ourania^ Hearers of Prayer, 
, Damon, son of Demetrios, an Askalonite, 
being saved from pirates 
(paid) this vow. 

It is not lawful here to bring 

goat's flesh, swine's flesh, or aught of the cow. 




Fig. 65. 



The associates of Zeus Otirios are two goddesses, who in function 
must have borne a rough resemblance to each other, Astarte 
Palaistine and Aphrodite Ourania. The former appears for the 
first time in this inscription : she was perhaps the patron-deity of the 
port (lamneia? loppe?) to which Damon's ship belonged, or possibly 



154 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Euanemos^ Boreios 

the figure-head of the good ship herself. The latter goddess had a 
celebrated temple at Askalon^, Damon's native city. 

Dedications to Zeus Oiirios^ which date from the closing years 
of the second century B.C., have been found in the Egyptian 
sanctuary on a terrace to the north-west of Mount Kynthos^. 
There two Athenian brothers, about the year 1 12 — 1 1 1 B.C., erected 
a cylindrical base to Zeus Ourios, Sarapis, [Isis,] Anoubis, Harpo- 
krates^ Of greater interest was another dedication* — 

To Zeus Ourios on behalf of King 

Mithradates Eupator 

and his brother 

Mithradates Chrestos 

and their 

fortunes. 

The bluish marble slab thus inscribed was discovered, in front 
of a small marble pedestal or altar of irregular shape, to the east 
of the paved way leading through the precinct ^ Mithradates vi 
Eupator (120 — 6'}^ B.C.) was associated in the government of Pontos 
first with his mother Laodike and then, for a short while in 1 1 1 B.C.^ 
with his younger brother Mithradates Chrestos. But being of a 
bloodthirsty and cruel disposition he let his mother die in prison 
and murdered his brother ''. The prayer to Zeus 'of the Fair Breeze' 
for one who was heading straight towards family shipwreck sounds 
to us almost grimly ironical. A third dedication, by a native of 
Velia in Lucania, is a white marble base of the year 107 — 106 (?) 
B.C., which was found on the eastern slope of the Inopos ravine, 

^ Hdt. I. 105, Paus. I. [4. 7. 

2 A. Hauvette-Besnault 'Fouilles de Delos. Temple des dieux etrangers' in the 
Bull. Corr. Hell. 1882 vi. 295 — 352 with plate 11 (ground-plan, etc.), L. Biirchner in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iv. 2473, P. Roussel Les cultes egyptiens a Delos du III^ au /^"^ 
siecle av. J.-C. Nancy 1916, id. D^los, colonic athenienne Paris 1916 pp. 249-^252, id. Delos 
Paris 1925 p. 33 f. We still await the definitive publication of this important precinct. 

2 P. Roussel Les cultes dgyptiens a Ddlos du I 11^ au Z^"" siecle av. J.-C. Nancy 191 6 
p. 152 no. 129 ['A]^7;[i'a7o]/)a[s] /cat Ae[wi'i57;s] | \oV K\Qy]va'^6p\ovY M\r\valoi\ \ AuOvpioji, 
2apa7rt[5i, "IcriSi,] | ['AJi'oi^/StSt, 'A/)7roicpare[t]. 

^ A. Hauvette-Besnault in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1882 vi, 343 no. 57 = T. Reinach 
Mithridate Eupator roi de Pont Paris 1890 p. 457 no. 5 = Michel Kecueil d* Inscr. gr. 
no. 1160 = Dittenberger Oriejit. Gr. inscr. sel. no. 368= P. Roussel Les cultes ^gyptiens 
h Dilos du Lll^ au Z^"" siecle av. J.-C. Nancy 1916 p. 156 f. no. 134 Aii Ovpicai virkp 
j8acri[X^w9] | Mi^paSarou EuTraropos | kol rod ddeXcpou avrou \ Midpaddrov Xprjarov \ Kal tQu 
TrpayficiTcov | avTu)v. 

^ The pedestal is K, the paved way V, on the plan {B?ill. Corr. Hell. 1882 vi. 301 fF. 
pi. II). 

® T. Reinach Mithridate Eupator roi de Pont Paris 1890 p. 457 n. i. 

' Memnon Trepi 'Hpa/cXeias iz^ frag. 30 {Frag. hist. Gr. iii. 541 Miiller) ap. Phot. 
bibl. p. 230 biff. Bekker, Appian. Mithr. 112. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ FjUdnemos^ Boreios 155 

below the sanctuary of the foreign gods^. A fourth is a small base 
of white marble with a square hole for insertion or attachment. It is 
dated to the year 105 — 104 or 104 — 103 B.c.^ and was set up by a 
citizen of Nymphaion {Eltegen) on the western shore of the 
Bosporos Kimmerios^ as a thank-offering to Zeus Otirios, Sarapis, 
Isis, Anoubis, and Harphokrates {sicY on behalf of himself, his son, 
and — a noteworthy touch of altruism — all that go down to the sea 
in ships. 

At a point near the south-west angle of the ' Hypostyle Hall' 
was found the fragment of a circular altar, bearing a dedication to 
Zeus Oiirios in letters of ^. 100 B.C.^ Lastly, a wall of late date built 
against the south wall of the 'Hypostyle Hall' contained a quadr- 
angular block of white marble with two square holes for insertion 
on its upper surface. The front of the block bore a carefully cut 
bilingual dedication of ^. no B.C. by the Hermaistai, Apolloniastai, 
and Poseidoniastai to Zeus Oiirios or — as his name was translated 
by the Roman merchants — lupiter Sequndanus^. 

1 P. Roussel in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1908 xxxii. 426 f. no 32, id. Les cultes 
egyptiens a Ddos du I 11^ au /^"^ silcle av. J.-C. Nancy 1916 p. 163 no. 148 (revised 

reading) ci . . X — | ous 'E\eaT77[s] | [Au] Oup/wi e[u%]T7J', [eTri] | [te] 

pews 'A7r[o]\Xo[5coJ|pou rov 'A7r[o]\Xo[5w]|pou Kpw7ri5ou, [/cXei]|5oi'xoC['']7'05 [no(ret]|5w»'toi' 
rov [r77po]|(TTpaTou n€i[paiews,]|fa/c[o]peiyo[i'Tos]l[N]t/ciou. 

'^ A. Hauvette — Besnault in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1882 vi. 328 no. 22 = Dittenberger 
Syll. inscr. Gr.^ no. 758, ib.^ no. 1126 = P. Roussel Les cultes Egyptiens d Ddos du III^ 
au I^^ sihle av, J.-C. Nancy 1916 p. 165 f. no. 153 E^'ruxos 'A7roX[X]wj'(t)oi' ]S'uyLi0air7;[s] | 
VT^kp eavTov Kat rov vlov Euj3o(i/)Xo[l']| Kal virep tQv ir\dC^oix4voiV iravrujv \ Ad OdpiuiL, 
SapaTTiSt, "IcriSi, ^Avov^idi, ' Ap\(poKpdT€i, deoTs avvudot^ Kal avfx\^d3fxois, iiri iep^us Qeofxvr)- 
(TTOV I Tov Qeoyivov KvdadrfvatiuSy \ ^aKope^ovros "i^vaiov, \ xapiCTTypioi'. 

^ E. H. Minns Scythians and Greeks Cambridge 19 13 p. 560 f. 

■* Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr.'^ no. 559, 12 n., ib? no. 977^ 12 n. points out that the 
aspirate properly belonging to the latter part of the Egyptian Harpechrat (E. Meyer in 
Roscher Z^;(r. Myth. i. 2746) or Har-pe-chrod {M. Pieper in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
vii. 2410) and recognised in the variants ' XpiroxpO'Ta {Inscr. Gr. sept. iii. 2 no. 591, i 
Larissa in Thessaly), ' Xpiroxpo-Tet [Inscr. Gr. Deli iv no. 1260, 4, alib.) has here and 
elsewhere been transferred to the former part of 'Ap<poKpdT7)s in order to assimilate the 
divine name to the frequent termination -KpaTTjs. Further changes produced the normal 
' ApiroKpoLTT]^ and even the abnormal KapiroKpaTrjs (E. Sittig in the 7.eitschrift fiir verglei- 
chende Sprachforschujig igi?^ xlv. 242 — 245). 

^ P. Roussel and J. Hatzfeld in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1909 xxxiii. 510 no. 26 Au 
O'upLcoi I TOV AIA (? TOV Am). 

^ P. Roussel and J. Hatzfeld in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1909 xxxiii. 496 ff. no. 16 = 
Dessau Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 9237 

C. Heius T.f. Libo L. Pompilius [L.f.] 
Q. Saufeius P.f. Treb. A. Cottius N.f. 

L. Veturius P.f. M. Umbricius M.f. 

D. Ampius Q. 1. L. Aufidius L.C. 1. Dorot. minor 
L. Paconius L.l. Trup. C. Seius Cn. 1. Heracleo 

Ti. Maecius L.l. Cn. Tutorius P. 1. Olumpiod. 

magistreis de sua pecunia lovei Sequndano. 



156 Zeus Ourios^ tkmenos^ Eudnemos^ Bdreios 

This curious title was known already from a passage of 
Martianus Capella-^, which assigns lupiter Secundanus together with 
lovis Opulentia and Minerva to the third of the sixteen regions of 
the sky recognised in Etruscan lightning-lore^. Since the series cona- 
mences with the north, the third division of the first quarter^ would 
correspond with the sector N.E. to E.N.E. of our mariner's compass, 
and this (north-east by east) is just the direction of a wind blowing 
down the Dardanelles. The inscription equating lupiter Sequndanus 
with Zeus Oiirios explains in fact Capella's epithet, which had 
previously puzzled the commentators ^ 

Moreover, it adds point to a well known phrase of Catullus ^ 
He is telling how his yacht brought him safely from Bithynia to 
Italy in 56 B.C.: 

And thence through all the seas that break 

She bore her master well, 
Whether the breeze her sail would shake 

And left or right compel, 
Or Jove who followed in her wake 

Full on the canvas fell. 

The poet's use of lupiter Secundus is obviously a variation on the 
more prosaic and technical lupiter Secundanus. The homeward 
journey through the Bosporos^ was sped, appropriately enough, by 
the god whom we have seen identified with Zeus Otirios'^. And the 

rdtos "Htos Tt'rou vlb^ Ai^cov, | Aet^/ctos HofnriXLos AevKiov mos, | Koivtos ^avcprjLOi 
HottXIov vibs Tpe^iavS^, | AvXos Kottios Ne/ieptou i;t6s, [ AeiJKios OiieTopios UottXIov vids, \ 
MdapKos ^Ofi^piKLos MadpKov vlos, \ AiKfxos "A/mttlos KoLptov, \ Ae^Kio^ Av<pi8ios AcvkIov /cai 
Fatoi; Aojpddeos pedorepos, \ Acijklos HaKoovios AevKiov Tpijtpcjp, \ Tdios I/Tjlos Tpalov 
'UpaKXiwp, I Te^^ptos MuLkios AcvkLov, \ TpoIos T^ovrcbpios HottXiov 'OXvfjLTriodwpos, \ 

oi 'Ep/xaiaTal Kai 'ATroXXwi'iaa'Tai Kai HoaeiSupiaaTal (Dessau reads Ho<ndo}VLa<rTai) j eK 
TUP I8i(i}p Ad Ovpioji dpidrjKap. 

^ Mart. Cap. 47 nam lovis Secundani et lovis Opulentiae Minervaeque domus illic 
{sc. in tertia regione caeli) sunt constitutae. sed omnes circa ipsum lovem fuerant in 
praesenti. 

^ C. O. Thulin Die etruskische Disciplin i. Die Blitzlehre Goteborg 1906 p. 16 fF. 
('Die 16 Himmelsregionen '), id. Die Gotter des Martianus Capella und der Bronzeleber 
von Piacenza Gieszen 1906 p. 62 ff. (' Das System der 12 Loci,' cp. A. Bouche-Leclercq 
Uastrologie grecque Paris 1899 p. 280 ff.). 

^ Plin. nat. hist. 2. 143. 

^ See U. F. Kopp's n. on Mart. Cap. 47. He cp. Mart. Cap, 51 sed etiam Liber ac 
Secundanus Pales vocantur ex septima {se. regione caeli). 

^ Cat. 4. 18 ff. et inde tot per impotentia freta | erum tulisse, laeva sive dextera 1 vocaret 
aura, sive utrumque lupiter [ simul secundus incidisset in pedem. 

^ The stages marked are Mt Kytoros (11 ff.), Amastris in Paphlagonia (13), the 
Pontos (9), the Propontis (8 f.), Rhodes (8), the Kyklades (7), and the Adriatic (6f.). But 
we know that Catullus en route for home made offerings at his brother's tomb in the Troad 
(Cat. 65. 5flf., 68=1. 19 ff., 68b. 49 ff.^ loi, iff.). 

^ Supra p. 155. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Rudnemos^ Boreios 157 

religious interest of the passage lies in the fact that the wind astern 
is distinctly conceived as Zeus or lupiter in person. The wind is his 
spirit, the spirit — let us say — of a tribal chief, long since dead and 
buried, but rightly named Aiolos^. 

It is possible that some such conception underlies the remarkable 
epithet of Zeus ikmenos^ 'who follows in our wake'^. The Homeric 
poems apply this participle exclusively to the ouros or 'fair breeze' 
sent by Apollon^, Athena*, and Kirke^, which is on occasion per- 
sonified and described as 'a good companion '^ But Eustathios goes 
further and quotes from an unspecified source the significant 
expression 'Zeus ikmenos''^, perhaps the product of some late epic 
poet, who had in mind lupiter Sequndanus or Secundus. 

Again, a parallel may be found in the case of Androgeos. 
L. Weber^ has drawn attention to the very ancient character of this 
mythical figure, whom he believes to have been originally a Cretan 
god, transplanted to Attike and there transformed, first into a hero 
possessed of chthonian powers, and last into a human prince 
affiliated to Minos. I should prefer to invert the sequence god, hero, 
man, and to regard Androgeos as ab initio a mortal, heroified after 
death and worshipped in the Kerameikos under the name Eurygyes^. 
Such an appellative was, not improbably, employed from the out- 
set, as a means of avoiding the actual name of the dead^^. After all, 

1 Supra pp. 141, 148. 

2 On the relation of tK/xevos to IVw, iKPeofxai, etc. see Prellwitz Etym. Worterb. d. Gr. 
Spr? p. 195, Boisacq Diet. ^tym. de la Langue Gr. p. 370 f., K. Brugmann Griechische 
Grammatik^ Mllnchen 1913 p. 365, Y. Bechtel Lexilogus zu Homer Halle a. d. S. 1914 

P- 175- 

^ //. I. 479. ^ Od. 2. 420=15. 292, cp. 15. 34 f. 

5 Od. II. 6ff. = i2. 148 ff. 

^ Od. II. 7 = 12. 149 'Ufxevov odpov let Tr\rjai<TTiov, iadXbv eraipov. 

^ Eustath. in II. p. 964, ^'i^ f. odev avefios ^crrat, 6s e| iKfiddos Kai ToiaOrTj^ DXr]^ ttjv 
avffTaaiv ^x^'-' ^^^^ '^<^^ tK/nevos odpos Kai Zei5s ^acLv tKfxevos. It is tempting to infer from the 
first sentence that Zeus iKfievos is a mere blunder for Zeus ^Ik/xoios (infra §8 (c)). But in 
view of lupiter Sequndanus or Secundus the inference would be precarious. 

^ L. Weber 'Androgeos' in the Archiv f. Rel. 1925 xxiii. 34 — 44, 229 — 251, id. 
'Kerameikos-Kulte' in the Ath. Mitth. 1925 1. 145. 

^ Hesych. s.v. cir 'Eupvyvrj dyibv • MeXriaayopas (Amelesagorasyra^. 3 {Frag. hist. Gr. 
ii. 22 Mliller)) tov^ k.vhpbyt(j)v 'Evpvyvr)v (so Musurus for dvbpbyeov evpijrjv cod.) eipTJadai 
(pTjat Tov Mt^'wos, e0' t^ rbv dydva rldeadaKTOv {inserui)>iTri,Td(piou 'Adrjvrjaiv iv rc^ 
Kepa/JLeiKcp. Kai "Haiodos {/rag. 106 Flach, 104 Rzach) ' 'Evpvyijrjs 5' ^tc Kovpos (K. W. 
Goettling cj. iwiKovpos, R. Peppmiiller cj. iwiovpos cp. //. 13. 450) 'Adrjpdwu (so 
J. G. Hermann for 'Adijvaiojv cod.) iepduiv (cp. Od. 11. 323). Melesagoras was a legendary 
Eleusinian seer (Max. Tyr. diss. 38. 3), on whom was fathered an Atthis perhaps composed 
as early as s. v B.C. (E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 1822, W. Christ 
Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Munchen 1912 i. 454 n. i). 

^^ Frazer Golden Bough^: Taboo p. 349 ff. ('Names of the Dead tabooed'), E. Clodd 
Magic in Names London 1920 p. 121 ff. (' Mana in Names of the Dead'). 



158 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 

Andrdgeos, 'The man of earth '^ might fairly be dubbed Etirygyes, 
*He of the broad acres '^ It should also be noticed that the names 
Andrdgeos and Eurygyes are Greek, not pre-Greek; which means 
that we have to do with a genuine Hellenic, not 'Minoan,' hero. It 
is therefore interesting to find that at Phaleron, where he had an 
altar, he was worshipped not only as a nameless 'hero'^, but also 
more definitely as 'the hero astern '^ This expression might no 
doubt be taken to imply that an actual effigy of Androgeos was 
fixed on the vessel's poop^, like that of the bifrontal Lithuanian 
Wejopatis^ or those of the dwarfish Phoenician Pdtaikoi'^ (figs. 68, 69)^ 

^ W. Pape — G. E. Benseler Worterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen^ Braunschweig 
1875 i. 87 'Erdmann.' 

^ Eid. ib. i. 420 'Breitefeld, wo nicht *Breitwirbel, wie Breitkopf,' F. Hiller von 
Gaertringen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 1328 'Der Besitzer des weiten Saatfeldes 
{y)^va) ist der Unterweltsgott oder sein heroischer Stellvertreter.' But F. Bechtel — A. P^ick 
Die Griechischen Personennamen'^ Gottingen 1894 p. 385 : *-yvri^ zu yia " Hand"? Vgl. 
iyy^Vi y^oXov, iyyvaXi^oj. 'Eivpv-yvrjs hiess auch 'Avdpo-yecas {-yrjfos?).' 

^ Paus. I. 1.4 i(rTi 8e {sc. at Phaleron) Kai 'Avdpoyeu) jSwyUos tov Mivw, KoXeiTai 5e 
"Hpwos* 'Audpoyew 8e ovra 'iffaaiv oh iariv eTrt/xeXes to, eyx^pt-o- aa<pi(TTepou dWuv iTriffTaadai. 

^ Clem. Al. protr. 2. 40. 2 p. 30, 20 Stahlin rtjuarat de rts Kai ^aXrjpoT Kara irpO/xvap 
TJpojs with schol. ad. loc. p. 309, 13 ff. Stahlin ^aXiypei)? \Lp.y\v rrjs 'Attiktjs' 6 8^ Kara 
irpij/iivas r/pw$ 'Avdpoyeibs icTiu, vibs Mlvojos, ovtojs ovofxacrdeh 6tl Kara rds Trpufj.va^ tujv vrjuu 
idpvTo. Kai KaWl/xaxos ev 8' tojv AitLuv /j-ifivT^Tai {/rag. 33^ Schneider = AfTta 4 /rag. 3 
Schneider, A. W. Mair). 

^ So schol. Clem. Al. /oc. cit. [supra n. 4). ^ Supra ii. 445 n. i. 

' Hdt. 3. 37 ^ari yap tou 'H0ai(rroi; {sc. Ptah at Memphis: supra i. 433, ii. 34 n. i) 
T(aya\jxa Tolai. ^olvikii]Iol(jl IlaTai/cotcri efxtpep^crrarov, toi)s oi ^olvlk€s iv rrjcrL irpdoprjcn tcou 
rpirjp^iap irepLciyovcrL. 6s 8^ toijtovs jxt] oirwire, c35e a'r]iJiaviia • irvy/u-aiov du8pbs fji,ifJLr](ns eari. 
The lexicographers place these little figures on the poop, not the prow (Hesych. s.v. 
HdraiKOL (so M. Schmidt for Ilarat/cot cod., cp. Herodian. irepi KaOoXiKrjs ■irpo<x(f8Las 6 
{[. 151, 9 Lentz) UdraiKos, id. irepi 6pdoypa<pias (ii. 424, 18 Lentz) Ilarai/cos, Theognost. 
Byz. can. 326 in Cramer anecd. Oxon. ii. 60, 25 f. Ildrat/fos) ' Qeoi ^oivt.K€S, ods laToia-t. Kara 
rds TrpvfjLvas t(2v vetov, Souid. s.v. ndraiKoi ' 6eoi ^oivlklkol ev Tah irpvixuaLS iSpvfi^vot). But 
Herodotos' statement is borne out by the numismatic evidence {infra n. 8), 

Pataikos appears to have been the Phoenician form of the Egyptian Ptah (see J. Ilberg 
in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 1675 ff.) in the misshapen, but negrillo rather than 'embryonic,' 
type Ptah-Seker (Lanzone Dizion. di Mitol. Egiz. p. 243 ff. pis. 98, i, 99, i — 4, 100, 
I — 5, loi, 2, Perrot — Chipiez Hist, de V Art iii. 418 ff. fig. 293), which from the eighteenth 
dynasty down to Ptolemaic times often occurs as an amulet (A. Erman A Handbook of 
Egyptian Religion trans. A. S. Griffith London 1907 p. 76 fig. 51, Sir W. M. Flinders 
Petrie Amulets London 1914 p. 38 pi. 31 fig. 176 a — w, pi. 46 fig. 176 n, p, pi. 47 fig. 176 0. 
I illustrate a single and a double amulet of Ptah-Seker, in green glaze, from my collection 
(figs. 66, 67)) and presumably served a prophylactic purpose. On Ptah-Seker as a dwarfish 
deified ancestor see further H. R. Hall in J. Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics 
Edinburgh 1908 i. 441 b, D. MacRitchie ib. 1912 v. 123 a, 126 a, Sir W. M. Flinders 
Petrie ib. 19 12 v. 249 a, G. Foucart ib. 191 2 v. 855 a, 856 a. Such an apotropaion would 
be useful on land as well as at sea, cp. Hesych. s. vv. Tiyyp(J)v (so M. Schmidt for TiyvQv 
cod., cp. Eustath. in Od. p. 1599, i Viyypdov, p. 1880, 64 Vtypilov), 01 8k Vi.yQv' HdraiKos 
ivLTpaTre^ios (so J. Selden for Trarat/cos iirnraTaiKbs Tpair^^Los cod.), ol 5e Aiyvirriov 'H/oa/cX^a 
and Ei)0/)a5»7S' Ildrai/cos iirLTpaire^Los (so M. Musurus for vaTa'iKbs eirLTpa-Tr^^eLos cod.). 

^ Double shekels of Sidon, struck in s. iv B.C., show as their obverse type a Phoenician 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 159 



war-galley with a small armed figure at the prow (good specimens are Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Coins Phoenicia p. 145 pi. 19, 5, p. 150 pi. 20, 2, E. Babelon Les Perses Ach^minides 
Paris 1893 p. 38 pi. 6, 15, p. 53 pi. 9, 2 f., id. Monn.gr. ram. ii. 2. 597 f. pi. 121, 7, 
601 f. pi. 121, 17, Weber Cat. Coins iii. 2. 782 no. 8057 pi. 297). But a more certain 
representation of the dwarf Pataikos is seen on stateres of Arados, struck in s. iv B.C., 
which have for reverse type a galley with a small effigy on the prow {e.g. Brit. Mus. 
Cat. Coins Phoenicia p. 6 pi. 2, i, p. 9 pi. 2, 11 f., Hunter Cat. Coins iii. 225 
pi. 75, II, E. Babelon Les Perses Achhnenides Paris 1893 p. 130 pi. 22, 2o = Perrot — 
Chipiez Hist, de V Art iii. 419 fig. 292, Babelon Monn. gr. rom. ii. 2. 523 f. pi. 116, 23 f., 
527 f. pi. 117, 2 and 4. I give Babelon Monn.gr. rom. ii. 2. 527 f. pi. 117, 2 ( = my fig. 68) 
and a specimen in my possession (fig. 69)). On coins of Arados struck in s. iii — ii B.C. this 





Fig. dd. 



Fig. 67. 





Fig. 68. 



Fig. 69. 



is replaced by a figure-head of Athena fighting {Brit. Mus Cat. Coins Phoenicia p. 13 fF. 
pi. 3, I, 3 — 8, 16 f.. Hunter Cat. Coins\\\. 226 f. pi. 75, 15 f., 228, 231 ff. pi. 75, 20 — 22, 
E. Babelon Les Perses Achhnenides Paris 1893 p. 132 fif. pi. 23, i, 3, 5 — 7, 13, 15 — 17, 
19, 22 f., pi. 24, 4, 7, cp. pi. 24, 16 and 20). Figure-heads of this sort would be gilded 
(see F. H. M. Blaydes' n. on Aristoph. Ach. 547 IlaWaStwi/ xP^^^^i^^^^^) — ^ fact which 
perhaps explains the comic fragment XP^'^'-' ^<''^' oiirecpda toTs narat'/cots ifi^epij {frag. coin, 
anon. 364 {Frag. com. Gr. iv. 695 Meineke) ap. Souid. s.v. dir^cpdov x/o^'O'ioi;). 

Much material with regard to apotropaia on ships will be found in D. Ruhnkenii 
Opuscula varii argumenti, oratoria, historica, critica'^ Lugduni Batavorum 1823 i. 412 — 456 
('Disputatio de tutelis et insignibus navium'), C. Torr Ancient Ships Cambridge 1894 
pp. 65 — 69, M. Hoernes Urgeschichte der bildenden Kunst in Europa Wien 1898 p. 383 fi"., 
H. Usener Die Sintjluthsagen Bonn 1899 p. 248 ff., Ch. Tsountas in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1899 
p. 90 ff. figs. 16 — 2i=Schrader Peallex.^ ii. 301 pi. 81 fig. 1, J. N. Svoronos in the 
Journ. Intern. d^Arch. Num. 1914 xvi. 81 — 152, H. Diels 'Das Aphlaston der antiken 
Schifife' in the Zeitschrift des Vereins fiir Volkskunde 1915 xxv. 61 fif., A. Koster 
Das antike Seewesen Berlin 1923 p. 58 f. fig. 10 f., p. 64 fig. 18, G. Contenau La civilisa- 



i6o Zeus Otirios^ ikmenos^ Eudnemos^ Boreios 

But to my ear it suggests rather that Androgeos unseen followed 
the ship's trail and supplied her with a steady breeze, much as Boreas 
with puffed cheeks blows along the raft of Odysseus on a grotesque 
vase from the Theban Kabeirion (fig. 70)-^. In either case it is clear 
that in the Ionian, as in the Aeolian, area the wind following aft 
might be attributed to, nay more, might be identified with, an 
ancestral spirit. 

Nor were the Dorians wholly untouched by the same supersti- 
tion, for at Sparta there was a sanctuary of Zeus Eudnemos, the 
'Giver of a Good Wind^' But here an obvious difficulty must be 




Fig. 70. 

met. How comes it that this deity, appropriate to a seafaring folk, 
was worshipped so far inland? A reasonable answer is given by 
S. Wide^ who observes that beside the sanctuary of Zeus Eudneinos 

Hon phenicienne Paris 1926 p. 295 f., L. Deubner in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. 
Inst. 1927 xlii. 180 ff. figs. 12 — 15, F. Behn in Ebert Reallex. xi. 238 with pi. 60, 242 
with pi. 62, 248 with pi. 64. 

^ P. Gardner Cat. Vases Oxford-^. 18 f. no. 262 pi. 26 ( = my fig. 70), M. Bieber Die 
Denkmdler ziim Theaterwesen im Altertum Berlin und Leipzig 1920 p. 154 fig. 134, Pfuhl 
Malerei u. Zeichnung d. Gr. ii. 717. The subject is a parody of Od. 5. 291 ff . ; but note 
that here the trident is transferred from Poseidon to Odysseus ! 

2 Gerhard Gr. Myth. i. 169, Welcker Gr. Gotterl. ii. 195, Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. 
i. 118, H. Usener Gdtternamen Bonn 1896 p. 260, id. 'Gottliche Synonyme' in the 
Rhein. Mus. 1898 liii. 346 { = zd. Kleine Schriften Leipzig — Berlin 1913 iv. 276), Gruppe 
Gr. Myth. Ret. p. 834 n. 9, O. Jessen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 843. 

Euave/Aos, the appellative of Zeus, =ev7}veixos (SchoU — Studemund anecd. i. 264 f. 
'ETTt^era At6s...no. 38 (37) tv-qvkixov^ 266'EwideTa Aids. ..no. 37 {38) evrjvifiov). 

A modern parallel to Zeus Eudnemos may be found in Buenos Aires, 'Good Winds' 
(W. Sturmfels Etymologisches Lexikon deutscher undfre?ndldndischer Ortsnamen Berlin — 
Bonn 1925 p. 28). The town owes its name to 'Our Lady of the Favourable Wind' 
(A.J. Lamoureux in The Encydopcedia Britannica^^ Cambridge 19 10 iv. 754 notes that 
it was first founded by P. de Mendoza in 1535 as Santa Maria de Buenos Ay res). 

^ Wide Lakon. Kulte p. 10. 



Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Rudnemos^ Boreios i6i 

stood a shrine of the hero Pleuron^, eponym of Pleuron in Aitolia^, 

and infers that the cult of Zeus the wind-god had been brought from 

Pleuron, a town adjoining the Calydonian Gulf, to Sparta. I accept 

Wide's explanation, but go one step further. When we remember 

that Pleuron stood in a district called Aiolis^ it becomes at least 

possible that the original 'Giver of a Good Wind' was, in accordance 

with Aeolian thinking^ none other than Pleuron the local hero. It 

is tempting, though perhaps over- venturesome, to suppose that his 

very name meant, or was taken to mean, the 'Wind-Blower^'. Be 

that as it may, a happy coincidence led Theokritos, writing in the 

Aeolic dialect, to say of his journey from Syracuse to Miletos: 

For hither we pray Zeus grant the way with a capful of good wind 
{eudnemos) ®. 

Zeus Eudnemos^ then, like Zeus Oiirios, was on this showing an 

Aeolian god evolved out of an Aeolian hero. But though Zeus as 

a wind-god thus presupposes the primitive conception of wind as 

the soul of a tribal ancestor, we must not imagine that the civilised 

Greek of the classical period was mindful of origins. He thought of 

Zeus as a sky -god. The wind blew in the aer ox lower sky'. Clearly 

therefore Zeus was responsible for the wind. Accordingly the 

rock-cut inscription from Thera which commemorates ^^r^<3;2')c»i"^' may 

well be understood of Zeus Boreatos, god 'of the North Wind.' 

Indeed, an altar dedicated to Zeus Boreios has actually come to 

light near Seleukeia in Kilikia (fig. 71)^. When Herodes Attikos 

^ Pans. 3. 13, 8 ToO Llovtu<jqv de ov fxaKpav Alos lepdu icmv ^vav4/xov, tovtov de iv 8e^iq. 
liXevpQvos rjpc^op, yeyouacri d^ ol Tvvddpeo} Traides rd Trpos /nrjTpbs clto tov UXevpQvos' Qecrriou 
yap TOV A'qbas irciT^pa" A.<7i6s (so Palmerius for "Apeios codd. — Asios frag. 6 Kinkel) (prjacv 
iv roTs '^ireaiv 'Ayrjpopos iraiba etvat tov UXevpQi'os. 

'■^ Daimachos of Plataiai (on whom see E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iv. 
2008 i.)frag. 8 [Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 442 Mliller) ap. schol. //. 13. 218, Apollod. i. 7. 7. 

^ Thouk. 3. 102, cp. Strab. 464 f. See further G. Hirschfeld in Pauly — Wissowa Real- 
Enc. i. 1035 and 11 15. '^ Supra pp. 106 ff., i4of., 148, 157. 

^ JWevpdv is certainly a cognate of irXevpov, irXevpk, 'side', and irXevpov, irXevpa are 
possibly related to TrXeiy/iwj', 'lung',(Prellwitzj5'^w. Worterb. d. Gr. Spr.'^^. 374f., F. MuUer 
Altitalisches Wdrterbuch Gottingen 1926 p. 345. Boisacq Diet. dtym. de la Langue Gr. 
p. 794 disagrees: *Un rapport avec 7rXeu/xa)j'...se justifie mal'). Presumably in the first 
instance UXevpiJov meant 'Seitler' (W. Pape — G. E. Benseler Wdrterbuch der griechischen 
Eigennamen^ Braunschweig 1875 ii. 121 1), but it is conceivable that the name was re- 
interpreted as ' Wind-Blower. ' 

^ Theokr. 28. 5 rutSe yap irXoov evavefxov alr-qixeda irap Atos. 

^ Supra i. loi fF. For philosophical views see O. Gilbert Die meteorologischen Theorien 
des griechischen Altertums Leipzig 1907 pp. 511 — 539 (' Windgenese'). 

^ Supra i. 142 n. 10. 

^ R. Heberdey and A. Wilhelm in the Denkschr. d. Akad. Wien 1896 vi. Abb. p. 102 
no. 182 on a round altar (height i'i7™, circumference ^-2f^) in the village of Budshukli, 
about a mile from Seleukeia up stream on the right bank of the Kalykadnos Aa | BopetV ] 
eeo'5oT[o]s I Aiv^ov [t]ov \ Qeodorov \ evxlvV with facsimile = my fig. 71, E. Maass in the 
Jahresh, d. oest. arch. Inst. 19 10 xiii. 121. 

C. III. II 



1 62 Zeus OurioSy ikmenos^ Rudnemos^ Boreios 

lost his wife Annia Regilla (i6o A.D.), he constructed a precinct 

A I . known as the Triopion on the Appian Road \ 

D p P . and there set up the ambitious inscription in 

V-) r t I .. which Marcellus of Side ^ described the lady, 

y t (J A OT X neither a mortal nor a goddess^, as dwelling 

A I N E O Y I O Y with the heroines in the Islands of the 

Ob OA OTO Y Blest*: 

E Y X IN Zeus bade the Elysian breezes of the West 

Fig. 71. Bear that proud consort to her ocean rest^ 

Scattered allusions to Zeus as a power controlling the winds may 
be found throughout Greek literature, even as late as Byzantine 
times. Eumathios Makrembolites^ in his Romance of Hysinine and 
Hysminias makes the lovers, eloping from Eurykomis', pray both 
Zeus and Poseidon to favour their voyage: 

' So to the harbour we came, and stretching our hands toward the bright sky 
said — "Father Zeus, yielding to thee and thy mystic omens we embark on this 
journey. Thy son Eros has laid siege to our hearts and is dragging us as his 
booty away from our fatherland. And do thou, Poseidon, blow from our back, 
not in our face. Oppose not with thy breath the calm breath of Zeus, oppose not 
the west wind of Eros, whose well-tempered help has brought us to the haven ^. '" 

Finally, there is some slight reason to suppose that whirlwinds 
{strobiloi by land and dinoi by sea^) were specially connected with 
Zeus. His approach at the close of Aischylos' Projnetheus Bou7id^^ 
is heralded by an earthquake, a roar of thunder, spiral flashes of 
lightning, spinning dust-storms^^, and a windy warfare that confuses 

^ K. Miinscher in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 936 ff. 

^ W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Munchen 1924 ii. 2. 67811. 6. 

^ Inscr. Gr. Sic. It. no. 1389 Marcell. i. 43 = Cougny Anth. Pal. Append, i. 264. 43 
01) /ae7 -yd/o dvrjTr), drap ov5^ deaiua TirvKrai. 

^ Inscr. Gr. Sic. It. no. 1389 Marcell. i. %i. = CovLgny Anth. Pal. Append, i. 264. 8 f . 
a,vrr] de fied' ijpijjvrjcn v^vaaran \ ev /xaKcipwu vr]aoL<nv, 'iva Kpovos iu^acriXeOeL. 

^ Inscr. Gr. Sic. It. no. 1389 Marcell. r. 21 f. =Cougny y^///^. Pal. Append, i. 264. 
2 if. Zei)s yikv es djKeavbv 6d\epr)v ^crreiXe yvvaiKa \ ai^pycc Ze^dpoio KO/jLi^ijuev '"ELXvalyaiv. 
Marcellus is thinking of Od. 4. 563 ff. Cp. also Hyg. /ad. 140 at Latonam lovis iussu 
ventus Aquilo sublatam ad Neptunum pertulit. 

^ Eumath. 7. 6. '' Supra ii. 1141. 

* The passage ends thus: ah 8\ (Z nSaeidov, e/c fieratppivov wvevcrov, fxr) Karci /jl^tuittov ' 
/u,T] irpbs irvevixa iraveijdiov dvTcirvevaois {sic) Aios, fxr) Trpos "Epwros ^€<pvpop, oh ijfxels evKpaoSs 
irepl Tov Xi/x^ua yey ovafxev. The sequel shows that Poseidon is not so accommodating: id. 
7. 9 "Epws dXA'^Xous {an dWi^Xois legendum?) rj/xas idovXoypdcpTjae, Kai Zeus ev dvfxacn r-qv 
dpirayriv virrivL^aro' 6 di ye dpaavs Kal dypios Iloo'etSajj' oprj Kv/naTcou eyelpet Kai irpos aiviyiJ.a 
Albs dvTLTTveX Kai 6\ov 8ov\oypa<petov epuriKov iKirXiJuei rots K^fiaaif. 

^ Epikour. epist. 2. 105 Kai ^ws fxev 7'^s rod irprfaTrjpos Kadcefxivov CTpb^CKoL ylyvovTai. 
ews d^ daXcLTTTis dlvoi diroTeXoOvTai. With the context cp. Lucr. 6. 423 ff., O. Gilbert Die 
vteteorologischen Theorien des griechischen Altertums Leipzig 1907 pp. 564, 632. 
10 Aisch. P.v. 1080 ff. 

" Id. ib. 1085 (TTpo/M^oL 5^ Koulu eCKlaaovcLV. Nikephoros Basilakes progymn. 7. 10 
(i. 489, 12) (rTp6fjt.^os TTvevixaTijov is a Byzantine {c. 11 50 A.D.) echo. 



Zeus OurioSy tkmenos^ EudnemoSy Bdreios 163 

sky with sea. Aristophanes in the Clouds personifies Dinos in a 

manner highly suggestive of Zeus\ Nay more, in the Lysistrate'^ 

he virtually identifies Zeus with the tornado that is to sweep the 

perfidious Myrrhine to perdition : 

Sweet, sweet, do you call her? Vile, vile, I repeat. 
Zeus, send me a storm and a whirlwind, I pray. 
To whisk her away, like a bundle of hay. 

Up, up, beyond human aid. 
And toss her and swirl her, and twist her and twirl her. 
Till, tattered and torn, to the earth she is borne. 

Astride of an unsheathed blade. 

In many parts of the globe whirlwinds have been regarded as 
demons or witches or wandering souls^. And not least in modern 
Greece, where they are commonly attributed to the Nereids* or 

^ Supra ii. 2 n. 4. 

^ Aristoph. Lys. 971 fF. XO. FE. TrolayXvKepd; \ /xiapa fxiapa drjr. w ZeO Zeu {supra ii. 
727 n. 3 (i)), I eW' avTTjv, wcnrep rous dcofJLO^s, \ /xeydXij} TV(f>(^ /cat irprja-Trjpi \ ^varpexpas Kal 
^vyyoyyvXiffas | ol'xoio ^ipwv, etra fxedeirjs, \ 17 de (p^poir av ttolXlu els Tr]v yrjv, | Kq,T^ 
€^aL<pv7]s I rrepl t7}v xJ/ojXijv irepi^alrj. I have adopted the translation of B. B. Rogers, but 
have altered his rendering of lines 976 and 979. In the parallel passage, thesm. ^6 ff. , the 
diction again suits a whirlwind or waterspout (56 yoyyvWei, 57 xocti'euei, 61 (Tvyyoyyv\i<xas 
Kal ffvarp^xf/as, 62 xoaj'euo-ai), though of course other meanings are attached to every phrase. 
It may be suspected that Aristophanes had recently (?4ii B.C.) witnessed some striking 
example of a (XTpo^iXos or divos. 

^ Frazer Golden Bough'^: The Magic Art i. 331 n. 2, J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology 
trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1882 i. 203 {Zio or Ziu)^ ii<^ n. i (the Devil, Herodias, 
Pfol), 285 n. I {Ziu or Zio^ Herodias), 1883 ii. 632 {Zio, Phol, the Devil, witches), 1888 
iv. 1798 (the Evil One), 1799 (witches), 1847 (evil spirits), E. H. Meyer Germanische 
Mythologie Berlin 1891 Index p. 353 s.vv. 'Wirbelwind,' 'Wirbelwindselbinnen,' 
'Wirbelwindsriesinnen,' P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1904 i. 81 (demon, 
Satan, diable), 82 f. (damnes, farfadets, Heroguias, sorcier, loups-garous), 112 (foultot ou 
lutin). 

■* B. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 187 1 i. 123 ff. ('Die Neraiden 
gelten gemeiniglich auch als Urheberinnen desallesmit sich fortreissenden Wirbelwindes, 
dvefxoaTp6j3i\os,'^ (^Auf Zakynthos ist das Wort corrumpirt in dve/uLoarpoixpLXos und 
dvefioaTpoTii<pov\as, auf Kephalonia in dvefj.opov(pov\as ...) welcher in Griechenland zumal 
im Sommer haufig ist. In diesem Winde schreiten sie einher, und wen sie auf ihrer Bahn 
antreffen, den heben sie auf und fllhren ihn mit sich durch die Ltifte. Auf Zakynthos sagt 
man beim Wehen des Wirbelwindes: "die Neraiden tanzen," xo/sei/ouve ?) 'Avepd'Cdes, und 
halt die Kreise, welche derselbe im Staube oder im Sande bildet, fiir die Spuren ihrer 
Fiisse. Die Kinder werden zu solcher Zeit angstlich gehutet und nicht aus dem Hause 
gelassen. Wer worn Wirbelwinde uberrascht wird, muss sich ducken, um von den daher 
sturmenden Unholdinnen verschont zu bleiben.^ (^Vgl. die epirotische Sage bei Hahn 
Nr. 81, wo ein Madchen, das sich nicht ducken will, von den Neraiden hinweggerafft 
wird.) Auch hat man fiir diesen Fall bestimmte Beschworungsformeln. In Athen pflegen 
alte Frauen bei entstehendem Wirbelwind den Kopf erdwarts zu beugen und leise zu 
murmeln : /j.i\i /cat ydXa crhv dpofio eras, d. i. Honigund Milch auf euern Weg!^ (^Pittakis 
in der 'E^7;/x. 'ApxatoX. 1852, 0. 30, p. 647 s. Derselbe fligt hinzu, dass dies namentlich 
in der Niihe des sogenannten Nymphenhiigels beobachtet werde : ein Umstand, dem eine 
aunkle Erinnerung an den ehemaligen Cultus der Nymphen auf der Hohe dieses Hugels... 
zu Grunde zu liegen scheint.) Ganz ahnlich in anderen Gegenden. Auf Kephalonia, im 
Bezirk Samos, wird folgender Spruch gesagt, der seine Erklarung in dem hier bestehenden, 

. II 2 



164 Zeus Ourios^ ikmenos^ Fjudnemos^ Boreios 

Nymphs^ or other supernatural agencies^. Indeed, the word Anemos, 
'Wind/ is nowadays a frequent synonym of the DeviP. But the 
most remarkable parallel to the ancient Greek equation of Zeus 
with the whirlwind has yet to be stated. The vocabularitis sancti 
Gain, a vellum manuscript of the seventh or eighth century in the 
Library of Saint-Gall ^ glosses the Latin turpines, that is ttcrbines, 
'whirlwinds,' by the Old High German ^iu. If this word has been 
rightly transcribed^, it must — as J. Grimm long since pointed 

schon oben von mir erwahnten Glauben findet, nach welchem die Oberste der Neraiden 
die Schwester Alexanders des Grossen ist : Xaipd/xevaLS, KoXdKapSais, \ /jl^Xl kuI yaXa \ a rod 
jSacrtX^a ttjv rajSXa/ ) 2t7j "^vxh tov jSactX^cos tov 'AX^^avdpov, J /ca/c6 /xi] fiov Kafxere!^), 
N. G. Polites Hapaddaeis Athens 1904 i. 406 no. 691 Tdu€fjt.offi(povvo tQv '^epdidwv. 

^ J. C. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 19 10 
p. 150 ('The habit of travelling on a whirlwind, or more correctly perhaps of stirring up 
a whirlwind by rapid passage, has gained for the nymphs in some districts secondary 
names — in Macedonia dve/ii/fa/s, in Gortynia dve/xo7a^oO§es'* (^najovao-o-os, iv. p. 765. The 
origin of the second part of the compound is unknown.) — which might almost seem to 
constitute a new class of wind-nymphs. But so far as I know the faculty of raising whirl- 
winds, though most frequently exercised by Oreads, is common to all nymphs'). 

^ G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 250 f. cited supra p. 106. 

^ F. L. W. Schwartz Der Ursprung der Mythologie Berlin i860 p. 30 n. 2 (' Auch den 
Neugriechen ist dve/xos der Teufel, z. B. entsprechen die Redensarten dye eis dve/xov, 
7rr)yat.ve eis dve/nov ganz unserem "Geh' zum Teufel"'), B. Schmidt Das Volksleben der 
Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. 175 (' Sicher ist dieses Wort ineiner Anzahl von Redensarten, 
wie vd irq.% arbu dvefio, dye arbv dvefxo (Arachoba. Kallipolis), ganz gleichbedeutend mit 
SictjSoXos'). 

^ G. Scherrer Verzeichniss der Handschriften der Stiftsbibliothek von St. Gallen Halle 
1875 p. 331 ff- cod. 913. 

^ On this point there has been divergence of opinion, J. C. H. Blichler SG. gij. 
Vocabularius St. Galliauch Worterbuch des heil. Gallus aus dem 8. Jahrhundert Dillon i%6g 
transcribes p. 36 turpines zui and comments p. 81 turbines, turpines, zui? R. Henning t/ber 
die sanctgallischen Sprachdenkmdler Strassburg 1874 transcribes p. 18, 232 turpines zui and 
conjectures p. 57 zui[rbila] 'well eine frlihere Handschrift hier am Rande beschadigt war.' 
E. Steinmeyer — E. Silvers, Die althochdeutschen Glossen Berlin 1895 transcribe iii. 4, 41 
Turpines zui, adding the note ^ Henning ergdnzte zu zuirbila ; mir wenig wahrscheinlich.'' 

E contra'^. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1882 i. 203: 
* A remarkable gloss in the old Cod. sangall. 913, p. 193, has " turbines = z/«" (we have 
no business to write zui), which may mean the storm of war, the Mars trux, saevus, or 
possibly the literal whirlwind, on which mythical names are sometimes bestowed ; so it is 
either Zio himself, or a synonymous female personification Ziu, bearing the same relation 
to Zio as diu (ancilla) to dio (servus).' Id. ib. i. 285 n. i, a propos of the story that the head 
of John the Baptist, when Herodias would have covered it with tears and kisses, blew 
hard at her and whirled her off into empty space {Reinardus Vulpes {c. 11 50 a.d. , ed. 
F.J. Mone Stuttgart — Tubingen 1832) i. 1153 f. oscula captantem caput aufugit atque 
resufflat, | ilia per impluvium turbine flantis abit) : 'This reference to the turbo (the 
whirlwind of his blast), looks mythical and of high antiquity. Not only did Ziu or Zio, 
once a deity, become with the christians a name for the whirlwind, p. 203 ...but to this 
day such a wind is accounted for in Lower Saxony (about Celle) by the dancing Herodias 
whirling about in the air.' Id. ib. 1883 ii. 632: 'The OHG. ziu, turbines, we have traced 
to Zio^ pp. 203. 285.' 

Dr B. F. C. Atkinson kindly consulted on my behalf Dr A. Fah, the librarian of 
Saint-Gall, who reports (Nov. i, 1928): 'In Cod. Ms. 913 p. 193 lautet die Glosse ganz 
deutlich zui nicht ziu.' 



The Arrhephoroi 165 

out^ — be connected with * Ziu or '^ Zio the early Germanic sky- 
god ^ and presumably implies that Ziu in popular fancy took shape 
as the whirling wind-storm — a perfect parallel to the case of Zeus. 

§ 8. Zeus and the Dew, 
(a) The Arrhephoroi. 

Like most atmospheric phaenomena, dew had for the Greeks 

a certain sanctity. The wide-spread belief that, if gathered on the 

first of May (May Day) or the twenty-fourth of June (Midsummer 

Day), it beautifies or cures the human body, makes the cattle yield 

more milk and butter, multiplies the hay, etc.^, will serve to explain 

a somewhat mysterious Athenian rite known as the Arrhephoria'^. 

The fullest account of this rite is given by Pausanias^, who after 

discoursing on the Erechtheion at Athens continues: 

'What surprised me very much, but is not generally known, I will describe as 
it takes place. Two maidens dwell not far from the temple of the Polias : the 
Athenians call them Arrephoroi. These are lodged for a time with the goddess ; 
but when the festival comes round they perform the following ceremony by night. 
They put on their heads the things which the priestess of Athena gives them to 
carry, but what it is she gives is known neither to her who gives nor to them who 
carry. Now there is in the city an enclosure not far from the sanctuary of 
Aphrodite called Aphrodite in the Gardens, and there is a natural underground 
descent through it. Down this way the maidens go. Below they leave their 
burdens, and getting something else, which is wrapt up, they bring it back. 
These maidens are then discharged, and others are brought to the Acropolis in 
their stead.' 

Now the Arrhephoria took place in the month Skirophorion^, 
which corresponds roughly with our June-July. Moreover, there 
can be little doubt ^ that the name Arrhephoroi means the *Dew- 

1 See the preceding note. ^ Supra ii. 50 ff. 

^ J. Brand — Sir H. Ellis Popular Antiquities of Great Britain London 1849 i. 218 f., 
W. Henderson Folk-lore of the Northern Counties London 1879 PP' ^5' ^99 ^"> J- Grinim 
Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 ii. 786 (cp. ib. 1883 iii. 1073, 
1888 iv. 1533, 1624), W. Mannhardt Wald- und Feldkulte'^ Berlin 1904 i. 384, 390, 1905 
ii. 312, P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1904 i. 94 f., 1906 iii. 84 f., 476 f., 479, 490, 
Frazer Golden Bough^: The Magic Art ii. 54 (Isle of Man), 67 (Northumberland), 127 
(South Slavonia), ib.^: Adonis Attis Osiris^ i. 246 f. (Abruzzi), 248 (Spain, Normandy, 
Perigord), z<5.^: Balder the Beautiful i. 208 n. i (Spain, Normandy, Perigord, Abruzzi), 
ii. 74 (South Slavonia). 

For similar usages at the Parilia (April 21) and on St George's Day (April 23) see 
Frazer Golden Bough^: The Magic Art ii. 327 {Ov. fast. 4. 778), 333 (White Russia, 
Little Russia, Bulgaria), 335 (Bukowina, Galicia), 339 (Bulgaria). 

* A. E. Crawley in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 191 1 
iv. 700 a — 701 a. 

5 Paus, I. 27. 3 trans. Sir J. G. Frazer. 

« Et mag. p. 149, 13 f. 

^ Some have regarded 'Apprjcpopia as a clipped form of ' ApprjTocpopia (so schol. Aristoph. 
Lys. 642, Hesych. and Souid. s.v.'AppTjtpopla, et. jnag. p. 149, 15, Bekker anecd. i. 446, 



1 66 The Arrhephoroi 

bearers.' Inscriptions show that the earlier form of the word was 
Errhephoroi or Ersephoroi rather than Arrhephoroi^ and that the 
cognate verb was errhephorein far more often than arrhephorein?- , 
This enables us to derive the terms in question from erse or herse, 
'dew.' And conformably with this derivation the ancient gram- 
marians state, on the authority of Istros of Kyrene {c. 200 B.C.), 
that the Ersephoria was a procession for Erse or Herse, the daughter 
of Kekrops^, while Moiris the Atticist {c. 200 A.D.) expressly declares 
that the Errhephoroi are 'those who bear dew for Erse, one of 
Kekrops' daughters^.' 

But, if the business of the Arrhephoroi was only to carry dew, 
why did the Greeks make such a song about it? At Athens four 
girls of noble birth were elected by show of hands. Of these four 
two were chosen to start the weaving of Athena's /^))/(9j". Their own 
garments were white, and any gold worn by them ipso facto became 
the property of the goddess*. The final selection of the girls was 
made by the 'king^,' who is known to have had special responsi- 
bilities in connexion with the mysteries ^ Once appointed, these 

28 f., Favorin. lex, p. 287, 53 f. , and even L. Meyer Handb. d. gr. Etym. i. 266). But 
this is a piece of false etymology, perhaps occasioned by the fact that the Qea^ioipbpia in 
Pyanopsion were called also '2iKLpo(f)bpia (schol. Loukian. dial. mer. 2. i p. 275 f. Rabe) 
and ' ApprjTocpdpia (Clem. Al. protr. 2. I'j. i p. 14, 4 ff. Stahlin) : see Mommsen Feste d. 
Stadt Athen p. 510 n. i, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 34 n. 2. 

Lobeck Aglaophamus \\. 872 f. held that dpp7](p6pot meant * basket-bearers,' the first part 
of their name being connected with the root of dppixos, ' basket. ' This view too has found 
defenders, e.g. F. Hiller von Gaertringen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 551. But it is 
altogether too hypothetical. 

Miss J. E. Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. xxxiv derived the name from ^/xtt;, in 
the sense of a 'young animal,' and compared the use of dpdaoi in Aisch. Ag. 141. But 
later, in her Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ p. 122 n. 2, she abandoned this ingenious suggestion and 
ib.'^ P- 131 speaks of 'the Arrephoria or Arretophoria'...' The Arretophoria or Arrephoria.' 
See also her Themis'^ p. 266. 

Personally, I see no sufficient reason for discrediting the explicit statements of Istros, 
Moiris, etc. 

1 K. Meisterhans Grammatik der atiischen Inschriften^ Berlin 1900 p. 15 n. 67, Gruppe 
Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 34 n. 2, F. Hiller von Gaertringen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
vi. 550. 

2 \'sXx.frag. 17 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 420 Muller) ap. schol. Aristoph. Lys. 642. The same 
thing is said, without a mention of Istros, by Hesych. and Souid. s.v. ' App7}(l)opia, et. mag. 
p. 149, 15 ff., Favorin. lex. p. 287, 52 f. 

^ Moir. 14I p. 104 Pierson 'Epp7706/)oi, 'Attiku}^, at ttju 8p6aov (f)4pov<rai Tr]"Ep<Tri' ijrts 
TjV ixla rC3v KeKpoTridoov. 

•* Deinarch. Kara Uvdiov/rag. 4 {Oral. Attic, ii. 328a Baiter — Sauppe) ap. Harpokr. 
s.v. appritpopeLv — Somd. s.v. dppr)vo<popeiv (G. Bernhardy cj. dpp7)<popeLv) = Bekker anecd. i. 
446, 18 ^.=et. mag. p. 149, 18 ff. 

5 Souid. s.v. iTridixl/aro' KariXe^ev , i^eX^^aro. ^(Ttl 5' 'Attikou, 6 ^acLkevs iTrub\paTo 
dpp'r)<popovs. olov, KariXe^ep, i^eX^^aro. UXdroju ev "^ofiois (Plat. leg£. 947 c. J. Pierson 
wrongly supposed an allusion to Platon the comedian iu 'N7}(roLs)=et. mag. p. 362, 38 f. 

^ Aristot.'A^. TToX. 57. i, Harpokr. s.v. iirL/jieXriTi)^ tCov fxvffT'qpiwv (Dem. in Mid. 171). 



The Arrhephoroi 167 

little maids, who were mere children from seven to eleven years of 
age^, enjoyed sundry peculiar privileges. They were housed near the 
Erechtheion^. They had a tennis-court {sphairistrd) on the Akropolis, 
which could boast a bronze figure of Isokrates as a boy on horse- 
back^. And they were fed on cakes that were specially 'risen' 
(andstatoiY — possibly^ in view of the Arrhephoria, that great ritual 
for the proper performance of which they had been set apart. Again, 
an Athenian inscription of Hellenistic date {c. 137/6 B.C.) tells how 
a certain priest of Asklepios and Hygieia gave his own daughter to 
serve as Arrhephoros at the Epidauria^, which had by that time 
become a recognised part of the Eleusinian mysteries^. Finally, an 
Aeolic inscription from Mytilene, referred to s. iii A.D., commemo- 
rates Aurelia Artemisia as 'priestess of the goddesses Etephilai (that 
is, Demeter and Persephone^) and Karissai^ and Ersophoros of the 
most holy mysteries ^^.' 

^ Et. mag. p. 149, 19 f. T^acrapes 5e Traldes 4x^i-POtovovvto kut evy^veiav dppr](p6poi dTro 
irCov eirra /J-^XP'-^ eV5e/ca, cp. Aristoph. Lys. 641 f. eTrrct /ii^v ^ttj yeyOxr' eiidus rjpprjcpdpovv \ 
eZr dXerpls rj 5e/c^rts oSca Tapxfiy^TL. 

'" Paus. I. 27. 3 irapdevoL bdo tov vaod ttjs IIoAtaSos oIkovgiv ov irbppoi, K.aKovcrL 8e 
Adrivaioi o'0as dpp7](p6povs- avrai xP^'^ou fi4p Tiva dlatrav '^xovac irapd rrj d€(^, k.t.X. 
{supra p. 165). 

^ Plout. V. dec. orat. 4 Isocr. 839 c. 

^ Athen. 114 a — b tov dvacxTaTov (so J. Pierson for vaarov cod. P. ed. V. vdarov edd. 
Basil. L.) KoXo^fievov, 6s rats dppr]<p6pois ylverai, cp. Souid. s.v. dvaffraroL, Hesych. s.v. 
dudcrraroc, Paus. Gramm. /rag. 94 Schwabe ap. Eustath. in II. p. 1165, 10 f., Favorin. 
lex. p. 384, 33 f. 

^ Leaven is symbolic of rapid growth in Matthew 13, 33 = Luke 13. 20 f. More often 
it is regarded as a type of corruption and therefore forbidden in ritual {e.g. Cell. 10. 15. 
19 farinam fermento inbutam adtingere ei {sc. flamini Diali) fas non est). See C. F. Kent 
in J. Hastings Encydopa:dia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1914 vii. 889 a — 890 a. 
But O. Broneer in Hespena 1935 iv. 128 cp. Poll. 6. 73 6 ydp opdoaTdrrjs iepov dprov tl 
elSos and perhaps rightly assumes that such cakes were of phallic shape. 

^ Corp. inscr. Ait. ii. i Add. no. 453 <5, 13 i.—Inscr. Gr. ed. min. ii— iii. 2 no. 974, 
18 f. = Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr.'^ no. 687, 18 f. 'idwKe bk kol ttjv eavrov dvyaT[ipa 
€^s TO,] I E7rt5ai;/9ta dpprjcpopovcrav k.t.X. 

"^ O. Kern in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 45 f. 

® Hesych. 'Erai^iXTy- (so W. R. Paton for'Erat..- 0iXr;. cod.) r] Uepaecpovr]. F. Hiller 
von Gaertringen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 712: 'Die ''ET7](pi\aL waren also 
Demeter und Kore. Sicherlich bezeichnet sie der Name als freundliche Gottinnen, wie 
Evfievidei u. a. wohlbekannte. Dies wird auch in dem ersten Namenselement enthalten 
sein, das zu ^rat Angehorige (vgl. J. Schmidt bei L. Meyer Handb. d. gr. Etymol. I 374 
oben) zu stellen ist ; sie beschlitzen also die Sippschaft. Wenn die Form "ETaL<pi\r] bei 
Hesych. neben dem inschriftlichen 'FjTrjtpiXa richtig ist, haben wir eine Parallele zu den 
gleichzeitig auf Thera vorkommenden Personennamen UpaTui- und YlpaT-n-ixiu-qs.' 

^ C. H. Oldfather in Pauly— Wissowa Real-Enc. x. 1950. 

1° F. Bechtel in Collitz— Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. i. 92 no. 232, 3 i. = Inscr. Gr. ins.' 
n no. 255, 3 f. Up€a{v) Tdv diav ''ET{7])<pl\av kol 'Ka\pl(x<Tav kolI ip{<T)6(f)opov t[Q})v dycuTCLTCju 
fiv{(rT)apiwv. The inscription, which is throughout ill-spelt, actually reads ETI^t^lAAN 

andEPr04)0P0N. 



i68 



The Arrhephoroi 



To understand these honours and prerogatives we must, I think, 
bear in mind the general similarity subsisting between the Thesmo- 
phoriaand the Arrhephoria. The latter, like the former, appears to have 
been a ceremony intended to promote fertility^. In the Thesmophoria 
we have the worship of Demeter and Kore, the two Thesmophoro^. 
The Arrhephoros at Eleusis^ and the Ersophoros at Mytilene^ were 
at least connected with the cult of the same pair of deities. An 
Athenian inscription of Roman date commemorates 'Aristokles' 
daughter, who served as Errhephoros for Demeter and Kore^.' Seats 
in the theatre at Athens were in imperial times reserved for two 
Hersephoroi of Ge Themis (fig. 72)^ and, immediately behind them, 



OrdoV. 




Fig. 72. 




OrdoVT. 



ofo/kpciA(9riAeMAr|Mi 



Fig. 73- 



for two Hersephoroi of Eilithyia at Agrai (fig. 73)'^. It would seem, 
therefore, that Dew-bearers stood in some relation to Mother Earth ; 
and it is probable that they were regarded as fertilising agents. 
This squares with the fact that their rite took place near the 
sanctuary of Aphrodite in the Gardens^ The Thesmophoria too 

^ Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. xxxiv ff., ead. Proleg. Gk. Relr' p. 131 ff., ead. 
Themis pp. 266, 275, Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 510. 

2 Aristoph. thesm. 83, 282, 295 f. , 11 56, 1230. 

^ Supra p. 167, n. 6 f . 

•* Supra p. 167, n. 10. 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i no. 919 \ry]v heLV(x\ ^ ApiO'TOK'Kiov ipp'r}(f)op'f}<xa(Tav A^fjLT]Tpi kol 
Kdprji.. W. luarfeld I/andduch der griechischen EpigrapJiik Leipzig 1898 ii. i. 304 says: 
'in Form einer W[eihung] an Demeter und Kore.' But, for the dative, cp. Moir. 141 
p. 104 Pierson {supra p. 166, n. 3). 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i no. 318 (with facsimile on pi. i = my, fig. 72) eparjipopoLi j3' 
[T]7js OepLLdos in late careless script, W. Larfeld op. cit. ii. r. 266 pi. i. 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i no. 319 (with facsimile on pi. i = my fig. 73) ip(rr}(f)6pois /3' 
'Ei\i6via[s] iv"AypaL[s'\ in late careless script, W. Larfeld op. cit. ii. i. 266 pi. i. 

® Supra p. 165. The precise route followed by the Arrhephoroi is a matter for con- 
jecture. If they lived 'not far from the temple of the Polias' and 'lodged for a time with 
the goddess' (Paus. i. 27. 3), we may assume that their official quarters were in or near 
the Pandroseion. On the occasion of the Arrhephoria they may, no doubt, have quitted 



The Arrhephoroi 169 



the Akropolis by way of the Propylaia and the western slope (A. Mommsen Heoriologie 
Leipzig 1864 p. 447 — an idea tacitly dropped by the same writer in his Feste d. Stadt 
Athen p. 509). But, in view of the close connexion between Aglauros, Pandrosos, and 
Herse {infra § 8 (b)), it is highly probable that the Arrhephoroi went via the Aglaurion. 
If so, their most direct and also most secluded exit would have been, not the poros- 
walled stairway in an angle of the north wall 200 ft west of the north porch of the Erech- 
theion (J. H. Middleton Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings London 1900 pi. i 
no. 38), as has been maintained by various critics (W. Dorpfeld in the Ath. Mitth. 1887 
xii. 59 pi. I, H. G. Lolling 'Hellenische Landeskunde und Topographic' in I. Miiller's 
Geographic und politische Geschichte des klassischen Allertums Nordlingen 1889 p. 351, 
Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. 163), but the stairway of later construction which led 
(by means of a hanging ladder?) right down into the cave at a point some 50 ft east of 
the /^r^j-- stairway (J. H. Middleton op. cit. pi. i no. 42), as is urged by P. Kabbadias 
in the'E0. 'Apx- 1897 p- 26 fF., M. L. D'Ooge {The Acropolis of Athens New York 1908 
pp. 10, 297 with plan 7), and O. Broneer in Hesperia 1932 i. 51 f., 1935 iv. 129 with 
figs. 14 and 15. C. Belger 'Der Abstiegsweg der Arrhephoren, der Aufstieg der Perser' 
in the Berl. philol. Woch. Sept. 25, 1897 pp. 1212 — 1214 (followed by W. Judeich 
Topographic von Athen Milnchen 1905 p. 170 n. 4) is non-committal: ' Wir konnen also 
mit unseren Mitteln nicht konstatieren, welchen Weg die Arrhephoren wirklich gingen.' 

Equally beset with uncertainties is the other end of their journey. Their destination, 
according to Paus. i. 27. 3, was wepi^oXos ev rfj ttoXcl ttjs Ka\ovfx^vr)s iv Ktittols 'AcppodiTrjs 
ov irdppo}. But Plin. nat. hist. 36. 16 (probably copying Varro, [? who copied Pasiteles (bcrn 
c. 108 B.C.),] who copied Antigonos of Karystos (born c. 295 B.C.), who copied Douris of 
Samos (born c. 340 B.C.) : see E. Sellers The Elder Pliny^s Chapters on the History of 
Art London 1896 p. xlii f.) describes the same Aphrodite as being outside the city- wall: 
he speaks of Alkamenes ' cuius sunt opera Athenis complura in aedibus sacris praecla- 
rumque Veneris extra muros, quae appellatur 'A<ppo5LTr) ev Krjirois. huic summam manum 
ipse Phidias inposuisse dicitur.' The discrepancy between iv rrj iroKet and extra muros 
was explained by C. Wachsmuth Die Stadt Athen im Alterthtim Leipzig 1874 i. 228 f. , 
who pointed out that in the time of Pausanias the brick wall of Athens (Vitr. 2. 8. 9) had 
been cleared away to make room for the Hadrianic town (the novae Athenae of Co?p. 
inscr. Lat. iii no. 549 = Orelli Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 511 == Dessau Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 337, 
cp. Ael. Spart. v. Hadrian. 20. 4 multas civitates Hadrianopolis appellavit, ut ipsam Kartha- 
ginem et Athenarum partem, V\\itgon frag. 21 {Frag. hist. Or. iii. 607 Miiller) ap. Steph. 
Byz. s.v. 'OXvfjiTrUiov' tottos iv At^Xcp, 6v Krlaavres 'AdTjvaioL xpT7/Aa<rii' 'AdpLavov vias 
^Ad-qvas 'AdpLavas iKoXeaav, ws <I»X^7WJ/ iv 'OXv/j-Tnadoov TrevTeKatdeKaTip). The precinct, on 
this showing, adjoined the garden-quarter on the right bank of the Ilissos (H. Hitzig and 
H. Blumner on Paus. i. 19. 2), and somewhere in that neighbourhood must have been the 
natural underground descent, through which the girls went to leave their burdens and 
bring back something wrapt up (Paus. i. 27. 3 /cat di avroO {sc. rov Trept^oXov) Kadodos 
vxdyaLOS avrofxaTT) ' raTurrj Karlacnv at irapdivoL. kclto: fx,kv drj ra (pepofxeva XeiirovaLv, 
Xa^ovaaL 8e dWo tl KOfxi^ovcriv iyKeKaXvfjLfjiivov). The actual chasm or fissure has not yet 
been located. But E. A. Gardner Ancient Athens London 1902 p. 251 n. i throws out an 
interesting suggestion : 'It seems probable that the shrine in question may have been that 
of earth (Ge Olympia), and the cleft may be the same one by which the waters of 
Deucalion's deluge were said to have disappeared' (Paus. i. 18. 7 %(Tti 5e apxaZa iv t(^ 
7rept/3oX(^ Zei)s xctX/coOs koL vabs Kpovov /cat 'Peas /cat ri/j-evos Tijs (so J. A. Letronne for ttjv 
codd. E. Clavier cj. yijs ttjv, W, M. Leake cj. rrjs Ttjs) iiriKXTjaLv '0Xu/x7rtas. ivravda 
6<Tov is triixv'^ t^ ^da(pos dtiaTTqKe, Kai XiyovcL fxera ttju iirofi^piav tt)v iiri AevKaXiuvos 
cvfi^daav VTroppvijvaL Tavrr} to vdojp, ic^OLXXoval re ^s avrb ava irav ^tos dX<ptTa TrvpCov jxiXiTi 
fii^avres (I. Bekker, followed by H. C. Schubart and PI. Hitzig — H. Bliimner, cj. 
fia^avTcs cp. 5. 15. 10, 9. 39. 11)). 

Recently O. Broneer of the American School at Athens has found on the N. slope of 
the Akropolis, E. of the Erechtheion, 'directly below the point where the Acropolis wall 
makes the obtuse angle at which are the traces of the Mycenaean postern gate,' a small 



lyo 



The Arrhephoroi 



sanctuary of Eros and Aphrodite attested by numerous niches in the rock and two rock- 
cut inscriptions dating from the middle of s. v B.C. {Hesperia 1932 i. 31 — 55 with figs. 
I — 17, of which fig. 2 gives aground-plan and figs. 10 and 11 facsimiles of the inscriptions 
on rock B: (i) rot "E/>ori h^ eoprk \ [rJer/oaSt hL(jTa.yi.h\o'\ \ Mo!/ixiOf[o]s }xev\o%'\ and (2) 
'A0/)o5[/]r[et]). Adjoining the sanctuary, on the west was a small area (Z) which yielded 
a Hellenistic relief of Eros; on the east, a cave in which were found a small votive shield 
of painted stone and fragments of undecorated shields in terra cotta, also the figurine of a 
sleeping babe. North-east of the cave was a space dotted with small stuccoed altars (?) of 
various shapes (a — tt), oval, rectangular, triangular, or like a low wall, poorly built and 
resting on loose earth. These had carried small stones {phalloi}) set upright in mortar — 
one was still in situ — and, further east, close to another group of niches (N) v^^ciz. phallos 
of island marble {id. ib. 1933 ii. 329 — 417 with pi. xi (extended plan) and figs, i — 91, of 
which figs. 9, 14, i8 = my fig. 74a, b, <r, id. ib. 1935 iv. 109 — 188 with pi. i ( = my pi. xxi) 
and figs. I — 77, of which figs. 8 and 9 show the 'altars.' See further infra § 9 (h) ii {&) 






Fig. 74- 

sub Jin.). It is highly probable that the relief-frieze with a procession of Erotes, c. 350 — 
300 B.C. (Svoronos Ath. Nationalnius. p. 453 ff. nos. 1451, 1452 pi. 102), and the relief 
of a draped woman, with a child, sitting on a rock with a cave in it (National Museum 
no. 3257) came from the same sanctuary of Eros and Aphrodite (O. Broneer loc. cit. 1935 
iv. 143 ff. no. 17 figs. 33—35 and 36). 

As to the bearing of these finds on the Arrhephoria^ Broneer loc. cit. i. 52 (cp. iv. 126) 
writes : ' The whole action of the ceremony becomes clear if we admit that the sanctuary 
just discovered is the peribolos mentioned by Pausanias. Below the underground stairs to 
the Aglaurion a modern path leads eastward to the new sanctuary, and it is reasonable to 
suppose that the same path may have existed in ancient times, connecting with the rock- 
cut ireplTraTos below. The immense chasm, through which the descent from the Acropolis 
began, might well have lent color to Pausanias' weird description of the place. The only 
inaccuracy which remains is the impression which the Greek text gives that the subterranean 
passage and the sanctuary are immediately contiguous, while actually one must first pass 
through the one and thence by a short path reach the other ^ (^Doubtless the passage in 
the sanctuary itself was somehow used in the ceremony ; but until we know how it con- 
nected with the cave to the east it is unsafe to make any definite statement about it). It 
can hardly be a coincidence that a sanctuary of Aphrodite which fits so well the account 



Plate XXI 



ATHEHS 



EXCAVATIONS ON Tht nORTH 
SLOPE OF THE ACROPOLIS 
1932-1934 




J La*>^ *^ *^ - 



Plan of the American excavations on the nortli slope of the Akrojiolis 
(from Hcsperin 1935 iv ])1. i). 

Sre pagt 1 69 IT. 



The Arrhephdroi 171 



in Pausanias should be found close to the place where we would naturally expect the 
Arrephoroi to have descended. We can only conclude that there were two sanctuaries of 
Aphrodite h KTyTrois, a more ancient one, which we have just discovered on the Acropolis 
slope, and a later one, with a temple containing the famous statue of Alkamenes, near the 
Ilissus.' Broneer ib. p. 53 f. adds: 'The objection will naturally be raised that the text of 
Pausanias does not admit of such an interpretation.' He replies that most probably 
' Pausanias himself confused the two sanctuaries.' Vix liquet. 

Aphrodite h Ki^Trots is seldom mentioned by the classical authors. But an inscription 
of c. 420 — 417 B.C. informs us that during the years 426/5 — 423/2 the expenses of the 
Peloponnesian War were in part met by money borrowed from her temple-treasury at a 
nominal rate of interest — ^ixjth of a drachme per mnd per day {Corp. inscr. Att. i no. 
273 y> 12 f. = Michel Recueil cV Inscr. gr. no. 561, 78 = Roberts — Gardner Gk. Epigr. ii. 

299 fif. no. 109, 78 ['A0/jo5/]t7/s iu KrjTTOLS TTPHPAAPI- roKO% ro{)Tov Ph T hhh 
I I I I I C ], cp. W. Larfeld Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik Leipzig 1898 ii. i. 44). 
Near her temple stood a square herm of Aphrodite, which bore an inscription stating that 
Aphrodite Oipavia was the eldest of the Moirai (Pans. i. 19. 2, cp. Loukian. di'a/. 
mer. 7. i rrj Ovpavlq. de rrj iv KrjTrois SdfiaXiv) : some notion of this herm may be had 
from the Da.Ye\os-krat^r {supra ii. 854 pi. xxxviii). 

Of Alkamenes' masterpiece we know practically nothing (Plin. nat. hist. 36. 16, Paus. 
I. 19. 2, Loukian. imagg. 4, 6). Sundry critics have somewhat carelessly assumed that it 
was none other than the herm just mentioned (J. Sillig Catalogus Artijicum Dresdae at 
Lipsiae 1827 p. 31, H. Brunn Geschichte der griechischen KUnstler ^\.\x\X^2iX\. 1857 i. 235, 
H. Hitzig — H. Blumner on Paus. i. 19. 2). The ablest defence of this view is that put 
up by A. Trendelenburg in Xh^/ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1908 xxiii Arch. Anz. 
pp. 514 — 520 {Am. Journ. Arch. 1909 xiii. 494, A. de Ridder in the Rev. Et. Gr. 1910 
xxiii. 192, A. J. Reinach ib. p. 321), who cp. the herm from Pergamon inscribed in 
lettering of s. ii a. D. eldrjcreis 'AXKa/xeveos \ irepLKaWes dyaXfia \ ^p/xdv rbv irpb ttvKCjv \ 
eiffaTo nepydjUiios. 1 1 yvudL aavrdv (bibliography in Mendel Cat. Sculpt. Constantinople ii. 
234 ff. no. 527 fig. and in C. Picard La sculpture antique Paris 1926 ii. 57). But a half- 
length herm of Aphrodite (Loukian. imagg. 6 implies arms and hands) dating from the 
fifth century would be hard to parallel (? cp. Clarac Mus. de Sculpt, pi. 634 B fig. 13860 = 
Reinach Rip. Stat. i. 347 no. 4 a herm in the Villa Albani on which see J. J. Bernoulli 
Aphrodite Leipzig 1873 p. 7). Others have sought to recover the aspect of the lost statue 
from the Aphrodite of Melos (Sir C. Walston (Waldstein) Alca?nenes and the establishment 
of the classical type in Greek art Cambridge 1926 p. 211 'I am inclined to think it not im- 
probable that the sculptor of the Aphrodite of Melos was inspired by the Aphrodite in the 
Gardens of Alcamenes'), or with more probability from the type of Aphrodite leaning, 
sometimes on an archaistic effigy of herself (A. Milchhofer in the Jakrb. d. kais. deutsch. 
arch. Inst. 1892 vii. 208 n. 9, E. Reisch in ihe/ahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1898 i. 77 f.: 
e.g. Ant. Skulpt. Berlin p. 226 f. no. 586 fig.), sometimes on a pillar with a tree in the 
background (H. Schrader Phidias Frankfurt am Main 1924 pp. 205 — 210 with fig. 189 = 
Svoronos Ath. Nationalmus. no. 1601 pi. 165, S. Wide in the 'E0. 'Apx. 1910 p. 52 no. 13, 
an inscribed votive relief from Daphni on the road between Athens and Eleusis), or 
again — and this is the most frequent contention — from the type best represented by the 
Aphrodite of Frejus (?) (Mrs L. M. Mitchell A History of Ancient Sculpture London 1883 
p. 320, S. Reinach Manuel de philologie classique Paris 1884 ii. 94, id. in the Gazette des 
Beaux- Arts 1896 ii. 326 — ^28 = id. Monuments nouveaux de Part antique Paris 1924 i. 
258 — 260 (' Je pense que ce motif a ete cree par Alcamene, rajeuni par Praxitele et repris 
de nouveau par Arcesilas'), A. Furtwangler in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 412 f., id. in the 
Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1888 iii. 212, id. Masterpieces of Gk. Sculpt, pp. 19 f, 
82, 275 n. 10, E. von Mach A Hatidbook of Greek and Rofuan Sculpture Boston 1905 
p. 121 f. pi. 108, H. ^\x\\e Der schone Mensch i??i Altertum'^ Munchen und Leipzig 1912 
pp. 263 ff., 682 f pi. 124. Other examples of the type are collected and discussed by 
J.J. BernonWi Aphrodite Leipzig 1873 pp. 86 — 98 ('DerTypus der ungegiirteten, ihren 



172 The Arrhephoroi 

probably included a visit to the goddesses of Cape Kolias, that is, 
to Aphrodite and the Genetyllides^. Aphrodite in particular was the 
maker of morning dew^; and her altar (figs. 84, 85)^ on Mount 

Mantel lliftenden Aphrodite'), S. Reinach 'La Venus drapee au Musee du Louvre' in the 
Gaz. Arch. 1887 xii. 250 — 262, 271 — 285 pi. 30, A. Conze 'Zur sogenannten Venus 
Genetrix' in the Ath. Mitth. 1889 xiv. 199 — 204 pi. 4, Miss C. G. Harcum 'A statue of 
the type called the Venus Genetrix in the Royal Ontario Museum' in the Am. Journ. Arch. 
1927 xxxi. 141 — 152 pi. 7 figs. I — 4). 

Equally persistent, and hardly more encouraging, have been the attempts made to 
discover representations of the Arrhephoroi. Many have identified them with the two 
stool-bearing girls on the eastern frieze of the Parthenon {supra ii. ii35f. pi. xliv. So 
J. Stuart — N. Revett The Antiquities of Athens London 1787 ii. 12 f. with ch. i pi. 24 
('The young figures are the two Arrephoroe, or Canephoroe, ' etc.), C. O. Muller Minervae 
Poliadis sacra et aede??t in arce Athenaru?n... Gottingae 1820 p. 14 ('Puellae sunt erse- 
phoroe..., matrona sacerdos Poliadis'), E. Beule V Acropole (T Athenes Paris 1854 ii. 142 
('la grande pretresse regoit des deux vierges Errhephores les objets mysterieux' etc.), 
E. Petersen Die Kunst des Pheidias am Parthenon und zu Olympia Berlin 1873 p. 304 f. 
('Wo finden wir denn im athenischen Cultus tiberhaupt und speciell in demjenigen Athenas, 
an welchen hier jeder zu denken gehalten ist, halberwachsene Madchen, wie die beiden 
Stuhltragerinnen offenbar sind, die bei hohem Feste eine so bevorzugte Rolle spielen 
konnten? Es giebt keine ausser den Arrephoren. Auf diese aber passt alles;' etc.), 
Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 211 n. o ('Die beiden Errhephoren sind vielleicht auf dem 
Ostfries des Parthenon dargestellt'). See further A. Michaelis Der Parthenon Leipzig 1871 
p. 264). Others have seen them in the processional figures of the olive-tree pediment 
(T. Wiegand Die archaische Poros-Architektiir der Akropolis zic Athen Cassel and Leipzig 
1904 p. 197 ff. col. pi. 14, G. Dickins Catalogue of the Acropolis Museum Cambridge 191 2 
i. 69 ff. fig., E. Buschor 'Der Oelbaumgiebel' in the Ath. Mitth. 1922 xlvii. 81 ff. pi. 6. 
So J. E. Harrison Primitive Athens as described by Thucydides Cambridge 1906 p. 56 f. 
fig. 20 ('We think instinctively of the Arrephoroi'), E. Petersen Die Burgtempel der 
Athenaia Berlin 1907 p. 21 ff. fig. 2 {ib. p. 27 'die zwei gleich gekleideten, nicht gleich 
geschmlickten Madchen mogen wir Kanephoren nennen, oder aber wegen ihrer Kleinheit 
und unentwickelten Formen lieber Errephoren'), G. W. Elderkin Problems in Pericleatt 
Buildings Princeton 1912 p. 13 f. (agrees with Petersen)). Others again have recognised 
them in the Caryatids of the Erechtheion (E. Beule U Acropole d' Athenes Paris 1854 ii. 
254 (' Sont-ce les vierges errhephores... ? Leurs tetes portent-elles le fardeau de I'architrave 
en reminiscence du fardeau mysterieux que leur confiait la grande pretresse? Tout me le 
ferait croire, ' etc.), G. W. Elderkin Problems in Periclean Buildings Princeton 1912 
p. 14 ff. ('The interpretation of the Caryatids as Arrephoroi is confirmed by a scene (Fig. 5) 
on an archaic amphora' [sc. a Boeotian relief- vase from Thebes, now in a private English 
collection, published in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1898 xxii. 458 ff. figs. 8 — 10 pis. 6 and 6 bis 
by A. de Ridder, who ib. p. 468 f cp. 'les canephores, et peut-etre les arrhephores')), 
H. N. Fowler in J. M. Paton The Erechtheum Cambridge, Massachusetts 1927 p. 235 
n. o (non-committal)). 

Personally, I suspect that the Arrhephdj-oi in attendance on Athena were an extremely 
ancient institution, dating back to 'Minoan' times and comparable with the two hand- 
maidens of the 'Minoan' goddess (Sir A. J- Evans in Xht Jourjt. Hell. Stud. 1925 xlv. 
II — 14 figs. 11—15)- 

' Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 319 f. On Genetyllis and the Genetyllides in 
relation to Aphrodite see W. H. Roscher in his Lex. Myth. ii. 1269 — 1273, O. Jessen in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. ii5of., Preller — Robert Gr. Myth. i. 377, 513, Gilbert 
Gr. Gotterl. p. 394, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Pel. p. 1356 n. 6. 

^ Pervig. Ven. 15 ff. ipsa roris lucidi, | noctis aura quern relinquit, spargit umentis 
aquas. | gutta praeceps orbe parvo sustinet casus suos, | et micant lacrimae trementes de 



The Arrhephdroi 



173 



caduco pondere (so F. Biicheler, transposing lines 1 7 and 18, and retaining et codd., for which 
E. C. F. Schulze, followed by E. Bahrens, cj. en, while O. Muller, followed by 
J. W. Mackail, cj. emicant). \ ... umor ille, quern serenis astra rorant noctibus, | mane 
virgines (so J. Lipsius, followed by J. W. Mackail, for virgineas codd.) papillas solvit 
umenti peplo. Cp. what is said of the planet Venus in Auson. append. 1. lyf. Evelyn 
White (p. 410 Peiper) ros unus, color unus, et unum mane duorum ; | sideris et floris nam 
domina una Venus. 

A late red-figured hydria from Euboia (Collignon — Couve Cat. Vases d' Athhnes '^. 589 
no. 1852, Harrison Proleg. Gk. RelP- p. 635 fig. 170 (from a sketch by Mrs Hugh Stewart)) 
shows Eros watering slender flowers that spring from the ground. A female figure with 
bare breast (Aphrodite?) directs his efforts. On the left sits a young man with a thyrsos. 
On the right stands a young woman with a tympanon. Apparently Aphrodite and Eros 
are gardening with a Dionysiac entourage. 

Differently conceived but somewhat similar in effect is the design found on a bronze 
medallion of Faustina Junior {Brit. Mils. Cat. Medallions p. 16 no. 2 pi. 24, i (* Venus 




Fig. 75- 



Fig. 76. 



Fig. 77. 



Genetrix?...in a garden') = Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. \\. 40 no. 13 pi. 68, i ('Venere')=:my 
fig' 75' The specimen has been retouched). Venus, half-draped, stands to the front, her 
right hand raised to hold a small tree, which rises from (behind ?) a base. On the left of her 
two Cupids are playing, on the right four more, one of whom leans over the battlements 
of a wall or tower. Above it appear other trees. The scene recurs with some variations 
on a bronze medallion of Lucilla, daughter of Faustina lunior (Frohner Med. emp. rom. 
p. 95 f. fig. ( = my fig. 76) (' Venus dans unjardin^), Gnecchi^/. cit. ii. 51 no. 11 pi. 76, 8 
( = my fig. 77) Bologna ('Donna. ..in un giardino')). A girl is added, filling her pitcher 
from a stream in the foreground. These medallions are probably time-serving attempts to 
identify first Faustina and then her daughter with Venus. Faustina at least was actually 
worshipped along with her husband M. Aurelius in the temple of Venus and the Dea Roma 
(Dion Cass. 71.31 T(p 5^ Map/cc^; koL rrj ^avcTTlvrj erpyjcplaaTo t] ^ovXt] '4v re toj 'A<ppo8taiu} Tip 
re Fwfiaiip eiKdvas dpyvpds dLvaredrfvaL /cat ^uiixov l8pvd7JvaL, Kal ^tt' avrov Trdcras ras Kdpas 
rds ev ro; darei ya/xovfji^vas fxerci tQv vvfKpiojv d{)eiv), and had coins inscribed VENVS, VENVS 
FELIX, VENVS GENETRIX, VENVS VICTRIX Or VENERI AVGVSTAE, VENERI FELICI, VENERI 

GENETRici, VENERI viCTRici (Rasche Lex. Num. iii. 921, Cohen Mann. emp. rom.'^ iii. 
154 ff. nos. 226 — 283). Here are a few examples: fig. 78 from the Vautier — Collignon 
Sale Catalogue 1922 p. 52 no. 980 pi. 35, fig. 79 from the Bement Sale Catalogue 1924 
iii. 59 no. 1066 pi. 39, fig. 80 from Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. ii. 39 no. 8 pi. 67, 6, fig. 81 
from the Levis Sale Catalogue 1925 p. 40 no. 632 pi. 26, fig. 82 from the Bement Sale 
Catalogue 1924 iii. 59 no. 1068 pi. 39, fig. 83 from the Hirsch Sale Catalogue 1908 p. ro 
no. 117 pi. 7. Since coins of this sort are apt to reproduce previous art-types {e.g. fig. 78 
recalls the Aphrodite of Frejus (?), fig. 83 is an adaptation from the Aphrodite of Capua, 
and fig. 80 owes something even to the Zeus of Olympia), I incline to think that the 



174 The Arrhephoroi 

Eryx (figs. 86, Zjy- was 'covered with dew and fresh grass ^' — 

medallions representing Venus in the Garden presuppose a Greek fresco of Aphrodite kv 
Ki77rots. The trees, the river, the wall or tower with battlements would all suit the famous 
sanctuary beside the Ilissos. 

^ Silver litrai oi Eryx, struck c. 480 — 413 B.C., have obv. EPVKiNON (retrograde) 
or ERVKAXlB (partly retrograde) a female figure (? hierodule) sacrificing, with or 






Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. 



Fig. 80. 






Fig. 81. 



Fig. 82. 



Fig. 83. 





Fig. 84. 




Fig. 85. 



without a phidle^ a\ a lighted altar; the space behind her is sometimes filled by a floral 
pattern: rev. a hound beneath a four-spoked wheel, or ivy-branch, or honeysuckle 
ornament, once with volutes in exergue {Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Sicily p. 62 nos. 6, 7 with 
fig. ( = my fig. 84), 8, 9, G. F. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily London 1903 p. 90 fig. 11, 
Weber Cat. Coins i. 274 no. 1305 pi. 50, Naville Sale Catalogue 1923 p. 36 no. 878 pi. 26 
( = my fig. 85), Head Hist, nufn.^ p. 138). 

^ A denarius struck by C. Considius Nonianus c. 60 B.C. shows obv. c • CONSIDI • 
NONIANI II s • c head of Venus Erycina to right, with ear-ring, stephdne, and wreath; 
rev. mountain with fortified gateway, inscribed ervc, below and tetrastyle temple above 



The Arrhephdroi 



175 



(T. L. Donaldson Architectura numismatica London 1859 P- noff- fig* 3'2> Babelon 
Monn. rip.rom. i. 375 f. fig-, M. '^zhxi^XdX Nachtrdge und Berichtigungen zur Miinzkunde 
Wien 1897 p. 87, Brit. Mus. Cat. Rom. Coins Rep. i. 473 nos. 3830 pi. 47, 21, 3831, 3832, 
H. Mattingly Roman Coins London 1928 p. 86 pi. 21, 17, Bement Sale Catalogue 1924 
iii. 9 no. 126 pi. 5 ( = my fig. 86)). Fig. 87 is from a specimen of mine. For the extant 
remains of ring-walls and temple-platform see C. Hiilsen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi 
604 and especially J. Kromayer ' Eryx ' in Klio 1909 ix. 461 — 477 with map and figs, i — 4. 
^ This striking expression occurs in the remarkable account of Aphrodite's precinct 
included by Ail. de nat. an. 10. 50 a.va irdv ^tos Kal rjfji.epap iracrav Ovovat rfj deip koI oi 
eTTixwptoi Kal oi ^evoi. Kal 6 fih ^oj/xds virb rip ovpavcp 6 jx^yLarb^ e<rri, iroWCov dk iw avrov 
KadayL^ofMevwv dvfjLdrojv 6 5e TraprjfiepLos Kal es vvKra i^aTTTeTai. ^ws de VTroXafjurei, KaliKeiuos 
ovK avOpaKidv, ov (Tirobbv, ovx ijfiLKa^Tcov Tpij(pri baXQp viro(paLveL, bpbaov de dvdirXeuis etrrt 
Kal irbas veapds, rjirep ovv dva^veraL bcrai, urjKxes. rd ye /Jt.r]v iepeia eKacrrrjS dyiXrjs avTb/xaTa 
(pOLTg Kal T(^ ^Wyuy Trap4(rTT]Kep, dyet de dpa aura irpwrr] jULev i] deb's, elra rj 8vvap.is re Kal i] 
Tov dOouTos ^o6Xr](ns. k.t.X. We gather that every morning the open-air altar of the 
goddess, despite the numerous burnt-offerings of the previous day, was found — or was 




Fig. 86. 




Fig. 87. 





Fig. 88. 



Fig. 89. 



said to be found — overgrown with dewy verdure. Anent this miracle E. Ciaceri Culti e 
miti nella storia deW antica .Sicilia Catania 191 1 p. 87 notes the beneficent influence of 
dew on Sicilian vegetation and adds: 'Nella divina rugiada si vedeva la protezione della 
dea ; ed e forse degno di rilievo che sino ai nostri giorni nel popolo di Trapani si e serbata 
fede alia bre/za notturna; onde si e creduto ch' essa scenda come benedizione del cielo 
sugliabiti e vestiti che si espongano all' aria aperta durante la notte<^) ((^)Pitre Bibliot. delle 
trad. pop. sic. XII (Palermo 1881) p. 261).' 

That Aphrodite "EpvKipr] {/nscr. Gr. Sic. It. no. 281 Eryx [Ka/)]7ri^ios 'A/o^o-rc«;yo[$] | 
['A]0/)o5/Tat 'Ep(u)/ctj'[at], Diod. 4. 83, Steph. Byz. s.v. "Epu^, cp. Paus. 8. 24. 6 and 
Strab. 272. For Venus Erycina see Dessau Inscr. Lat. sel. nos. 939, 3163 — 3165, De Vit 
Onomasticon ii. 756, Carter Epith. deor. p. loi, O. Jessen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
vi. 562 ft'.) was in some sense a goddess of vegetation appears also from the fact that on 
Utrai of c. 413 — 400 B.C. she is seated with a dove on her hand and a tree behind her 
{Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Sicily p. 62 f. nos. 10 f. and 12, G. F. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily 
London 1903 p. 136 pi. 9, 10 ( = my fig. 88), Hunter Cat. Coins i. 181 pi. 13, 8, Weber 
Cat. Coins i. 275 nos. 1310 pi. 50, 1312 pi. 50, 1313 pi. 50 (= my fig. Sg), McClean Cat. 
Coins i. 263 no. 2234 pi. 72, 7, Head Bist. num.'^ p. 138). Note too the frequency of floral 
ornaments, volutes, etc. on the various Utrai {e.g. figs. 85, 91). The plant Xuxj'is, 'rose- 
campion,' which flourished on Mt Eryx, was said to have sprung from the bath of 
Aphrodite after sleeping with Hephaistos (Amerias pt^oTOfiLKov ap. Athen. 681 F: on 
Amerias see O. Hoff"mann Die Makedonen, ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum Gottingen 
1906 p. 2 flf.). 

The dove had a special significance in this cult and was in all probability viewed as an 



176 



The Arrhephoroi 



embodiment of the goddess (F. Dllmmler in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 2765) — witness 
Ail. de nat. an. 4. 2 ev"E/3i'/ct t'^s SiK'eXtas eoprrj ecrriv, ^v KaXovcriu 'AvayibjLa '^pvK^voi re 
avToi Kal fxivToi /cat 6Vot ev ry ZiKeXiq. iraarj. i) de airia, ttjv ^A(ppo8iT7]v X^yovctv evrevdev is 
Al^^itjv ciTraipeLv ev Toiade rats ij/x^paLS. do^d^ovai 8e dpa ravra ravrrj TeK/uLaLpd/mevoi. irepLarepQiv 
TrXrjdos eariv ivravda TrdfnrXeiaTou. ovkovv al ixkv ou% opQurai, Xeyovat de '^pvKiuoi ttjv deov 
dopv^opoijcras direXdeTv' ddipfxara ydp 'A(ppo5iTr]s TrepLcrrepas elvac adovai re eKelvoi Kal 
TreTTLffTevKacri wavTes dvdpiairoL. bieXdovadv 5e rjiuepQv evvea fxiav jxev dtaTrpeirij tt]v iiopav ^k 
ye Tov ireXdyovs rod KO/ni^ovTos e/c ttjs Ai/Si/r^s opdcrdaL ^cnr€Tofiev7)v, oix otav Kara rds dyeXaias 
TreXeidSas rds XoLirds eluai, iropcpvpdv 84, Clxnrep odv t7]v ' A(f)po8iTr)v 6 Tt^ios rjfuu ' AvaKpeoiv 
aScL, TTopcpvp^Tjv irov Xiywv {frag. 2 Berglc^, 1 Edmonds, 2 Diehl). koX xP^'^V 8e eiKaajx^v-q 
(papelr) dv, Kal tovtS ye Kara rrjv 'Ojx-qpov debv t7}v avTrjv, rjv €Ke7vos dva/xeXwei XP^'^W 
{II. 3. 64, 5. 427, 9. 389, 19. 282, 22. 470, 24. 699, Od. 4. 14, 8. 337, 342, 17. 37, 19. 54, 
h. Aphr. 93). iirerai 8e avrrj tQv TrepL(TTepQ>u rd vicprj tCov XolttQp, Kal iopri] ttoXlv '^pvKivois 
Kal Traurjyupis rd Kara7c67ia, e/c rod ^pyov Kal tovto to ovofxa. 




Fig. 90. 




Fig. 91, 




Fig. 92. 



With Aphrodite was associated a youthful consort, presumably Eryx her son by the 
local king Boutas (Diod. 4. 23, 83, Hyg.j^^^. 260, Serv. in\exg. Aen. i. 570, 5. 24, 412, 
Steph. Byz. s.v.^'Epv^, Myth. Vat. i. 53, 2. 156, cp. schol. vet. Theokr. 15. loi) or by 
Poseidon (Apollod. 2. 5. 10, Dion Cass. frag. 4. 2 Bekker, Serv. in Verg. Aen. 5. 24, 
interp. Serv. in Verg. Aen. i. 570, Myth. Vat. i. 94, i. 107, 2. 156, Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 
866, 958, 1232), rather than Aineias (Diod. 4. 83, Strab. 608, Cic. in Verr. 2. 4. 72, 
Verg. Aen. 5. 759 ff., Fest. p. 340 (^ 3 ff . MuUer, p. 458, 31 ff. Lindsay, Hyg. fab. 260, 
cp. Serv. in Verg. Aen. 5. 760) : see F. Dummler loc. cit. A rare Utra of c. 413 — 400 B.C. 
shows Aphrodite drawing towards herself a naked youth, whom I take to be Eryx 
(H. Riggauer in the Zeitschr.f. Num. 1881 viii. 72 f. pi. i, 2 'Sollten wir hier vielleicht 
Eryx zu erblicken haben...oder haben wir hier den Nachklang einer frliheren mytho- 
logischen Entwicklungsphase des Eros...?,' Imhoof-Blumer yJ^;«;z. ^r. p. 17 pi. A, 19 
'■figure virile,'' Head Hist. nu??i.^ p. 1 38 ' wingless Eros '. Fig. 90 is from a specimen in my 
collection). Another, of the same period, turns Eryx into Eros — an easy transformation 
{Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Sicily p. 63 no. 13, Weber Cat. Coins i. 275 no. 131 1 pi. 50, Head 
Hist. numP' p. 138. Fig. 91 is from a specimen of mine); and this type is comparable 

with that of a unique tetradrachm inscribed IRVKAlllB retrograde (G. F. Hill Coins 
of Ancient Sicily London 1903 p. 136 pi. 9, 11 (= my fig. 92), Head Hist, num!^ p. 138). 

A further point of interest in the cult was its ancient service of hierodules (Strab. 272 
olKeiraL 8^ Kal 6"Epu^ X6(pos vxj/rjXos, iepbv ^x^^ ' AcppoSirtjs Ti/j.dofievov 8La(pep6vT(x}s, iepo8ovXo}v 
yvvaLKQv irXijpes rb TraXaiSv, as dv4de<rav /car' evx^jv ot r' iK ttjs St/ceXias /cat 'e^o^dev iroXXol' 
vvvl 8' ojo-rrep avrrj i) KaTotKia XeLwavSpet Kal rb iepbv (so the second hand in cod. B. 17 rb 
iepbv codd. A. Koraes marked the whole phrase as suspicious. H. L. Jones simply 
omits Tj), Kal tQv iepQv (rojudriov eKXiXoiire rb TrXrjdos) and their later equivalents (Diod. 4. 83, 
Cic. in Q. Caecil. divin. 55). 

Lastly it should be observed that Eryx, who is described as king of the Elymoi 
(Apollod. 2. 5. 10, Dion Cass. /ra^. 4. 2 Bekker, Tzetz. in hyk. Al. 1232) or Sikanoi 
(cp. Paus. 8. 24. 2) or at least of some part of Sicily (Diod. 4. 23, 83, Paus. 4. 36. 4, 



The Arrhephoroi 177 

a phrase that reminds us of Demeter Chide, Demeter the 'Grass,' at 
Athens 1. 

Myth. Vat. i. 94, i. 107), not only founded the town and temple of Eryx (Diod. 4. 83, 
Myth. Vat. 2. 156), but was also buried on the mountain {Yiy^. fab. 260, Serv. in Verg. 
Aen. I. 570, Myth. Vat. 2. 156). 

All these traits are consistent with the view (R. v. Scala in the Historische Zeitschrift 
1912 cviii. 18, Lubker Reallex.^ p. 344) that Aphrodite 'Ejou/c^j/t; was a mountain-mother of 
the 'Minoan' kind, who as such would have her sacred tree and doves and pdredros. In 
a long-established cult sundry features may well have been imported from alien sources. 
The service of hierodules is suggestive of oriental influence (H. Hepding in Pauly^ — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. viii. 1467, D. G. Hogarth in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics 
Edinburgh 1913 vi. 671 b — 672 b), and many scholars have been content to regard this 
Aphrodite as a Hellenised form of the Phoenician Astarte {e.g. W. H. Roscher in his 
Lex. Myth. i. 396, T. G. Pinches in J. Hastings op. cit. 1908 i. 767 a, L. B. Paton ib. 
1909 ii. 1 18 a, W. W. Baudissin Adonis tind Esinun Leipzig 1911 pp. 18 f., 23 n. i, 26, 
38, 273) ; even Nilsson Gr. Feste p. 374 dismisses her as 'ganz semitisch.' But the hound 
on coins of Eryx should hardly be compared with the sacred dogs of Hephaistos (Hadran) 
on Mt Aitne {supra ii. 630) : it is simply due to the dependence of Eryx on Segesta, 
whose city -badge was a similar hound (C. Hiilsen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 603). 

The tradition that the eponymous Eryx was defeated by Herakles (Hdt. 5. 43) in a 
wrestling-match for the kingdom (Paus. 3. 16. 4 f , 4. 36. 4), or for possession of the bull 
which had broken away from the cattle of Geiyones (Apollod. 2. 5. 10, cp. Lyk. Al. 866 f. : 
see further K. Tiimpel in Pauly — V^issowdi Real-Enc. vi. 604 fif.), appears later in a slightly 
different form. Eryx is a wrestler or pentathlete, who challenges strangers and slays 
them till he is himself slain by Herakles (Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 866, 958). In any case this 
ranges him with Phorbas, Kyknos, Kerkyon, Antaios, Amykos, and other early kings 
(I have discussed the series in Folk-Lore 1904 xv. 376 fit'.), whose primitive rule of 
succession is the starting-point of Sir J. G. Frazer's Golden Bough. It is not impossible 
that Eryx king of the Elymoi and Virbius the rex Nemorensis belonged to the same 
(? Ligurian: C. Hulsen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 2467) stratum of the population 
of Italy. 

^ At the western end of the southern slope of the Akropolis at Athens there was in the 
time of Pausanias a joint -sanctuary of Ge Kouporpo^os and Demeter X\6?7 (Paus. i. 22. 3 
iari 5e /cat Tijs Kovporpocpov Kal Arj/jLTjTpos iepbv XXot^s. ra 5e ^s ras etrcovvfjiias ^<xtlv uvtQu 
didaxdv^cii- TOLs iepevcTLu iXdovra is \6yovs). Originally, however, the two cults had been 
distinct. The enclosure of Ge Kovporpo^os was called the KovpoTp6(pLov, as we know from 
three boundary-stones, one early {Corp. inscr. Alt. iv. i no. 555 c [K]oupo[r]p60[toj/]), the 
others later (S. A. Koumanoudes in ' Kd-qvaLov 1877 vi. 147 f.). Adjoining it was the 
shrine of Blaute {Corp. inscr. Alt. iii. i no. 411 elVoSos Trpos (Tr)\KOv BXaiJrTjs /cat | 
KovpoTp6(f>ov dv€t\[fxeu]r] rw drifjLwi, cp. Hesych. BXavrrf tottos 'Adrjvyjai and perhaps 
Poll. 7. 87 i] 8^ ^XavTT] aavboKiov tl elSos, /cat ijpojs 'Ad-qurjaiv i-rrl ^Xa^Ty duidtjKe yap 
ris a-KVTOTOfios ^\arjT7)s XlOlvov tvttov : see further O. Kern in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
iii. 560 f. and Svoronos Aih. Nationalmiis. no. 2565 p. 484 ff. pi. 60 with figs. 231 — 235, 
no. 969 p. 509 pi. 184). 

Demeter XX677 had a sacred table {Corp. inscr. Att. ii. i no. 631, 16 ff. = Michel Recueil 
d'^ Inscr. gr. no. 673, 16 fiF. = J. v. Prott and L. Ziehen Leges Graecoriim sacrae ii no. 24, 
16 ff. an inscription dating from the early part ois. iv B.C. and admitting of fairly certain 
restoration ArjfxrjTpos XXot;? tfpe[iai Upeuxrvva: P : 5et(rt]|as KpeQu, irvpQv TjfxtiKTeoj: III: 
fi4[XiTos KOT^Xrjs : 1 1 1 : iXai]\o rptCov kotvXQv : I C : (ppvydvojv : 1 1 : i{Trl 8k ttjv rpdire^av /cjIwX^v, 
wXevpbu Iffx^Of TjixiKpaLpaly xopS^s]. Cp. H. Mischkowski Die heiligen Tische im Gotter- 
kultus der Griechen und R'diner Konigsberg i. Pr. 19 17 p. 29) and probably a small 
temple {Corp. inscr. Att. ii. i no. 375, 3 ff. an inscription from the end of s. iii B.C. 
[d]»'[a7/)ai/'at 5e] 1 To8e rh xprjcpia jxa rbv 7[p]a/A(Ua[T^a t]|[6]j' KaTa irpvTavdav eu (TT7)[X7)1 
\i]\dbei Kal arrjaat, 7ra[pa] tov vlecbu Tr}s'\\ArifMr)Tpos. U. Kohler in the Ath. Mitth. iSy^ 
ii. 177 pointed out that this vedbs was probably that of Demeter XX077). A fragmentary 

C. III. 12 



178 The Arrhephoroi 

inventory of her property at the end of j, iv B.C. is extant {Corp. inscr. Att. ii. 2 no. 722, 
i8 = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. ii — iii. 2 no. 1472 B^ 39 \^L'r]}x-t]'\rpo% t?7[s] XX677[s]). Her priestess 
had a reserved seat in the theatre [Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i no. 349 (with facsimile on pi. 3) 
(a) A77jU77Tpo[s] XX677S in part obliterated by {b) LLO<p6\y'\rov. So W. Dittenberger loc. cit. 
and W. Larfeld Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik Leipzig 1898 ii. 1. 266 pi. i). 

Her festival in spring, when the fresh verdure began to appear, was an occasion of 
jesting and jubilation (Cornut. theol. 28 p. 55, 13 ff. Lang Trept 5e ro eap rrj XXori ArjfjLrjTpL 
dvovffL /jLera TratStas Kal ^a/aas, Idovres x^^'^t^^'''^''' {^^- ^ov cnropov) /cat dcpdouias airrocs iXTrida 
vTTodetKPijvTa). She also received the sacrifice of a ram on Thargelion 6 in the early 
summer-time (Eupolis MapiKois/rag. 7 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 502 f. Meineke) ap. schol. Soph. 
O.C. 1600 EuxXoou ArjfjiTjTpos lepov iari irpos ry uKpoiroXeL- kul EO'ttoXis Mapt/ca " dXX' evdv 
TTo'Xews etfii' dvaai yap fie dei | KpLov XXorj ArjfirjTpc,^' ^vda drjXovTai 6ti Kai Kpios ^6'fjXeLa rrj 
deo) TavTT) dverai (F. Stoecker's cj. drjXeia, though accepted by Mommsen Feste d. Stadt 
Athen p. 477 n. 4, does not cure the passage. R. F. P. Brunck prints ov driXeia fwvov 6is 
after dveTai), ovroj be rt/uLdTai <:^/c {tns. J. Lascaris) > t7]s Kara tQv Krjiriav xXor/s* dvoval 
re QapyrjXLQuos eKTri, Philochoros (in 2. frag, omitted by Miiller) ap. schol, Aristoph. Lys. 
835 XX6?;s ArqfiT^Tpo^ iepbv ev aKpoiroXei ev (p oi 'AdrjualoL dvovcri fir]vbs QapyrjXiQvos < S" {ins. 
U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorfif) > , ws ^iXoxopos (pria-iv iv b" (Mommsen /oc. cit. cj. ^T/ct, 
rri €KTr] construing QapyriXiQuos . . .rrj ^KTrj). This sacrifice may have been purificatory (cp. 
Apollod. xpoj'ifcayr*^^. 82 {Frag. hist. Gr. \. 446 Miiller) ap. Diog. Laert. 2. 44 eyewrid-q 
8e (Sokrates), Kadd (py)<nv ^AjroXXodojpos ev tois XpoviKois, evl ' Axf/rjcpiojvos (so C. Miiller for 
' A\pe(f>lo}vos codd.) ev t(^ TeTaprij) ^ret t^s e^dojUTjKoaTrjs e^do/xrjs 'OXv/uiinddos, QapyyjXLQvos 
€KTr}, ore Ka6aipov<Ti rrjv iroXiv oi 'Adrjvaloi, Kai tt]v" ApTep,LV yeveadai, ArjXioi cpaaiv). Whether 
Athens, like Mykonos {i^t/ra), made a winter-offering to Demeter XX677, is not known. 

The cult lasted into Roman times (P. Foucart in the B-a/i. Corr. Hell. 1889 xiii. 167 f. 
no. 4, published more fully by H. G. Lolling in the AeXr. 'Apx- 1889 p. 129 f. no. 4, 
a long slab of Pentelic marble with a dedication in red letters of Roman date A?7^7?Tpt 
XXot; j] lepeia 1^[l]ko^ovXt] t) /cat 'IXapa Qeorei/jiov e^ '^p/xeiov dvedrjKe, cp. Corp. inscr. Att. 
iii. I no. 1030, 44 f. "Ep^ietot | Geort/ios Tpu^coi'os | k.t.X. a prytanis of 166/ 'j — 168/9 A. D.), 
when Kore was associated with Demeter (H. G. Lolling in the AeXr. 'Apx- 1889 p. 130 
no. 5 a small pillar of Hymettian marble, inscribed in red letters of Roman date and 
originally used as the base of a statuette ArjfjLrjrpL XXori j /cat Koprj \ rrjv KovpoTp6\(pov 
EtViSoros I dvidrjKev \ kolt' oveipov). A Delphic oracle of j-. ii A.D. speaks of their precinct 
as the spot where the forefathers of the Athenians first grew corn (O. Kern 'Demeter 
Chloe' in the At/z. Mitth. 1893 xviii. 192 — 198 two fragments of a small slab of Pentelic 
marble inscribed {A) ^ol^os ' Adrjvaiois AeX0oi)s vaiojv rdde [elirev] | ^cttiv croi trap a/cpas 
TToXews 7ra/)a[- ^ - -— ,] | ou Xaos cri^^tTras /cX-jyifet 7Xai'/ca)[7rt5a 'A^?7J'77j' or /cot^p?;!',] | ArjfirjTpos 
XXoirjs iepbv Koij[p7]S re yua/catpas,] | ov irpwrov crraxus ev^r}[dri ^eiQv iepdoov {suppl. 

H. Diels),] I as irporepoi 7raT[epes ] | ihpic\<xvTO ]. {B) [ ] ciTrapxas | [ ]s 

dyvox) I [ rjex^'cticrtj' | [ djz'tot/crT^s | [ SJpeTrrd j [ robe X(hi\ov ^(rrai. ' Es 

handelt sich um d-Trapxa-i (V. 8), um die Erstlinge des Feldes, welche die Athener der 
Chloe schuldig sind'). This identifies it with the site of the Bov^vyLos dporos (Plout. praec. 
coniug. 42 ^Adrjvaioi rpeis dporovs iepoiis ayovcf irpCoTov eirl ^Kip(p, rod TraXaLordrov rQ>v 
cnropiov VTrofjLVfjfxa- de^repov ev rrj 'Papt'a- rplrov vwb iroXiv (so K. O. Miiller for TreXtv codd.), 
rbv KaXovixevov Bov^vyiov) : see C. Wachsmuth in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 1097 and 
W. Judeich Topogi'aphie von Athen Mlinchen 1905 p. 256. Other references to Demeter 
XXoiy are Aristoph. Lys. 835 FT. A. ttou 5' eariv dans iaTi; AT. Trapd tot^s XXot^s, Semos 
of Delos {c. 230 B.C.) frag. 19 {Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 495 Miiller) ap. Athen. 618 D "Zij/mos 5' 6 
ArjXLOs ev t(^ Trept waLavcxiv (prjai' '.../cat tt]v ArjfxrjTpa ore fxev X.X6r]v, ore 8^ TouXw {sc. wpoar]- 
yopevov),' Eustath. zVz //. p. 772, 62 f. iareov de otl ov fxovov x^^V V yv^^v (pvo/xev7)...dXXd 
Kai 7) AT]ixr)T7)p eindeTiKQs' XXorjt yo.p, <paac, AijfxrjTpos iepbv irapd irov tt)v 'Attik^v. 

There are one or two indications that the same cult was practised elsewhere in Attike. 
At Eleusis a festival XXoTa was observed in s. ii B.C. (D. Philios in the 'E0. 'Apx. 1890 
p. 125 ff. no. 60, 6 fi. = Miche\ /^eciieil denser, gr. no. 135, 6 ff. = Dittenberger 6)///. inscr. 
Gr? no. 661, 6 ff. i^Tr^p (^v dwayyiXXei 6 brjfxapxos 6 'WKevaivlwv virep tQv dv(n\u}v, cov 
'46v(7ev Toh re 'AXc^iots /cat rots XXotots ret re Arjfirjrpi Kai ret \ Kopet Kai rots aXXots deoTs, oh 



The Arrhephoroi 179 

Perhaps we can go a step further. O. Gruppe^ has conjectured 
with much probabiHty that the Arrhephoria was performed on the 
night of the DiipoHeia, that is, on the occasion of the last full moon 
in the Attic year. He recalls the Greek belief — a belief based upon 
accurate observation^ — that the dew lies thickest on the night of 
a full moon^, and Alkman's statement that Herse the 'Dew' was 

iraTptov rjv, avveriXeo-ev de /cat ttjv tCjv \ KaXa/xaiuv dvciav k.t.\.). This accounts for Hesych. 
XXota (Meursius cj. XXoeta, A. Meineke cj. XXoeta) • eopr'i:] aTrb tCov koKituv (Meursius and 
Meineke cjj. KapirQv). Again, the sacrificial calendar from Koukounari {supra p. 115) 
notes among the trieteric rites of Marathon that in Anthesterion a pregnant sow is 
sacrificed to 'EXeiKTivta and another to XX677 Traph rd MeiSi^Xou, i.e. XXorj 'next door to 
Meidylos ' (J. de Prott Leges Graecorum sacrae Lipsiae 1896 Fasti sacri p. 46 ff. no. 26 B, 

48 ff. 'AvdeffTTjpLiivos' "EXevcriviat. 6s Kvovaa AA, | iepuxrvva \-\. X.X67]l irapa ra Met5i/Xoi/ 6s 

Kvd\(ra\ I AA, lepibavva \-, a\<f>iTOjv e/crei)s ||||, o'ivo x\os..J}. In Mykonos a calendar of 

c. 200 B.C. fixes Poseideon 12 as the mid-winter day when a fine white ram must be sacrificed 
to Poseidon TefjieviTrjs, a white male lamb to Poseidon ^ijkios, and two fine sows, one of 
them pregnant, to Demeter XXot; (J. de Prott Leges Graecorum sacrae Lipsiae 1896 Fasti 
sacri p. 13 ff. no. 4, 11 ff.=: Michel Recueil d''Lnscr. gr. no. 714, 11 ff. = F. Bechtel in 
Collitz — Bechtel Gr. Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2. 577 ff. no. 5416, 11 ff. = Dittenberger .S)///. inscr. 
Gr.^ no. TO24, ti ff. TTjL avTTJL TjfM^pai ATjfjLrjTpL XXoTjt ves \ dvo KaWLcrreiJovaaL, i) iripa 
€yK6fjL[o}v •] viOToy KdwreTali] j ttjs eyKv^iovos. ras vs j8[oi'X]t7 /c[pi;'^]r[w] /i.a[7i]pwt dpxoures \ 
dibdvTiav 6(T(j>vv /cat kwXtjv rrjs vbs ttjs eriprj^, a\<t)iTU}[y'\ \ 8iJ0 xot»'i/cas, oiVou rpets /coriJX[a]s). 
But the real interest of Demeter XX077 lies, not so much in the details of her cult, as in 
the fact that her very name identifies the goddess with the verdure. Farnell Cults of Gk. 
States iii. 33 says of her worship: 'Its chief claim on our attention is that it seems to 
reveal a glimpse of the pre-anthropomorphic period when the natural object itself might 
be conceived as animate and divine, and the personal deity had not yet clearly emerged ; 
thus such religious perceptions as "Demeter the Verdure" or "Zeus the Thunder" on the 
one hand, and Demeter the Verdure-giver or Zeus the Thunderer on the other, may be the 
products of widely different strata of religion,' The second stage is attested partly by the 
cult of Demeter Effx^oos at Kolonos (Soph. O. C. 1600 f. rw 5' EuxXooi; A-qixrjTpos ets 
Trpoaoxf/iov \ irdyov fxoXovcrai with schol. adloc. cited supra. On the topography of the site 
see Sir R. C. Jebb's ed. p. xxxi with map and Svoronos Ath. Nationalmus. pp. 389 f., 
392, 402, 405 pis. 124 (photographs) and 125 (plan). The broken base of Pentelic marble 
believed by the uncritical K. S. Pittakis to record a dedication to Demeter EuxXot? {Corp. 
inscr. Att. iii. i no. 191) is now known to contain no such record (U. Kohler in Corp. 
inscr. Att. ii. 3 no. 141 5). Her name should be struck out in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
iii. 2347, vi. 884), partly by the poetic usage of such epithets as x^ooKapiro'i (Orph. h. Dem. 
Eleus. 40. 5 x^ooKapve, cp. Orph. A. Ge 26. 7 TjdvirvdoLS xf^f'Pova-a xXoais). 
^ Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 34. 

^ X. Landerer 'Zur Meteorologie Griechenlands ' in the Zeitschrift fUr allgemeine 
Erdkunde N. F. 1857 ii- 163 observes : 'Der Thau nach Sonnenuntergang ist so bedeutend, 
dass man sich nur einige Augenblicke im Freien aufzuhalten braucht, um die Kleider und 
andere hygroskopische Gegenstande durch und durch feucht oder nass zu sehen.' 
C. Neumann — ^J. Partsch Physikalische Geographie von Griechenland mit besonderer 
RUcksicht auf das Alterthum Breslau 1885 p. 64 adds: 'In klaren, mondhellen Nachten, 
wo die Warmeausstrahlung der Erdoberflache besonders kraftig sich vollzieht, der Boden 
und seine Pflanzendecke recht stark erkalten, ist der Thaufall am reichlichsten.' Cp. Aisch. 
Ag- 12, 335 f-, 560 f. 

^ Plout. symp. 3. 10. 3, quaestt. nat. 24, Macrob. Sat. 7. 16. 31. Cp. Theophr. ^^ca/^j-. 
plant. 4. 14. 3, Plin. nat. hist. 18. 292, Macrob. 7. 16. 21 and 24. See further W. H. 
Roscher Uber Selene und Verwandtes Leipzig 1890 p. 49 n. 198, Nachtrdge iiber Selene und 
Verwandtes Leipzig 1895 p. 24 f., and in the Lex. Myth. ii. 3147 ff. 

12 2 



i8o The Arrhephoroi 



the daughter of Zeus by Selene the 'Moon^' Now Plutarch, com- 
menting on the passage from Alkman, remarks that the meaning 
of the poet was as follows: Zeus, the air, under the influence of 
Selene, the moon, turned himself into dew 2. Plutarch's comment is 
a physical speculation of the usual sort^; but it suggests a pos- 
sibility. It may be that the dew was regarded as the actual means 
whereby the sky-father impregnated the earth-mother. Rain was 
certainly so regarded*; and dew was held to be a gentler form of 
rain^ Homer says that, when Zeus embraced Hera on the summit 
of Ide, 'glittering dew-drops' fell from the golden cloud that en- 
compassed them and earth put forth 'the dewy lotus-bloom ^' 
Pliny in plainer terms tells us that the planet Venus, called by 
others the star of luno or Isis or the Mother of the gods, makes the 
earth to conceive by means of generative dew and rouses the 
procreative powers of all living things^. Besides, it is a significant 
fact that ersen^ drsen, drrhen, the Greek word for ' male,' is 
obviously related to erse, 'dew^' Perhaps, then, when the Dew-bearers 
brought dew down the underground descent, they were simply 
conveying the sacred seed of Father Sky into the womb of Mother 
Earth. 

And, if so, it may well be that in the 'something wrapt up^', 

^ Supra i. 732 n. 5. Gruppe might have added Lucian's whimsical notion that the 
Moon-dwellers agreed to pay the Sun-dwellers by way of tribute 10,000 amphorae of dew 
(Loukian. ver. hist. 1. ^o). 

^ Plout. de fac. in orb. lun. 25 5i6 tt/jos ah Tpi<pofxaL fxaWoVy c5 (piXe Qewv • Xiyeis yap rjixiv 
€^7jyovfX€vos ravra ra 'A\Kju,dvos 'Ai6s dvydrrjp \ '4p<xa rp^cpei Kai HieXdvas [dias]' otl vvv top 
d^pa KaXei Kal Ala (prjcriv avrbv virb rrj^ 'ZieXrjvrjs KadvypaLvbp.€vov els dpocrovs rpeireadai. 

3 Supra i. 29 f. ^ Infra § 9 (e) i and ii. 

^ Plout. quaestt. nat. 24 if] yap dpdaos dffdevrjs ris /cat ddpavrjs op-^pos. 

6 Supra i. 154, iii. 35. 

^ Plin. nat. hist. 2. 36 — 38 ending with the words: 'itaque et in magno nominum 
ambitu est. alii enim lunonis, alii Isidis, alii Matris Deum appellavere. huius natura cuncta 
generantur in terris. namque in alterutro exortu genitali rore conspergens non terrae modo 
conceptus inplet, verum animantium quoque omnium stimulat.' Cp. Plout. de Is. et Os. 4I 
ol bk Tolade rots (pvcFLKois Kal tQv dir' dcrrpoXoyias fia6r]p.aTtKCov 'ivia pnyv^vres Tv^Copa fxeu 
otovrai TOP TJXiaKov Kda/xov, "Oaipiv bk rbv aeXijPLaKov Xiyeadai • rrjv pikv yap a-eXrjvrju, yovLfxov 
TO (pCjs Kai vypoiroLov ^X'^^^'^^> evfievij Kai yovais ^ojiav Kai (pVTUv etvai ^XaaT'Tjcrecri' Tbv be 
rjXiov dKpdTif TTvpi KeKXrjpwKbTa ddXiretv re /cat KaTavaiveiv to. (pvofieva Kai redriXbTa, k.t.X., 
Nonn. Dion. 44. 220 ff. Fata (pvTUiu d>Sipa Treiralpei \ p.apixapvy7]v bpoabeaaav dKOLjxrjTOLO 
XeXrjVTis I bexvvp-^vrj. 

8 L. Meyer Handb. d. gr. Etym. i. 462, Prellwitz Etym. Worterb. d. Gr.Spr.'^\>. 158, 
Boisacq Diet. etym. de la Langue Gr. p. 83. Cp. Apul. dvexb}xevo% (printed as Anth. Lat. 
i. 2 no. 712 Riese: for date see De Vit Lat. Lex. Index p. cxxxi n. (10)) 21 eiaculent 
tepidum rorem niveis laticibus. 

How are we to explain Souidas' dppr)vo(popeLv (certified by the order of letters) in the 
sense of dpp7}(popelv , €ppr]<popeiv? Two manuscripts of Harpokr. s.v. dpprjcpopeiv have the 
same reading. 

^ Supra p. 169 n. o. 



The birth of Erichthonios 1 8 1 

which they brought back, we should recognise a new-born babe, 
the fruit of that momentous union. Dare we call him Erichthonios 
'very child of the Ground^'? 

i. The birth of Erichthonios. 

Where the texts are silent the monuments may be allowed to 
speak. A terra-cotta relief of the 'Melian' type, said to have been 
found in a grave beyond the Ilissos on the road to Halimous and now 
at Berlin^ (fig. 93)^ shows the head and shoulders of Ge emerging 
from the ground. She presents the infant Erichthonios to his foster- 
mother Athena, who, wearing a helmet but no aigis^ approaches from 
the left. Kekrops, with snaky tail, faces her on the right : he raises the 
forefinger of one hand in token of respect* and with the other holds 
a spray of olive. Stylistic considerations would refer the relief to 
the first half of the fifth century, while the four olive-leaves in 
Athena's helmet suit some date after the fight at Marathon ^ The 

^ Not 'gewaltiger Erdherr' (L. Malten Kyrene Berlin 191 1 p. 83 n. 4), der 'gewaltige 
Chthonios' {id. in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 351), or der 'gewaltige Herr der 
Chthon' {id, in the fahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1914 xxix. 190) : see Nilsson yl/m. - 
Myc. Rel. p. 491 n. i. Nor 'Genius des fruchtbaren Erdbodens' (Preller — Robert 
Gr. Myth. i. 200. Id. ib. n. i observes that Hermes too is ipixdovios in et. Gud. p. 208, 
31 f. ipto^iuios 'EpfiTJs /cat x^^''^os"E|0ya7ys /cat ipLx06uLos = et. mag. p. 371, 51 f. epio^vtos 'l^p/j.rjs 
/cat x^<i''tos /cat ipixO^vcos'Ep/xrjs). Nor yet 'good earth' — an unhappy rendering of H. J. 
Rose A Handbook of Greek Mythology Y^QvAon 1928 p. 129, apparently borrowed from 
G. Curtius Grundziige der griechischen Etymologie^ Leipzig 1879 P* ^44 'Gutland.' Still 
less, of course, etymologically akin to Erechtheus Q. B. Bury in the Class. Rev. 1899 ^^^i* 
307 f. *'Epex^6x^wj'>*'Ep^X^wj' (short form 'Epex^€i5s)>'E|Otx^6j'tos (t by false derivation 
from ^pL--\-xQbvLoi))\ see Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1320 n. 8, supra ii. 793 n. 10. 
Confusion arose early and lasted late {et. Gud. p. 207, 26 'Epex^ei^s, 6 'Epix^oftos, et. mag. 
p. 371, 29 'Epex^ei^s, 6 'Eptx^oi/tos (so F. G. Sturzfor'ETrtx^o^tos) Kako{)ixevos, Zonar. lex.s.v. 
'Epex^ei^s* 6 'Eptx^oi'tos XeyS/xepo^. Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. lix 'the double 
personaHty, Erechtheus — Erichthonios,' ead. Primitive Athens as described by Thticydides 
Cambridge 1906 p. 60 'The name of Erechtheus or Erechthonios' {sic)^ J. Escher-Burkli 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 406 'der Doppelganger des E[rechtheus], Erichthonios,' 
440 'Der attische E[richthonios] ist die sekundare Nebenfigur zu Erechtheus'). 

Cp. Harpokr. s.v. avToxQove^' 6 5e HivSapos {frag. 253 Bergk^) /cat 6 tt]v Aami'da 
TreiroiTjKias {frag. 2 Kinkel) (fyaffiv 'EpixdhvLOv KaV'UcpaLcxTov ck yrjs (pavrjvai. In Nonn. Dion. 
27. 322 Erichthonios is /coupos...rat?7tos. 

2 No. 2537. 

^ E. Curtius 'Die Geburt des Erichthonios' in the Arch. Zeit. 1872 xxx. 51 — 57 pi. 63 
(=my fig. 93), A. Flasch in the Ann. d. Inst. 1877 xlix. 425 f., Friederichs— Wolters 
GipsabgUsse p. 65 f. no. 120, E. Kuhnert in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 1578 fig. 2, O. Immisch 
ib. ii. 1019 fig., Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. xxix f. fig. 2, ead. Themis'^ p. 263 f. 
fig- 63. 

* C. Sittl Die Gebdrden der Griecheti und Rdmer\^€v^z\^ 1890 pp. 162, 179. Qy^. supra 
»• 735 fig- 666, 736 fig. 667. 

C.T. Seltman Athens: its History and Coinage before the Persia^t Invasion Cambridge 
1924 p. 103, G. F. Hill in The Cambridge Ancient History Cambridge 1926 iv. 130 with 
Plates i. 304, q, r. 



•l82 



The birth of Erichthonios 



design, if genuine ^ probably falls within the period 490 — 470 B.C. 
What purpose it served in the gr^ve is more doubtful. Possibly the 
rising of the boy from the depths of the dark earth to light and 
life was felt to be of good omen for the future of the buried dead^. 




Fig. 93- 

Be that as it may, vase-painters of the fifth century took this 
old art-type and amplified it by the addition of other interested 
spectators. A red-figured hydria from Chiusi (?), now in the British 
Museum (pi. xxii)^, makes a full-breasted Ge emerge waist-high from 

^ p. Jacobsthal Die melischen Reliefs Berlin — Wilmersdorf 193 1 p. 96 ff. pi. 75 a notes 
that the head, shoulder, and breast of the child, parts of Kekrops' fore-arm and of Athena's 
right hand, together with a bit of the base beneath the snaky tail, are due to a restorer 
(fig. 21 shows the relief unrestored). After frequent inspection R. Zahn and Jacobsthal 
decided 'es endgliltig fur eine Falschung zu erklaren, allerdings fur eine sehr intelligente 
und fiir die siebenziger Jahre recht gelungene und gelehrte.' But could a forger over sixty 
years ago have been so successful? 

^ Cp. supra ii. 417. 

•^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iii. 159 f. no. E 182, Gerhard Auserl. Vasenb. iii. 3 fF. pi. 151, 
Lenormant — de Witte ii/. mon. cer. i. 287 f. pi. 85, Mtiller — Wieseler Denkm. d. alt. 



Plate XXII 




Hydria from Chiusi (?), now in the British Museum : 
Ge hands Erichthonios to Athena in the presence of Zeus, Nike, and Hebe (?). 



See page 182 ff. 



The birth of Erichthonios 183 

the ground, while Athena, armed with helmet, aigis, and spear, receives 
the babe in a striped mantled She is confronted, not by Kekrops, 
but by Zeus, who, clad in a himdtion of like pattern and wearing 
a wreath, stands with his right hand resting on his hip, his left 
holding the thunderbolt. Behind Athena, Nike hastens forward 
with a large fillet in her outstretched hands. Behind Zeus and 
leaning familiarly on his shoulder is a female figure in a long chiton, 
over whose head is inscribed the name Oinanthe. The presence 
of this Dionysiac name^ led E. Braun^, F. Wieseler*, C. Robert ^ 
and Sir C. H. Smith ^ to interpret the whole scene as the birth of 
Dionysos. But in this they were certainly wrong. The vase cannot 
be isolated from others of closely similar design, which beyond all 
question represent the birth of Erichthonios. And the name Oinanthe, 
accompanied as it is by the word kale, is better explained by 
W. Klein'', W. Drexler^, and H. B. Walters^ as a Lieblingsinschrift 
of a not very unusual sort^^. After all, Oinanthe was a name 
occasionally borne by Attic women ^^ This leaves the youthful 

Kunst ii. 2. 17 pi. 34, 401, Harrison Proleg. Gk. ReL" p. 405 f. fig. 127, J. D. Beazley 
Attische Vasenmaler des roifigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 252 no. 4 (* Der Oinanthemaler,' 
one of 'Die Manieristen...die Vertreter eines verschnorkelten, archaisierenden Stils, der 
gegen Ende der archaischen Periode einsetzt und bis tief in die klassische Periode sich 
erhalt' {ib. p. 237)). PI. xxii is from a photograph. 

^ Cp. the fragment of an amphora ox pelike from Gela (F. Hauser in ihejahrb. d. kais. 
deutsch. arch. Inst, 1896 xi. 190 with fig. 33 a, B. Sauer Das sogenannte Theseion 
Leipzig 1899 P- 6° f- fig-)' which appears to reverse the design — Zeus (?) on the right, 
Athena on the left, of Ge. 

2 O. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 750 f. records Oinanthe as a Bacchant on a 
red-figured krat^r at Vienna (Gerhard Ant. Bildw. pp. 211, 222 n. 55 pi. 17 Al NO NOH, 
Corp. inscr. Gr. iv no. 8381 Oivdvdr): see now C. Frankel Satyr- nnd Bakchennamen auf 
Vasenbildern Halle a. S. 191 2 p. 51 f.), and as a Bassarid, nurse of Dionysos, in Nonn. 
Dion. 14. 225 Olvdv$7] podoeacra, together with other more doubtful examples. 

^ E. Braun in the Ann. d. Inst. 1841 xiii. 92 ff. 

•* Miiller — Wieseler Z)^;?/^/;/. d. alt. Kunstxx. 2. 17 pi. 34, 401 (*den kleinen Dionysos, 
odergenauer: lakchos'). 

^ C. Robert Archaeologische Maerchen aus alter und neuer Zeit Berlin 1886 p. 190 fif. 

fig. 

^ Sir C. H. Smith in the Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases \\\. 159 f. no. E 182 ('Type of birth 
of Erichthonios ... Dionysos?'). 

^ W. Klein Die griechischett Vasen niit Lieblingsinschriften'^ Leipzig 1889 p. 129. 

^ W. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 750 f. 

^ H. B. Walters History of Ancient Pottery London 1905 ii. 265 n. 5. 

■^^ Id. ib. ii. 265, Pfuhl Malerei u. Zeichnung d. Gr. i. 34, iii. 978 (KaXXto-rdj'^T; Kokfi), 
P. Kretschmer Die Griechischen Vaseninschriften Gutersloh 1894 p. 79 (FXi'/ca) KoXa). 

^^ F. Bechtel Die Attischen Frauennamen Gottingen 1902 p. 103 cites Corp. inscr. Att. 
ii. 3 no. 2 124, 3 1 N A N H and no. 4044 = A. Conze Die attischen Grabreliefs Berlin 1893 
i. 71 no. 313 pi. 77 01 NAN0H. W. Pape— G. E. Benseler Worterbuch der griechischen 
Eigennamen'^ Braunschweig 1875 ii. 1041 cite also Dem. c. Macart. 36; Polyb. 14. 11. i 
{ap. Athen. 251 e), 15. 25. 12, 15. 29. 8 and 10, 15. 33. 8; Plout. v. Cleom. 33, amat. 9. 



i84 



The birth of Erichthonios 



goddess on the left anonymous. From her position and attitude I 
should judge her to be Hebe^ whose title Dia'^ might be adduced 
as a further justification of her proximity to Zeus^. 

A red-figured stdmnos from Vulci, now at Munich (pi. xxiii)*, 
repeats the central group of Ge presenting the babe to Athena in the 

^ Cp. the pose of Hebe (inscribed) on two krateres by ' Der Kadmosmaler' (J. D. 
Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen 6Vz7j- Tubingen 1925 p. 451), viz. (i) a kd/j/x- 
kratir 2X Petrograd (Stephani Vasensamml. St. Petersburg ii. 339 ff. no. 1807, id. in the 
Cotnpte-rendu St. Pet. 1861 p. 33 ff. Atlas pi. 3, i and 2 = Reinach Rip. Vases i. 7, 5 and 
6, J. D. Beazley £»/. cit. p. 451 no. 5), figured infra §9(h) ii(^) med.^ on which H B H standing 
furthest to the left rests her right hand on her hip and leans her left elbow on the shoulder of 
Plera; (2) a vo\\x\.Q.-kratdr at Ruvo (Jatta collection no. 1093, F. Gargallo-Grimaldi in the 
Ann. d. Inst. 1867 xxxix. 160 ff., Mon. d. Inst, viii pi. 42 =Reinach Rip. Vases i. 175, A. 
Baumeister in his Denh7i. ii. 890 f. fig. 965, Overbeck Gr. Kunstmyth. ApoUon p. 426 ff no. 6 



OztloV/. 




Fig. 94. 

Atlas pi. 25, 5, O. Jessen in Roscher lex. Myth. ii. 2454 with fig. 5, J. D. Beazley op. 
cit. p. 451 no. i) on which HBH, again on the extreme left, stands with her right hand 
resting on her hip and her left raised towards the shoulder of Hera (so Overbeck op. cit. 
p. 429: Reinach loc. cit. says 'une Menade,' while Baumeister loc. cit. makes her the 
mother of Marsyas conversing with \Kv^'\q^r) !). Somewhat similar, but unnamed, is the 
goddess standing on the left of another kratir in the Jatta collection [supra i. 459 n. 5 
fig. 318. To the bibliography add O. Benndorf in the Wien. Vorlegebl. 1890 — 1891 
pi. 12, 2), who rests her left hand on the shoulder of a seated Zeus : I took her, perhaps 
wrongly, to be Aphrodite. 

^ Strab. 382 Ti/xaTaL 5' ip ^Xiovvri koX "ZikvOivl to ttjs Aias lepov koKovo'l 5' ovrio rrjv 
"H^rjv. On Dia as consort of Zeus I have said my say in the Class. Rev. 1903 xvii. 177 f., 
1906 XX. 367, 377 f., 416, 419. 

^ Even if the name Oinanthe be interpreted as belonging to the personage above which 
it is placed, she need not be Dionysiac. Athena herself seems to have been worshipped 
at Athens as Oinanthe, the * Vine-flower,' — an unremarked, but interesting, parallel to 
Demeter ChlSe [Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i no. 353 (with facsimile on pi. 3 = my fig. 94) 
ie/o'^a[s 'A]^'>7v[as OiV]di'^77[s], W. Larfeld Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik Leipzig 
1898 ii. I. 266 pi. i). The epithet, however, is at best uncertain. 

* No. 2413 = Jahn Vasensamml. Munchen p. 108 f. no. 345, T. Panofka in the Ann. 
d. Inst. 1829 i. 292 — 298, Mon. d. Inst, i pis. 10 and 11 (Reinach Rep. Vases i. 66, i and 
2), Inghirami Vas. fitt. i. 115 ff. pis. 73 and 74, Lenormant — de Witte El. mon. dr. i. 
267 ff. pi. 84, iii. 34 ff. pi. II, Mliller — Wieseler Denkm. d. alt. Kunst i. 38 f. pi. 46, 
111 a and 2 1 1 3, F. Hauser in Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasenmalerei iii. 95 — 98 pi. 
137 (=my pi. xxiii), Hoppin Red-fig. Vases ii. 32 no. 14, J. D. ^Qz.T\t.y Attische Vasenmaler 
des rotfigU7'igen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 300 no. 16. 

J. D. Beazley Attic redfigured Vases in American Museums Cambridge Mass. 191 8 
p. 123 f., followed by Hoppin loc. cit., identified this vase as the work of the late archaic 
painter Hermonax — indeed as that artist's masterpiece ('Sound and able as Hermonax's 



The birth of Erichthonios 185 

presence of an interested god, but substitutes Hephaistos^ for Zeus. 
In lieu of himdtion, wreath, and thunderbolt Hephaistos has but a 
chlamys 3.nd a long knobbed staff. Zeus^ himself is accommodated on 
the other side of the vase, where he sits on a handsome folding stool, 
clad in chiton and himdtion. In his left hand he holds a lotiform 
sceptre; in his right, a metal /^/^Y^, which Nike standing before him 
has just filled. On the tendrils that spring from the handle-palmettes 
are poised four of the daintiest Erotes to be found in the whole range 
of Greek art. Their presence may be taken to indicate that obverse 
and reverse form a single scene and one which has the multiplication 
of young life for its ultimate meaning. 

Hephaistos is definitely established in the room of Zeus on a 
red-figured kylixixova Corneto, preserved in Berlin^. This magnificent 
vase (fig. 95), which has been attributed to 'the Kodros-painter*,' 
fortunately adds names to all the persons concerned. The external 
design shows again the familiar type of Ge presenting Erichthonios 
to Athena. Behind Athena stands a dignified, not to say Zeus-like, 
Hephaistos wearing a bay-wreath on his head and a chlamys over 
his shoulder: he holds a long staff in his right hand and rests his 

work generally is, he only once shows himself a remarkable artist, and that is not on any 
of his signed vases, but on the Munich stamnos with the Birth of Erichthonios'...). 

■^ So most critics, including Panofka, Inghirami, Jahn, Muller — Wieseler, Hauser 
locc, citt. together with Welcker Alt. Denkm. iii. 422 n. 7, B. Sauer Das sogenannte 
Theseion Leipzig 1899 p. 58 f., etc. C. Lenormant op. cit, \. 276 sees 'Neptune frappant 
la terre avec son trident' (trident-head missing!). Gerhard Auserl. Vasenb. iii. 3 n. 2 
hesitates between Hephaistos and Poseidon, but ib. p. 5 decides for Poseidon. A. Flasch 
in the Ann. d. Inst. 1877 xlix. 427 ff. is for Kekrops or Hephaistos, preferably the 
latter; C. Robert Archaeologische Maerchen aus alter und neuer Zeit Berlin 1886 p. 192 
n. 2, for Kekrops. E. Braun in the Ann. d. Inst. 1841 xiii. 92 f., bent on recognising the 
birth of Dionysos {supra p. 183), is forced to interpret the standing god as Zeus. 

^ Almost all exponents from Inghirami loc. cit. onwards have identified the seated 
personage as Zeus. Yet Panofka loc. cit. says 'Neptune,' and C. Lenormant op. cit. i. 
285, iii. 34 ff. ^Jupiter Polieus'' or ''Zeus ^leuthdrius ' as a deity akin to ^Neptune £rech- 
thee.^ Jahn loc. cit. is content with 'ein bartiger Mann.' And Muller — Wieseler loc. 
cit. suggest ' Erichthonios als Herrscher und Richter des Landes, neben ihm die Gottin 
Dike'(!). 

^ Furtwangler Vasensamml. Berlin ii. 718 f. no. 2537, W. Helbig in the Bull. d. Inst. 
1876 p. 205 f., A. Flasch ' Tazza cornetana rappresentante la nascita di Erichthonios' in 
the Ann. d. Inst. 1877 xlix. 418—446, Mon. d. Inst, x pi. 39, i — 3 ( = my fig. 95), 
Reinach Rep. Vases i. 208, R. Engelmann in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 1305 f. fig., M. 
Collignon in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. i. 986 fig. 1278, Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. 
Ath. p. xxxf, with fig. 3. 

^ B. Graef 'Die Zeit der Kodrosschale' in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 
1898 xiii. 66, 73, Hoppin Red-fig. Vases ii. 153 no. i ('The artist belongs to the first 
period of the Free Style and may have been the teacher of Aristophanes'), J. D. Beazley 
Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen Stils Tubingen 1925 p. 426 no. 6 ('Sehr feine 
Schalen mit Anklangen an Parthenonisches'). 



i86 



The birth of Erichthonios 



left hand on his side. Behind Ge is Kekrops with serpentine tail. 
Beyond Hephaistos we see Herse. Then — for the scene continues — , 
other figures likewise moving to the left, Aglauros followed by 
Erechtheus, Pandrosos full-front, next Aigeus, and lastly Pallas^. 




Fig. 95- 

^ Kekrops and his daughters Herse, Aglauros, Pandrosos supplement the theme of 
Erichthonios' birth by a suggestion of its sequel, the incident of the basket {infra p. 237 ff. ). 
Erechtheus, Aigeus, and Pallas are later kings of Athens (Gerhard Gr. Myth. ii. 231 
stemma H) 'here, by a pleasant anachronism, interested in the birth of their great 
ancestor' (Harrison Myth. Mon. Aiic. Ath. p. xxx). 



> 

X 
X 

+-> 

Q- 




The birth of Erichthonios 



187 



The central medallion has Heos as a winged goddess bearing off 
Kephalos. 

Finally Hephaistos ceases to be reminiscent of Zeus and 
appears in his own right on a krater from Chiusi, now at Palermo, to 
be dated c. 400 B.C. (pi. xxiv)^. Ge, who emerges more and more from 
the soil, as usual hands Erichthonios to Athena. This takes place 
beneath a conspicuous olive-tree, three young shoots of which spring 
from the earth in the foreground 2. Behind Athena is Kekrops with 
coiled tail. Behind Ge Hephaistos, with supported foot^ shoulders 

1 T. Panofka in the Bull, d, Inst. 1837 p. 22, E. Braun ib. 1838 p. 82 f., id. 'II 
nascimento d' Erittonio' in the Ann. d. Inst. 1841 xiii. 91 — 98, Mon. d. Inst, iii pi. 30 
(=my pi. xxiv), Reinach Rep. Vases'^ i. 113, 4, Lenormant— de Witte El. mon. dr. \. 
272, 288 — 290 pi. 85 A. 

The reverse design (inset on pi. xxiv) shows Heos in pursuit of Kephalos, one of whose 
brothers (Apollod. i. 9. 4 TralSes U Kiverbs, "kKrwp, $uXa/cos, Ke0a\os) escapes towards 
the left. 







Fig. 96. 



Fig. 97. 



Fig. 98. 



Fig. 99. 



^ Possibly the famous olive-tree on the Akropolis, called by the comedians the aaTj) 
eXaia (Poll. 9. 17, Hesych. s.v. dffTTj iXaia, Eustath. in Od. p. 1383, 7 f.) or TrdyKv<pos 
eXaia (Aristoph./a<^. incert.frag. 234 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. 12 17 Meineke) ap. Poll. 6. 163, 
Hesych. s.vv. daTrj iXaia and it ay KV(f)o%), together with the fjLoplai, which were believed to 
be offshoots from it (Aristoph. nud. 1005 with schol. ad loc, l^Xxo's, frag. 27 {Frag. hist. 
Gr. i. 422 Mliller) and A.x\^\.o\..frag. 345 Rose ap. schol. Soph. O.C. 701, Apollod. /r^^, 
34 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 434 M^\x\\tx) = frag. 120 {Frag. gr. Hist. ii. 1076 Jacoby) ap. schol. 
Soph. O.C. 705 cited supra ii. 20 n. 4, Poll. i. 241, 5. 36, Bekker anecd. i. 280, 16, 
Hesych. s.v. fxopiai, Phot. lex. s.v. fiopiat, Souid. s.v. fxopiai, et. Gud. p. 398, 23 ff. , et. 
mag. p. 590, 42 ff., Zonar. lex. s.v. fiopia, Favorin. lex. pp. 85, 7 f., 611, 31, 1273, 53, 1643, 
18 ff.). See further Boetticher Baumkultus pp. 107 — iii, L. Stephani in the Compte- 
rendu St. Pdt. 1872 p. 5 ff. with figs, i — 4 and Atlas pi. i, Frazer Pausanias ii. 343 f., 

393 f- 

The sacred olive appears in various forms on the imperial bronze coinage of Athens 
(see e.g. Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Attica etc. p. 96 ff. pis. 16, 7, 8, 11, 17, i, 2, 4 — 6, 
McClean Cat. Coins ii. 365 pi. 211, i, 4, 5, Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner Num. 
Comm. Paus. iii. 129 ff. pi. Z, 8, 11 — 19, pi. AA, 16, 21, and for longer series J. N. 
Svoronos Les Monnaies d\4thenesM\xm.ch. 1923 — 1926 pis. 84, 8, 36 — 40, 85, 32 — 37, 87, 
15 — 43, 89, I — 25, 90, I — 34). Figs. 96 — 99 are from specimens in my collection. 

^ K. Lange Das Motiv des aifgestiitzten Fusses in d. antiken Kunst und dessen 
statuarische Verwendung durch Lysippos Leipzig 1879 pp. i — 64 with pi., E. Lowy 
Lysipp und seine Stellung in der griechischen Plastik Hamburg 1891 p. 9 ff. figs. 4 and 5, 
a — c, M. Collignon Lysippe Paris (1905) pp. 71, 116, W. Deonna in Varchiologie^ sa 
valeur, ses m^thodes Paris 191 2 i. 278 ff., F. P. Johnson Lysippos Durham (North 
Carolina): Duke University Press 1927 pis. 6, 24, 30 f. 



1 88 Hephaistos and Athena 

his tongs. A couple of little Victories, hovering in the air, offer 
wreaths to father and son; for it is as father of Erichthonios that 
Hephaistos has at length wholly dispossessed Zeus. 

ii. Hephaistos and Athena. 

So far we have seen reason to think that the Arrhephoria was 
an annual rite in which a couple of Dew-bearers conveyed the very 
seed of the sky-god down into the womb of the earth-goddess, and we 
have surmised that they brought up thence a new-born babe named 
Erichthonios. Moreover, a review of monuments known to represent 
the birth of Erichthonios^ has made two points clear — that the 
group of Ge handing over the child to Athena was constant from 
first to last, and that Zeus as interested spectator was gradually 
ousted by Hephaistos. Vases distributed along the fifth century 
showed us in succession a Zeus of normal type, a Zeus-like person- 
age probably to be called Hephaistos, a Zeus-like personage certainly 
called Hephaistos, and a Hephaistos of normal type. 

How are these ritual and mythological data to be interpreted.^ 
I should infer (i) that the rite of the Arrhephoria as performed in 
the precinct (of Ge Ofympta}'^) near the Ilissos found apt expression 
in the Hellenic myth of Ge and Erichthonios, and (2) that in the 
course of the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. the Hellenic myth was 
forced (by popular pressure.''^) to find room for the long-established 
persons of pre-Hellenic cult. Thus Ge the original mother must 
hand over her babe to Athena as foster-mother, while Zeus Olympics 
the natural consort of Ge Olympia is displaced by Hephaistos the 
primitive partner of Athena. 

This reading of the story is of course in part conjectural, but it 
fits well with certain important facts in the history of Attic religion 
and it deserves to be weighed in relation to them. 

^ I have excluded from my survey the parallel, but later, series of vases and reliefs, 
which represent an Eleusinian (not Athenian) myth — the birth of the infant Ploutos, 
handed over by Ge to Demeter. On these see S. Reinach 'La naissance de Ploutos' in 
the Rev. Arch. 1900 i. 87 — 98 (= id. Ctiltes, mythes et religions Paris 1906 ii. 262 — 272), 
Harrison Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ pp. 524 — 526 fig. 151, Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. pp. 487 — 489, 
C. Picard in the Revue historique 1931= pp. i — 76 (especially 33 — 42), id. in the Bull. 
Corr. Hell. 193 1 Iv. 34 — 38 pi. 3. - Supra p. 169 n. o. 

^ The regime of Peisistratos and his successors did much to enhance the prestige of 
Athena (see e.g. C. T. Seltman Athens: its History and Coinage before the Persian In- 
vasion Cambridge 1924 pp. 40 fF., 46 f., 61, 68, 94 and F. E. Adcock in The Cambridge 
Ancient History Cambridge 1926 iv. 63, 66 f.), and pride in the city-goddess would tend 
to make men jealous for the credit of her partner Hephaistos (infra pp. 200, 223, 236). The 
'Theseion,' if that be his temple {infra p. 223 n. 6), was no unworthy sequel to the 
Parthenon. 



> 

X 
X 

0) 
+-» 

a. 




Plate XXVI 




Painted terra-cotta //a^/^^ from Athens : 
the Snake-goddess (Athena?) of late geometric art. 

See pa^e 189 ;^ !• 



Hephaistos and Athena 189 

The Athenian Akropolis had from time immemorial been the 
home of Athena, a goddess comparable with, if not actually 
descended from, the snake-goddess of the early Cretans \ Her 

1 This important fact was first firmly grasped and clearly enunciated by M. P. Nilsson 
Die Anfdnge der Gottin Athene {Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Historisk- 
filologiske Meddelelser iv. 7) Kjiibenhavn 1921 pp. i — 20, id. A History of Greek Religion 
trans. F. J. Fielden Oxford 1925 pp. 26 — 28, id. Min.-Myc. Rel. pp. 417 — 431. I had 
already hinted at it in the Class. Rev. 1903 xvii. 410 n. 2. See also O. Weinreich in the 
Archiv f. Rel. 1925 xxiii. 61 f., C. Clemen Religionsgeschichte Ettropas Heidelberg 
1926 i. 76 n. 2, 103, 231, H. J. Rose A Handbook of Greek Mythology London 1928 
pp. 107, 128. 

Others have stressed the connexion between Athena and the 'Minoan' or Mycenaean 
shield-goddess. So C. Blinkenberg 'Kretisk Seglring fra seldre mykenisk Tid' in the 
Aarbj)ger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 1920 pp. 308 — 322 fig. i f. and U. von 
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 'Athena' in the Sitzungsber. d. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin 1921 
pp. 950 — 965. See too O. Kern Die Religion der Griechen Berlin 1926 i. 24. 

E. Kalinka in \}[\q Archiv f Rel. 1922 xxi. 31 f. regards Athena as 'eine jener vor- 
griechischen Muttergottheiten, die sowohl in Kleinasien wie in vielen Landschaften 
Griechenlands verehrt wurden.' 

In this context we cannot ignore the goddess twice figured on a stdmnos from Knossos 
found by H. G. G. Payne and published by S. Marinatos in th^Jahrb. d. Deutsch. Arch. 
Inst. 1933 xlviii Arch. Anz. p. 310 fig. 19. My pi. xxv is from fresh photographs of the 
jar kindly taken for me by J. D. S. Pendlebury. This personage has spirals like snakes 
starting from her hips, uplifted hands, and a pdlos on her head — ' oftenbar eine Gottin, 
und zwar eine missverstandene Weiterbildung der spat- und submykenischen Schlangen- 
gottinnen von Gurnia und Prinia.' She may be dated c. 700 B.C. 

A kindred, but further developed, figure occurs on the remarkable terra-cotta plaque 
found by the American excavators of the Agora at Athens and published by Dr T. L. Shear 
in The Illustrated London News for Sept. 3, 1932 p. 345 with a col. pi., Y. Bequignon 
in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1933 Ivii. 243 f. fig. 7. My pi. xxvi is from a photograph obtained 
for me from Dr Shear by E. J. P. Raven, who tells me (Jan. 30, 1934) that a full 
publication with a col. pi. is shortly to appear in Hesperia. T\iQ plaque (9^x5 ins., 
with two holes above for suspension) formed part of a dump near the base of the 
N. slope of the Areios Fdgos, and was associated with other objects in terra-cotta — 
primitive figurines, gaily coloured horses with their riders, votive shields, etc. — also with 
*late Geometric' vases and a *Proto-Corinthian' Ukythos. It has therefore been referred 
to the latter part of s. viii B.C. and regarded as a votive offering brought from the adjacent 
shrine of the Eumenides. It shows a goddess facing the spectator, with raised arms and 
spread hands (cp. supra ii. 536 fig. 406, c). Her head and neck are in relief; the rest of 
her is on the flat, painted in dull red and blue. She stands between two snakes, rendered 
in the same colours amid a vertical framework of lotos-flowers and rosettes. Dr Shear 
finds it hard to say whether this unique figure should be interpreted as a snake-goddess 
('possibly a survival of the Minoan tradition into later times in Athens') or more definitely 
as 'one of the Furies.' Perhaps the spotted transverse garment worn across her chest is 
meant for an aigis. If so, she is a primitive pre-warlike Athena. After all, Athena 
ro/37cG7rts (Zwicker in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. 1658) or rop7(6 (K. Zeigler ib. 
1641 f.) is near akin to the original Vopyuj or Vop^ihv. Cp. Palaiph. 31 (32) KaXovai de 
Kepvacoi ttjv 'Adrjudu Topyio, uxrirep ttjv "AprefJiiv Qpg.K€s ixev ^4v8iu, Kprjres 5i AiKTvvav 
(diKTwvav cod. x), AaKedaifxauioi de Odiriv. Athena in due course was Christianised and 

appears on medieval leaden seals as MP 0Y {se. MriT-rip Qeov) H A0HNAIA 
rOPrOETTH KOOC [infra § 9 (h) ii [a) sub fin.). The Panagia Gorgoep^koos of modern 
Athens has a long and interesting pedigree. 



I go 



Hephaistos and Athena 



H. 

PP 



snakes, her owl^ her ohve-tree^, her relations to the priestly king 
Erechtheus^ in whose palace she had from the outset been housed ^ 
are indefeasible proofs of her ancient lineage. Even in the Periclean 
age Pheidias' great statue of the Parthenos, with a snake at her 
side, snakes round her waist, a snaky aigis over her shoulders, and a 
pillar beneath her hand^, still perpetuated the esssential traits of a 
'Minoan' prototyped 

Another pre-Greek deity of the Akropolis was Hephaistos, whose 
name', equally unintelligible with that of Athena^, presumably 

1 Infra §9 (h) ii (X). ^ Supra p, 187 n. 1. ^ Supra ii. 794. 

'* Od. 7. 80 f., cp. //. 2. 546 ff. (of later origin? See now J. M. Paton in L. D. Caskey — 

N. Fowler — J. M. Paton — G. P. Stevens TJie Erechtheum Cambridge, Mass. 1927 

431—433)- 
^ Supra ii pi. xlv (in pocket at end). 

^ On coins of the Oxyrhynchite nome showing Athena with the double axe see supra 

ii. 625 f. figs. 529, 530. In fig. 100 I add another of these 
rare pieces from a specimen, struck by Antoninus Pius, 
now in my collection. 

"^ The various forms of the name "H0ai(rros and the 
various etymologies proposed for it by scholars ancient 
and modern are listed by Gruppe Cult. Myth, orient. 
Rel. i. 105 with n. 9, Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 1304 n. 2, 
1305 n. I and by L. Malten in Pauly — Wissowa Real- 
Enc. viii. 340 — 342. The latter concludes : 'Eine 
Deutung des Namens zu geben, ist zur Zeit noch nicht 
moglich ; in welcher Richtung sie zu suchen ist, lehrt 
die oben dargestellte Entwicklungsgeschichte des 
Gottes. Sie ergab zunachst, dass der Gott vorgriechisch 
ist; fur vorgriechisch wird der Name H. jetzt auch von 
Fick Vorgriech. Ortsn. 66 erklart so wie der lemnische Mosychlos, an dem der Gott in 
frliher Zeit festsitzt. Da H. bei den karisch-lykischen Volkern Kleinasiens seinen Ursprung 
hat, muss die Deutung im Kreise dieser Sprachidiome gesucht werden. ...Darf man von 
der Art des Kults aus einen vorlaufigen Rlickschluss wagen, so liegt es am nachsten, eine 
Hindeutung auf das Erdfeuer, die ursprilngliche Erscheinungsform des Gottes, auch in 
dem Namen zu suchen.' See further L. Malten 'Hephaistos' in the Jahrb. d. kais. 
deutsch. arch. Inst. 1912 xxvii. 232 — 264 with 12 figs. 

R. Pettazzoni 'Philoktetes — Hephaistos' in the Rivista di Jilologia e d' istruzione 
classica 1909 xxxvii. 170 — 189 (criticised by R. Wiinsch in the Archiv f. Rel. 191 1 xiv. 
576 f.) holds that Philoktetes and Hephaistos were originally different forms of the same 
«i7?«-Hellenic deity (their identity had been already asserted by F. Marx 'Philoktet — 
Hephaistos' in the Neue Jahrb. f. klass. Altertum 1904 xiii. 673 — 685) and that the name 
of the former throws some light on the nature of the latter. Philoktetes was healed by 
Pylios son of Hephaistos (Ptol. Hephaist. ap. Phot. bibl. p. 152 b 13 f. Bekker), and the 
priests of Hephaistos in Lemnos had curative powers (Eustath. in II. p. 330, 12). 
Philoktetes, like Hephaistos, went limping. Philoktetes, like Hephaistos [supra i. 328 
fig. 259), wore \hQ.ptlos. The pre-Hellenic god, who lies behind Philoktetes and Hephaistos, 
was equated by the Phoenicians with their Esmun-Kadmilos. The name Kadm(il)os covers 
a Semitic word for 'gold' — Kadmos discovered the gold-mines of Mt Pangaion (Plin. nat. 
hist. 7. 197, Clem. Al. strom. i. 16 p. 49, 6ff. Stahlin, cp. Aristot./ro^. 459 Rose; Strab. 
680, Steph. Byz. s.v. 'IWvpia) — and the names ^iXoKTriTrjs and Xpijcrr) both point in the 
same direction. Thus Philoktetes = Hephaistos = Kadm(il)os, and we can understand the 
equivalence of Hephaistos and Chrysor (supra ii. 715, 1037). In fact, Kadmilos : Kabeiro 




Hephaistos and Athena 191 

{supra ii. 314 n. o) == Philoktetes : Chryse= Hephaistos (Chrysor) : Aphrodite (xpi^o"^ 
Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1367 n. 2). 

A. Fick as a great philologist merits a more patient hearing. In his Vorgriechische 
Ortsnamen Gottingen 1905 p. 66 he quotes with approval Steph. Byz. s.v. K.y\fx.vo'i..A-Ko 
TTJs fieydXrjs Xeyo/iievrjs deov, rjv Atj/ulvou <paai' ravTrj de koX irapdevovs dveadai and continues: 
'Ganz fremdartig klingt audi M6(7i'xXos...ob der Name des Gottes "A0ato-Tos griechisch 
ist, kann man stark bezweifeln, jedenfalls waren die grosse Gottin, der Feuergott und der 
Phallos (Hermes) die Hauptgottheiten der Tyrrhener. ' In Hattiden und Danubier in 
Griecheftland Goiiingen 1909 p. 46 he returns to the charge : ' Hephaistos gehort durchweg 
den vorgriechischen Pelagonen — Pelasgern — Tyrsenern an. Mittelpunkte seines Dienstes 
sind Lemnos und Attika. Andere Namen des Gottes sind Palamaon und Palamedes, in 
Attika und Phokis heisst er Prometheus, in Boeotien als Wildfeuer Typhaon, dessen 
Kampf mit Zeus um die Weltherrschaft [supra ii. 448 n. 2, 731, 826] religionsgeschichtlich 
als Versuch der Verehrer des Feuergottes, diesen zum Allgoit zu erheben, zu denken ist. 
Auch der Name Hephaistos ist wohl pelasgisch; gleichgeformt ist Geraistos, vielleicht 
der pelasgische Name des Wassergottes, der als Buhle der Demeter d. i. der Allmutter 
entschieden den Pelasgern Arkadiens angehort. Die Gottheiten der Pelasger waren also: 
Allmutter und Phallos, und die zwei elementaren Feuer- und Wassergotter, denen sich 
vielleicht Hermes als Luftgottheit zugesellt.' 

^ Attempts to explain the name, which appears in Ionic as ' Kd-qv-q 'Ad-quair], in Aeolic 
and Doric as 'Addva 'Adavaia, in Attic as 'Adrjuaia 'Adrjvda ' Adrjvd, are collected by Preller — 
Robert Gr. Alyth. i. 185 f., F. Dummler in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 2007 f., Gruppe 
Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1194 nn. i — 5. 

The most interesting hypothesis so far advanced is that of another famous philologist 
P. Kretschmer. In Gloita 1921 xi. 282 — 284 he treats the name as Pelasgian or Tyrsenian 
and relates it on the one hand to the place-name ' ABav^x^aao^ 'Adavaaos 'Aravaaos 
'ArTauaaaSs {Aidan) in Phrygia with the characteristic sufhx -acro-os (Sir W. M. Ramsay 
The Historical Geography of Asia Minor (Royal Geographical Society : Supplementary 
Papers iv) London 1890 p. 136 no. 26, id. The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia Oxford 
1895 i. 241 ff., 249 ('Bishops of... Attanassos...Philadelphius iroXeoo^' Adavacov (Athanassi) 
Cone. Chalced. \^i. Christophorus ' A^ai^ao-coO Cone. Nicaen. II 787. Philotheos'A^avacra-oO 
Cone. 869 (?)'), ii. 355 ff., 395 (' Philadelphius 'Araj'acr(7o0...45i '), W. Ruge in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 2180), on the other hand to a group of Etruscan (?) words denoting 
a ritual vessel of terra cotta (Paul, ex Fest. p. 18, 11 yi\x\\ex Athanuvitt??i est poculi 
rictilis genus, quo in sacrificiis utebantur sacerdotes Romani (W. M. Lindsay p. 17, 
9 prints Atanuvium with cod. L. Th. Mommsen in the Ephem. epigr. 1899 ^^^^- "^54 n- 2 
givQS athanulum),G .GoQiz Corptis glossarioru7n Latinorujn Lipsiae 1888 ii. 22, 25 ff. = 1899 
vi. 108 f. Atena eldos iroTrfpiov oarpaKov [darpaKiifov?) (^ oi TrpvrdveLS ev rah dvcrlacs x/JWJ'Tat, 
ii. 47 f. = vi. 108 Atanulus [atnanulus cod. A. Swoboda in his ed. of P. Nigidius Figulus 
(Vindobonae 1889) p. 16 n. o cj. athanulus, which is accepted by P. Kretschmer) aytov 
{dyyeiov cod. d, Vulcanius cj. <T<pdyLou) iepews (XKevos, KeiixriKiov, 1889 iv. 406, 33 = vi. ro8 
atanulu genus vasis, 1894 v. 591, i8 = vi. 108 atanuliim genus vasis, v. 591, 46 = vi. 108 
attanabo genus vasis, Nigid. /ra^. 9 Swoboda ap. Non. Marc. p. 58, 15 f. Lindsay itaque 
ex re (aere Scaligeri marg. J. H. Onions cj. aereum) in Saharibus adtanus (A. Swoboda 
cj. atianus) tintinat, id est sonat, Dessau Inscr. Lat. sel. no. 5050 (the acta of Augustus' 
ludi saeculares, 17 B.C.), 107 and 132 ad atallam fuerunt (followed by a list of the 
quindecimviri present. F. Biicheler and K. Zangemeister in the Epheni. epigr. 1899 v"^- 
254 took alalia to be the diminutive of atana, attana, attanus)) and perhaps to drravov 
an Asia Minor (?) word for 'pan' or 'pot' (Hesych. s.vv. drrava, drTavides, aTTaviras from 
Hipponax/ra^. 36. 3 Bergk ^,/ra^. 39. 9 Diehl). Kretschmer suggests that the pre-Greek 
*&davov = drravov gave rise to 'A(9aj'a 'A^ai/ata as 'eine Topfergottin,' the later Athena 
i^pyavr} (Paus. i. 24. 3 irpCoroL ixh yap 'Adt)vdv iiroiv 6 p.a<xav ''Epydv-qv sc. oi 'AdrjvoLOi). 
Further, he hints that the clay vessel from which the goddess got her name may well have 
been regarded 'als Fetischund Symbol... Die Glosse athanulus ciytov tep^ws cr/ceuos, KeipL-rfKiov 
lasst doch fast an ein gralartiges heiliges Gefass denken.' 



194 Hephaistos and Athena 





Fig. 1 06. 




Fig. 107. 



Fig. 108. 



Hephaistos and Athena 



195 



object, found in the Amenophis iii level (141 1 — 1375 B.C.), seems to have been connected 
with the cult of the serpent-goddess Astoreth or Anaitis, who at Beth-Shan bore the 
Egyptianised name Antit: the head presumably represents the goddess herself (L. B. 
Holland in the Am. Joiirn. Arch. 1929 xxxiii. 198 f. fig. 10 = my fig. 109). Somewhat 
later are the bottomless tubular stands from the same site published by A. Rowe in the 
Museum Journal. University of Pennsylvania 1926 pp. 296, 297, 299. I figure one which 
has two handles surmounted by birds in the round and windows in its sides penetrated by 
snakes in relief (G. Contenau Manuel d'archdologie orientale Paris 1931 ii. 1049 f. fig. 729 
after S. A. Cook in the Palestine Exploration Fund. Quarterly Statement for ig26 p. 30, 





Fig. 109. Fig. no. 

A. Rowe ib. \<^i'l p. 74, A. T. Olmstead History of Palestine and Syria New York — London 
1931 p. 154 fig. 74). Professor S. A. Cook The Religion of ancient Palestine in the light of 
Archaeolo gy \.oxAow 1930 p. 98 comments : ' The name^^aw {^oxShe''dn) maybe directly con- 
nected with Shahan or Sakhan, the Semitic name of an old Sumerian serpent deity. Upon a 
bowl is depicted an undulating serpent ; and a pottery model of a serpent has female breasts, 
and a cup below for collecting the milk.' Etc. The burial pithoi from Beth-Shan 
{c. 1200 B.C.), which have their upper part adorned with the mask of the dead man or 
woman and a pair of rudimentary arms (C. L. Fisher in the Revue biblique internationale 
1923 xxxii. 435 ff. fig. 9, P. Thomsen in Ebert Reallex. ii. 5 pi. i, a, b), are hardly ad rem. 
A shrine of 'Middle Minoan' date {c. 2100 — 1580 B.C.) on one summit of Mt Korakies, 
a two-peaked hill at Koumasa in southern Crete, yielded four cylindrical clay vessels open 
at the bottom. Two of these have snaky handles formed of four loops vertically arranged 
on either side (S. Xanthoudides The Vaulted Tombs of Mesard trans. J. P. Droop Liverpool 

13—2 



196 



Hephaistos and Athena 



1924 p. 50 pi. 33, of which nos. 5002 and 5005 = my figs. 11 1 and 112, G. Karo in 
D. H. Haas Bilderatlas ztir Religionsgeschichte Leipzig— Erlangen 1925 vii p. viii fig. 52, 
Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. pp. 90 f. fig. 6, 271 f.). At Prinia in central Crete F. Halbherr 
in 1900 found two very similar vessels, one of which has an additional snake coiling 
upwards and encircling its mouth, together with a terra-cotta goddess emergent from a 





Fig. III. 



Fig. 112. 





Fig. 114. 

cvlindrical base and the fragmentary arms of another entwined with snakes-clearly the 
contents of a small 'Minoan' shrine (S. Wide in the Ath. Mitth. 1901 xxvi. H7-^57 
figs. 1-5 (of which 4 and 5 = my figs. 113 and 114) and pi. 12, Nilsson Mtn.-Myc Rel 
pp 269 f 271 275, 385). Renewed excavations of the site by the Italians m 1906 led 



Hephaistos and Athena 



197 



to further finds — the head of a terra-cotta figure and another tube-shaped vessel with 
vertical loops or handles, a ridge resembling a snake, and oval holes or apertures in the 
sides. But the objects associated with the new finds belong to the archaic Greek period 
and point to a local survival of the ' Minoan ' cult (L. Pernier in the Bollettino dearie 1908 
ii. 455 ff. fig. II cited by R. Zahn in K. F. Kinch Fouilles de Vroulia {Rhodes) Berlin 
1914 p. 28 and by Nilsson Min.-Myc. Kel. p. 386). The shrine of the snake-goddess at 
Gournia in eastern Crete {supra ii. 538), believed to be of the 'Late Minoan i' period, 
c. 1580 — 1475 B.C., had five tubular vessels still in situ. One, of which the base only 
remained, stood on the low plastered tripod. Round it were ranged four others. Three 
of these, practically complete, supplement the snaky loops by an extra handle surmounted 
by ritual horns ; one adds a disk above the horns, another a pair of snakes crossing under 
the handle, the third a symbol now missing — possibly a bird (Mrs B. E. Williams in 
H. Boyd Hawes, B. E. Williams, R. B. Seager, and E. H. Hall Gournia, Vasiliki and 
other prehistoric sites on the Isthmus of Hierapetra, Crete Philadelphia 1908 p. 47 f. pi. 11, 




II — i3 = myfigs. 115 — 117, L. Pernier in G. Maraghiannis Antiquitis Cretoises Vitnne 
(1907) i p. vii pi. 36, I, 2, and 4, R. Dussaud Les civilisations prihelUniques dans le 
bassin de la Mer J&g^e Paris 1910 p. 200 with fig. 142, G. Karo in D. H. Haas Bilderatlas 
zur Religionsgeschichte Leipzig — Erlangen 1925 vii p. viii fig. 51, Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. 
pp. 74 ff. fig. 3 B, 267, 271). Lastly, a tubular vessel, found in Rhodes, probably at 
Kameiros, and now in the Antiquarium at Berlin (inv. no. 4563), is of roughly similar 
shape. It is 0.285"" high, and again has no bottom. A ribbed handle on either side is 
flanked by four bosses and two snakes in relief. Three of these snakes have tongues 
serrated like an oak-leaf; the fourth has a tongue small and pointed. The neck of the 
vessel is decorated with a number of birds, separately modelled and attached, several of 
which are missing. The light brown clay is painted rather carelessly with maeanders, 
zig-zags, etc. of dark brown glaze in the geometric style — an indication that here too we 
have a 'Minoan' usage surviving into /^j/- ' Minoan ' times (R. Zahn ' Kultgerat aus 
Rhodes' in K. F. Kinch Fouilles de Vroulia {Rhodes) Berlin 19 14 pp. 26 — 34 fig. 13 
a, b, and c ( = my fig. 118 a, b^ and <:), E. Klister Die Schlange in der griechischen Kunst und 



198 



Hephaistos and Athena 









Hephaistos and Athena 



199 




M 

£ 










200 Hephaistos and Athena 

belongs to the same language as the place-name Phaistos'^. Now 
if — as we have argued^ — the 'Minoan' earth-goddess (Rhea) had for 
consort a 'Minoan' sky-god (Kronos) armed with a double axe, it 
is tempting to guess that Hephaistos, whose double axe of bronze 
is mentioned by Pindar as a 'holy axe^' and is often figured on sixth- 
century vases*, was in the remote prehistoric past the veritable 
husband of Athena. On which showing Hephaistos and Athena 

Religion Giessen 1913 p. 41 f. fig. 31 (inexact), Nilsson yJ/m.-J/j/r. Rel. pp. 273, 386 f.). 
Bottomless vases are in the nature of funnels, and sometimes certainly, as in the Dipylon 
cemetery at Athens, conveyed liquid offerings through the earth to the dead below {supra 
ii. 1056). It is therefore reasonable to think that the tubular vessels used in the cult of 
the ' Minoan ' snake-goddess served a similar purpose and prove her to have been ab 
origine an earth-mother (R. Zahn loc. cit. p. 34, Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. pp. 271 ff., 
386 f.). However, Sir A.J. Evans The Palace of Minos London 1935 iv. i pp. xii, 138 ff., 
having found in a ' Minoan' house at Knossos three clay tubes with cups attached to their 
sides, thinks that these were receptacles for domestic snakes, derived from common 
drain-pipes. He offers the same explanation of all the 'snake tubes' mentioned above, 
comparing their loops with the looped variety of water-pipe. Ingenious, but far from 
convincing. 

{d) Hellenistic relief-ware of Graeco-Egyptian style has sometimes by way of prophy- 
lactic (?) decoration an emblem or emblems of Athena. I figure three small vases in my 
collection, which are made of salmon-coloured unglazed (?) clay and were found at Ephesos. 
They exhibit the following designs: (i) on the one side a helmeted head of Athena, on 
the other a GorgSneion of beautiful type (fig. 119. Height 3^ inches); (2) a Gorgoneion 
with dishevelled hair and a large six-rayed star beneath an inverted lotos-pattern round 
the rim (fig. 120. Height i|- inch) ; (3) two snakes with crossed tails above a single larger 
snake encircling the lower part of the vase (fig. 121. Height 4I inches). 

It is perhaps not too hazardous to conjecture that Trojan Gesichtsurnen and the like 
point backwards to a primitive belief that earthen vessels should take the form of the 
earth-mother of whose very substance they were made. Be that as it may, in view of the 
varied types of these sacred or semi-sacred vases it is quite conceivable that — as Kretschmer 
supposed — Athena drew her name from a clay vessel used in her service, though I should 
prefer to conclude that the vessel drew its name from the goddess. 

^ I do not propose to treat "H^aco-ros and ^aicrros as etymologically connected, though 
many years ago I toyed with the notion {Class. Rev. 1904 xviii. 85 n. i). I now agree 
with Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. 390 n.^: 'There is no vraisemblance va the supposi- 
tion.' Platon, who might be cited in its support, though a giant in philosophy, was but 
a dwarf in philology (Plat. Crat. 407 C EPM. ri de di] rbv "Yi.(paLCTOv; irrj \4yeis; 
S12. 77 t6v yevvaiov rbv (paeos 'iaropa 4pu}Tq.s; EPM. ^oiKa. SO. ovkovv ovtos fiev wavrl drjkos 
^oiffTOS (j}v, TO rjTa TrpoaeKKV(xd[xevos;). Nevertheless it remains probable that the language 
which produced the word ^atarbs produced also the word "H^ato-ros. 

2 Supra ii. 548 ff. 

^ Pind. 01. 7. 35 ff. avlx 'A^atorou r^xvattriJ' | xct^f^^art^ 7reX^/cei ira\Tipoi ^AOavaia 
Kopv^av Kar &Kpav \ dvopo6(Tai(T^ d\a\a\^ev {jTrepfxaKei ^oq. and frag. 34 Bergk**, 34 Schroeder 
ap. Hephaist. 15. 13 p. 51, 16 Consbruch 6s /cat rvireis dyvtp TreX^/cei t€K€to ^auddu 
' Addvav (quoted also, less exactly, by Marius Plotius Sacerdos de ?/ietris in H. Keil 
Grammatici Latim vi. 545, 5). Later writers commonly use the term iriXeKvs (Apollod. 
1.3. 6, Loukian. dial. deor. 8, Philostr. mai. imagg. 2. 27. i, Nonn. Dion. 27. 324, 42. 
250, schol. Plat. Tim. 23 d — e p. 948 a 12), sometimes ^ovirX-q^ in the sense of 'an axe 
for felling an ox' (Nonn. Dio7i. 8. 83, 27. 325, et. mag. p. 371, 41). Cp. the Tr^Xe/cus 
presented by Hephaistos to Polytechnos of Kolophon {supra ii. 693). 

4 Infra § 9 (h) ii {B). 



> 

X 
X 

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O 




t>. 






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C/2 




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o 








c3 




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ffi 


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C 






4-> 


•«>s 


^ 


s 

3 








o 


x: 


X) 






a; 
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'o 




IS 






:z; 


C/2 


o 




a 

o 






c3 

7d 




^ 




O 

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"in 






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< 







Hephaistos and Athena 201 

would be but local equivalents of Kronos and Rhea^. Some such 
assumption at least accounts for their persistent juxtaposition in 
classical times. Homer's cunning craftsman, who overlays gold on 
silver, is 'the man that Hephaistos and Pallas Athene have taught 
all manner of art, and full of grace are the works of his hand^.' The 
Homeric Hymn to Hephaistos^ opens on the same note: 

Sing, tuneful Muse, Hephaistos and his craft, 
Who with bright-eyed Athena taught mankind 
All splendid work on earth, whereas of yore 
Men dwelt like brute beasts in their mountain-dens. 

Solon's* description of the artificer owes something to these epic 

writers : 

Taught by Athena and Hephaistos' skill 
Another learns his trade and earns his meal. 

Platon^ too with curious frequency insists on the partnership of 
Hephaistos and Athena. 

Their association is further attested by mythology, art, and actual 
cult. If Hephaistos fashioned woman, Athena adorned her — a story 
as old as Hesiod^ and brilliantly illustrated by the Anesidora-cup 
(pi. xxvii)^. 



1 This squares with the fact that in Crete, where Kronos and Rhea bulked big, 
Hephaistos (Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. 389 and L. Malten in Pauly — Wissowa Real- 
Enc. viii. 314 f., 341 : both rightly attach little weight to Diod. 5. 74 and Paus. 8. 53. 5) 
and Athena (U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in the Sitzungsb. d. Akad. d. Wiss. 
Berlin 192 1 p. 95-2. On Athena KuSwi'ta see Prehn in Pauly — Y^issowsi Real- Enc. xi. 
2308) were nobodies. 

^ Od. 6. 233 f. 6v "H^atffTos bedaev kol IlaXXas ' A.di]vr} \ rix^l^ iravToirfv, ;;^a/oiej'ra 5e 

^ H. Heph. I ff. "H0ai<rTo»' KkorbixtyTiv deideo, MoCaa \17eta, | 8s jul€t 'Adrjuairfs 
yXav KWTTLdo^ dyXaa ^pya | dvdpooirovs edida^ev iiri x^o^os, ot t6 irdpos irep | avrpoLS vaieroL- 
acTKOv ev oiipeaiu, ijijTe dyjpc^. ' 

"* Sol. frag. 13. 49 f. Bergk**, i. 49 f. Diehl aXXos 'Adrjvalrjs re Kai 'H^aiaTov ttoXv- 
T€xv^(*} I ^pya 5aets xei/jotj' ^uXXeyerat ^lotov. 

^ Plat. Prot. 321 D (Prometheus) K\4irT€i 'Il<pai(rTov Kai 'Adrjvds rifv ^vrexvov (ro^iav 
avv irvpL {supra i. 01,2^), polit. 274 C irvp fi^v irapd II po fir] 6 4 ci}<s, t€Xvo.l 8k irap 'HcpaiffTov Kai 
T7]s (7VVT€Xfov, Kritias 109 C — D "H^atoTos 5e koivt]v koI 'Adrjvd (pu(nv 'ixovre^, dfxa [xkv 
dd€\<p-r)v eK ravrov irarpb'S, dfxa 8k (f)LKo(XO(f)iq, (()iKoT€Xvi(f. re eirl rd avrd iXBovres, oHitw fxlav 
dfKpu) Xij^iv Tr]v8e ttju x^P'^^ eiXr]xo.Tov tos oUeiau Kai Trp6(X(popov dperrj Kai (ppovrjcrei 
TrecpvKviav, dv8pa^ 8e dyadovs e/nTroLrjaavTes avrdx^ovas eiri vovv 'idecrav ttjv ttjs TroXtre^as 
rd^Lu, legg. 920 D 'H^atCToi; Kai ' Adyjvds iepov to tCov 8rjfXL0vpyQy ykvos, ot tov ^Lov rjfMiv 
^vyKarecr KevaKacri rexvai^. 

^ Hes. theog. 571 ff., o.d. 60 ff., 70 ff. 

7 Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iii. 389 ff. no. D 4, A. S. Murray— A. H. Smith White 
Athenian Vases in the British Museum London 1896 p. 29 pi. 19, E. Gerhard in the 
Winckelmannsfest'Progr. Berlin i. 5 — 7 pi. i (in gold and colours), Lenormant — 
de Witte El. mon. dr. iii. 149 ff., I59f. pi. 44, A. Rapp in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 2057 f. 



202 Hephaistos and Athena 

fig., Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. pp. 450 — 452 fig. 50. PI. xxvii is firom a fresh 
photograph. 

Furtwangler — Reichhold Gr. Vasenmalerei i. 283, followed by Hoppin Red-fig. Vases 
ii. 342 no. 22, attributes this kylix to the '■Meister der Penthesileia-Schale'' ; Pfuhl 
Malerei u. Zeichnung d. Gr. ii. 530 f., to E. Buschor's ' Pferdemeister.' But J. D. Beazley 
Attic red-figured Vases in Atnerican Museums Cambridge Mass. 19 18 p. 129 denies the 
attribution, and in his Attische^Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen 6'/?7j- Tubingen 1925 p. 261 
no. 6 describes the vase as in the *Art des Pistoxenosmalers.' 

Found at Nola in 1828 or 1829, this great kylix (height 5 inches : diameter i2| inches) 
passed through the Hope and the Bale collections before being purchased in 188 1 for the 
British Museum. The exterior is red-figured and shows scenes in the palaistra (?). The 
interior has black outlines on a white ground, with inner markings in brown. Anesidora's 
chiton and Hephaistos' himdtion are brown with details in purple and white. Athena has 
a chiton with a purple girdle, and a dark brown aigis with purple border and Gorgoneion 
in white. The head-dresses and the top of the hammer are moulded and gilt on a raised 
ground. Substantial parts of the design are missing. The heads of Anesidora and Athena 
together with the right arm of the latter have been added in pencil, while part of the 

former's chiton has been restored in water-colour. The names are A©ENAA, 
[A]N^5IAOPA, HE(DA[r]^T05 (P. Kretschmer Die Griechischen Vasenin- 
schriften Gutersloh 1894 p. 203 f. no. 187, correcting the Corp. inscr. Gr. iv no. 7416). 

The moment represented is that described by Hes. theog. 573 ff. ^(Joae 8k koI /c6<r^r;cre 
^ed 7Xai'Ka;7rts ^Adrjvr) \ apyv(piy) iadijTL-... \ dfX(pi de oi (rre^xivrjv XP^^^W Ke<pa\ri<pLV 
€07] Ke, I T7]v avTo^ Troi7}(T€ TrepiKXvTOs ' Afji.<f)Lyvrj€LS \ daKyjaas ira\dixri<Ti, xapt^o/^ei'os Ad iraTpi. 
And the composition as a whole is comparable with that of the Triptolemos-relief from 
Eleusis (Svoronos ^M. Nationalmus. p. 106 ff. pis. 24 and 25 with bibliography, Brunn — 
Bruckmann Denkm. der gr. und rom. Sculpt, pi. 7, Collignon Hist, de la Sculpt, gr. ii. 
140 ff. fig. 68, Reinach Rep. Reliefs ii. 339 no. 3). 

' Avrjcjibibpa, like Jlavhthpa, was an epithet of the earth-mother (Hesych. ' Avrjffiduipa- 
ij yij, 5ta to toi)s Kapiroijs dvUvai, id. Havbdopa' i) yrj, 6tl rd irpos rb ^rjv iravra dcapeirai. 
d(p' od Kai ^eidiopos kol dvr]<XLdd)pa = scho\. Aristoph. av. 971 Ilavddbpa- rrj 777, iireidr] iravra 
rd Trpbs rb ^rjv bdopelrai. d(f> od Kai ^eidiopos /cat dvrjaidcopa, et. mag. p. 108, 31 ' Avrjffidibpa' 
7) yi], Eustath. in J I. p. 1057, 47 f. erepoi Se AojSdovrjv dWyjyopovures evravda tt]v yriv (pafft, 
<Tifjt.d(x6a(. [ins. A.B.C.)> irapd r(^ dQ Swcrw, ws bbreipav Kai dvrjcnbdopav Kai ^eidcopop (cp. 
the Dodonaean chant Pa Kapirovs dviet K.r.\. cited supra \. 524 n. 8, ii. 350 n. i). In 
Alkiphr. epist. i . 3 xpV<^'^ov ij yrj Kai t) ^QXos dKivdvvou. ov fidr-qv yovv dveicribdopav raijrriv 
6vofji.d^ov<riv 'A6r)vaioi dvieiaav dQpa, di wu ean ^tjv Kai (rdo^eadai R. Hercher omits the 
second sentence (as a gloss?)). From Ge it passed to her 'offshoot' (supra i. 396 f.) 
Demeter, who was likewise empowered yrjs Kapirbv dv-fjaeiv {h. Dem. 332). Thus in the 
Attic deme Phlya the cult of Ge called '^eydXt] 9e6s was supplemented by that of 
Demeter 'Aj/r^o-iSw/aa and by that of Kore Upwroyovrj (Paus. i. 31. 4 cited supra ii. 251 
n. 2 plus ii. 1066). Demeter ^ Avr\aib(hpa was perhaps worshipped in Melite, another deme 
of the tribe Kekropis (Plout. symp. 9. 14. 4 koX yap vplv [sc. roTs MeXirevaiv) iffri 
Ar)fx7)r7}p ' Avrjcibdopa), and her appellative figures in the lists drawn up by the grammarians 
(Scholl — Studemund anecd. i. 2']o"ETrid€ra Arjp.'rirpas...^ dvricriddbpas, 277 Ai rrjs AifjiuLTjrpos 
KXrjoeLS' ...dv7]<Tt,5u}pa, cp. 282 KXrjaeis A7)firirpos...6v7}(TLdii}pa [sic)). 

Starting from this fact archaeologists, in primis C. Robert {Archaeologische Maerchen 
aus alter und neuer Zeit Berlin 1886 p. 194 ff. pis. 4 and 5, 'Pandora' in Hermes 1914 
xlix. 17 — 38 with 2 figs.), J. E. Harrison (Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. 451 f., 'Delphika' 
in the Journ. Hell. Stud. 1899 xix. 232 ff. figs. 11, 12, Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ p. 276 ff. figs. 
67 — 71), and P. Gardner ('A New Pandora Vase' in i\it Joiirn. Hell. Stud. 1901 xxi. 
I ff. pi. i), have gone far towards explaining the origin of the Anesidora-type. The story 
shapes itself as follows. The ancients seem to have regarded the earliest agricultural 
operations of the year as a kind of evocatio, by means of which the earth-powers were 
wakened from their winter's sleep and summoned to help the farmer in his work. When 



Hephaistos and Athena 



203 



the ager Tarquiniensis was being ploughed and the furrow was driven deep, up came on 
a sudden Tages, a boy in appearance but an old man in wisdom, scared the ploughman 
and delivered his auguries to the Etruscans (Cic. de div. 2. 50, Ov. met. 15. 553 fif. : see 




Fig. 122. 




Fig. 123. 



further C. Pauli and W. Schultz in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 3 ff.). Similarly in Greek 
belief, when the hard earth is broken up by men with mallets or mattocks, — and it must 
be remembered that the most primitive form of agriculture was Hackbau (E. Hahn in 
M. Ebert Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte Berlin 1926 v. 12 f. pi. 11) — up comes Mother 
Earth herself in answer to their summons. Her epiphany, though nowhere noted in 
literature, is given on a series of vases (C. Robert Archaeologische Maerchen pi. 5, 



204 



Hephaistos and Athena 




Hephaistos and Athena 205 

But the Anesidora-cup is not the only witness. The fact is that 
from the beginning of the fifth century^ onwards classical art shows 
a well-marked tendency to bring together the craftsmen's god and 
the craftsmen's goddess. A fragmentary design from the outside of 
a red-figured kylix painted in the style of Euphronios (fig. 125)^ has 
Hephaistos seated with a phidle in his right hand and a double axe 
or hammer in his left. By his side stands Athena with helmet, aigis, 
and spear. Her hair and bracelet, like his phidle, are in gilded relief, 
and suggest that this is no trivial occasion. Equally impressive is the 
eastern frieze of the Parthenon {supra ii pi. xliv), which again shows 
Hephaistos seated, but this time with Athena seated too. He turns 
towards her, as Hera towards Zeus, the pre- Hellenic exactly 
balancing the Hellenic pair. A broken relief from Epidauros, carved 
in Pentelic marble c. 400 B.C. and now preserved in the National 
Museum at Athens (fig. 126)^ has another masterly composition. 

A^ B, C). Of these I reproduce the earliest, a black-figured Wzythos at Paris (De Ridder 
Cat. Vases de la Bibl. Nat. \. 197 f. no. 298, Lenormant — de Witte ^l. mon. cer. i. 162 ff. 
pi. 52, Welcker Alt. Denkm. iii. 201 ff. pi. 15, i, W. Frohner Les Masees de France Paris 
^873 P- T^ (^) col. pi. 22 (= my fig. 122)), which shows the head and lifted hands of Ge 
rising from the ground in response to the hammerers, and the most elaborate, a red- 
figured hydria in the Louvre (W. Frohner Choix de vases grecs in^dits de la collection du 
Prince Napolion Paris 1867 p. 24 ff. pi. 6, id. Les Musies de France Paris 1873 p, 68 ff. col. 
pi. 21 = my fig. 123), which transforms the men with mallets into Silenoi with mattocks 
and makes Ge emerge from the broken soil as a great white head in three-quarter 
position, welcomed by a pair of hovering Erotes and a sudden growth of leaf and 
tendril. Such a scene could be easily re-interpreted as the making of a large female 
figure, cp. the title of Sophokles' Satyr-play naj'5c6pa ^ a-cpvpoKoiroL (Soph. /?'ag: 
441 — 445 Nauck^, 482 — 486 Jebb). It was in fact modified to express the making of 
Pandora out of earth (Hes. theog. 571 yalrjs, o.d. 61 yaiav vdei <f>vpeiv, 70 iK yairjt) 
or clay (Soph. frag. 441 Nauck^, 482 Jebb koX irpCjTov dpxov irrfKhv opyd^eiv xepoZi', 
cp. Apollod. I. 7. 2 ^irXacrau, Hyg. /ad. 142 ex luto), as may be seen from a red- 
figured volute--^ra//r at Oxford (P. Gardner in the Journ. Hell. Stud. 1901 xxi. i ff. 
pi. I (= my fig. 124), J. E. Harrison Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ p. 280 f. fig. 71, C. Robert 
in Hermes 1914 xlix. 17 ff. fig.), on which Pandora emerges from the ground quite 
in the manner of Ge, and her maker Epimetheus — a somewhat cynical doublet of 
Prometheus [supra i. 329 n. 4) — still holds a large-sized mallet; the hovering Eros marks 
Pandora as Epimetheus' bride. All the figures named on this vase, Zeus, Hermes, 
Epimetheus, Pandora are Hellenic. The British Museum kylix (pi. xxvii) is of interest 
because it transfers the Hellenic myth to the pre-Hellenic deities Athena and Hephaistos. 
In the process Pandora, re-named Anesidora, becomes less like the emergent Ge, while 
the gilded hammer of Hephaistos is less reminiscent of the countryman's rude tool. 

^ L. Malten in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 348 cites in this connexion a black- 
figured sherd from the Akropolis at Athens noted by W. Dorpfeld in the Ath. Mitth. 
1888 xiii. 109 f. But this is not ad rem: see Graef Ant. Vasen Athen p. 67 no. 601 b 
pi. 28 ('wahrscheinlich von einer Athenageburt'). 

2 P. Wolters in the Ath. Mitth. 1888 xiii. 104 f. fig. (= my fig. 125. Scale ^), Hoppin 
Red-fig. Vases i. 407 no. 18 bis^ J. D. Beazley Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen Siils 
Tubingen 1925 p. 61 no. 13. 

^ A. Furtwangler in the Sitzungsber. d. kais, bayr. Akad. d, Wiss. Phil. -hist. Classe 



2o6 



Hephaistos and Athena 




Fig. 126. 



Hephaistos and Athena 207 

Hephaistos leaning on his staff presents a helmet to Athena, who 
stands before him in the pose of the Dresden ' Lemnia.' An archaistic 
relief from Greece now in the Jacobsen collection (fig. 127)^ repeats 
the motif of Hephaistos presenting the helmet, but combines him 
awkwardly enough with an Athena in the 'Pr^;;^*^:^^^^ '-attitude. A 
fresh turn is given to the kaleidoscope by the artist who designed 
a well-known sarcophagus in the Villa Albani^. A procession of 
deities bringing gifts for the marriage of Peleus and Thetis is 

1897 p. 289 fif. with fig., E. Reisch in the /ahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1898 i. 79 ff. fig. 37 
(= my fig. 126), B. Sauer Das sogenannte Theseion Leipzig 1899 p. 248 ff., E. Lowy in the 
text to Einzelajifjiah7nen v. 27 ff. no. 1256, Svoronos Ath. Nationalmus. p. 369 ff. no. 1423 
pi. 68 with bibliography. 

Furtwangler took this relief to represent the Athena Lemnia of Pheidias receiving a 
helmet from Hephaistos the natural protector of Athenian kleroHchoi in Lemnos. To 
account for the relief having been found at Epidauros, he suggested that it may have 
decorated the base of a stele bearing some decree of the said kleroHchoi. 

Reisch and Sauer regard the subject as reflecting the Hephaistos and Athena Hephaistia 
made by Alkamenes for the Hephaisteion (the so-called 'Theseion') at Athens. See 
further E. A. Gardner in the/ourn. Hell. Stud. 1899 ^^^' ^ ^* 

Lowy holds that the god is not Hephaistos at all, but a common type of Asklepios. 
He thinks that Athena, paying a friendly visit to Asklepios, here doffs her armour in 
token of the guest-friendship enjoyed by Athenians at Epidauros, while Asklepios extends 
his right hand towards her with a gesture of greeting (cp. an Attic relief of 398/7 B.C. 
published by P. Foucart in the Btdl. Corr. Hell. 1878 ii. 37 ff. pi. 10, Collignon Hist, de 
la Sculpt, gr. ii. 145 fig. 71, E. Lowy in the text to Einzelaufnah?nen v. 2 f. no. 12 12). 
But the absence of a snake (unless indeed it was added in paint, which is just conceivable) 
tells heavily against the identification of the god as Asklepios (contrast e.g. Svoronos 
Ath. Nationalmus. no. 2985 pi. 197, i); and his right hand was certainly touching the 
helmet, not greeting the goddess. 

Svoronos, ingenious as ever, agrees with Lowy in naming the god Asklepios, but 
argues that Athena is offering him her helmet and shield. In this we are to see a symbolic 
allusion to the events of the year 338 B.C., when Philip after the victory of Chaironeia 
marched against Sparta at the head of an irresistible force. In the nick of time Asklepios 
came to the rescue from Epidauros (Isyll. F 65 f. Powell, E 60 f. Diehl rots 'Aa/cAi^Trids 
<.y]> Xde (Boadoos e^ ''E-mdavpov \ TifxQv 'Hpa/cA^os yevedv • as (peidero dpa Zei;s) and appeared 
to the boy Isyllos clad in golden armour (Isyll. F 68 f. Powell, E 63 f. Diehl tQl rOya 
iroareixovTi avpdvT7](Tas crvv oTrXoiaiv \ XafXTrofievos xP^<^^oi-<^\ 'AcK\airt.i). Svoronos surmises 
that Athens sent arms to Sparta through the agency of Epidauros, and that this relief was 
set up in Epidauros to commemorate the fact as soon as the death of Alexander made an 
anti-Macedonian dedication possible. Accordingly he would date the relief c. 322 B.C., 
comparing a very similar relief of that year (At/i. Nationalmus. p. 246 f. no. 1331 pi. 36, i). 
The whole hypothesis is clever, but frail. 

^ P. Arndt La Glyptotheque Ny-Carlsberg Munich 1896 p. 31 f. pi. 20, c ( = my fig. 127), 
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek i no. 35 pi. 3, E. Reisch in ihQ Jahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1898 
i. 82. 

^ G. Winckelmann Monumenii antichi inediti Roma 1767 p. 151 ff. pi. iii, G. Zoega 
Li bassirilievi antichi di Roma Roma 1808 i. 249 pis. 52, 53, Overbeck Gall. her. Bildw. 
i. 201 f. Atlas pi. 8, 8, Miiller — Wieseler Denkm. d. alt. Kunst ii. 4. 65 ff. pi. 75, 961, A. 
Baumeister in his Denktn. i. 700 f. fig. 759, A. Rapp in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 2733, 
Robert Sark.-Relfs ii. 2 ff. pi. i, i, la, \b, Reinach Rep. Reliefs iii. 143 no. i, W. Helbig 
Fiihrer durch die dffentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Altertiimer in Rom^ Leipzig 191 3 
ii. 436 f. no. 1887. 



2o8 



Hephaistos and Athena 




Fig. T27. 




Fig. 12 



Hephaistos and Athena 



209 



headed by Hephaistos and Athena, the former bearing sword ^ and 
shield, the latter helmet and spear^. Since the whole composition 
is ingeniously built up of pre-existing types ^ we must suppose that 
Hephaistos and Athena as armourers were already sufficiently 
familiar. In this capacity we can trace them further afield. Crude 
provincial reliefs from Heddernheim (figs. 128, 129)* show a group 




Fig. 129. 

1 On the famous fxdxaipa made by Hephaistos for Peleus (Hes. /rag: no Flach, 79 
Rzach ap. schol. Find. Nem. 4. 95; schol. Find. JVem. 4. 88; schol. Aristoph. ?md. 1063; 
Zenob. 5. 20, Makar. 5. 86; Souid. s.v. fxiya (ppove? /xaWou tj UrjXeds eirl ry fiaxaipa) see 
L. Bloch in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 1832 f. Other "Q.<po,i(sr6revKT<x are listed by Gruppe 
Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1309 f. and C. Ficard in Daremberg— Saglio Diet. Ant. v. 998. 

2 Cheiron presented Feleus with a spear made of ash-wood from Mt Felion (//. 16. 
143 i. = ib. 19. 390 f., Cypriafrag. 2 Kinkel ap. schol. a.d. //. 16. 140, Apollod. 3. 13. 5. 
The schol. a.d. //. 16. 140 adds <^aaX 8e' Ad-qvav fikv ^eaai avT6,"R<()aL(rTov 8^ Karaa-Kevdaai). 

^ W. Helbig op. cit. ii. 437. 

^ E. Maass Die Tagesgotter in Rom undden Provinzen aus der Kulturdes Niederganges 



C. III. 



14 



2IO 



Hephaistos and Athena 



of three standing deities — Volcanus with Minerva at his right hand 
and Mercurius at his left — surmounted by busts representing the 
days of the week\ Volcanus is here possibly a Roman substitute 
for Donar^, Minerva for Holda^ Mercurius for Wodan*. In any 
case Volcanus and Minerva patronise arts and crafts, while Mer- 
curius encourages trade. A contrast to these poor efforts is provided 
by the handsome numismatic types of Rome and Romanised Greece. 
Magnificent medallions issued by Antoninus Pius in his own name 




Fig. 130. 

(fig. 13 ))^ and in that of his wife Faustina the Elder^ portray the 
ambitious scene of Hephaistos forging a thunderbolt for the 
Thunderer's daughter. She stands before him, her right hand 
outstretched to take the bolt, her left resting on her hip. Behind 

der antiken Welt Berlin 1902 p. 233 f. with figs. 25 (= my fig. 128) and 26 (= my fig. 129), 
Reinach Rep. Reliefs iii. 526 no. 4, 528 no. 8, Germania Ro??iana Bamberg 1922 p. xvi 

Pl- 53' 3- • 

^ Supra ii. 69 f. 

2 Supra ii. 63 n. i. But see on the other side G. Wissowa in Roscher Lex. Myth, 
vi. 367. ^ Supra ii. 65, G(i n. o, 94 n. i. 

* Supra ii. 59, 63 n. o, 69, 94 n. i, 386 n. 6. 

^ Frohner Mid. emp. ro??i. p. 65 f. fig., Cohen Momt. emp. rom.'^ ii. 388 no. 11 56 fig., 
Stevenson — Smith — Madden Diet. Rom. Coins p. 916, Kubitschek i^(?>//. Medaillons Wien 
p. 3 no. 24 pl. 2, Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. ii. 18 nos. 77 and 78 (140 — 143 a.d.) pl. 52, 4, 
18 no. 83 (155 A.D.) pl. 51, 3 (= my fig. 130). 

* Brit. Mus. Cat. Medallions p. 12 no. 6 pl. 17, 3, Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. ii. 26 
no. 18 pl. 59, I. 



Hephaistos and Athena 



211 



her we perceive shield, snake, and olive-tree — the insignia of the 
Athenian goddess. Another medallion of Antoninus Pius (fig. 13 1)^ 
followed by imperial coins of Samos^, Thyateira (fig. 132)^, and 
Magnesia ad Maeandrum*, harks back to older models by combining 
the pillar of the Parthenos with the helmet of the 'Lemma' Yet 
another of Antoninus' numerous medallions (fig. 133)^ shows Heph- 
aistos holding a hammer and forging a shield on his anvil. Before 
him is a helmet set on a tall cippus, behind him a shield, and in the 
background uplifted on a pedestal the statue of Athena Parthenos. 
Finally, a white paste of the Graeco-Roman period {s. i B.C. — s. i A.D.) 
now at Berlin has the head of Hephaistos eclipsing that of Athena, 
both heads being in profile on disks resembling coins ^ 




Fig. 131. 



Fig. 132. 



Fig. 133- 



Of greater importance than these artistic variations of a common 
theme is the evidence supplied by definite religious usage. Heph- 
aistos and Athena appear to have had a joint festival, the 
Chalkeia, on the last day of Pyanopsion"' at the very beginning of 

1 Frohner MM. emp. rom. p. 51 fig., Cohen Monn. emp, rom.'^ ii. 384 f. no. 1144 fig. 
( = my fig. 131). 2 Head Hist, num.^ p. 606. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Lydia p. 306 pi. 31, 5 (=my fig. 132) Conimodus, Hunter 
Cat. Coins ii. 469 no. 14 Commodus, Rasche Lex. Num. xi. 946, 947. 

^ Imhoof-Blumer Monn. gr. p. 292 no. 92 Maximinus, Rasche Lex. Num. xi. 947, 
Head Hist, num.'^ p. 583. 

^ Frohner Aled. emp. rom. p. 63 f. fig., Cohen Monn. emp. rom."^ ii. 387 f. no. 
1 155 fig-j Gnecchi Medagl. Rom. ii. 18 no. 82 (152 A.D.) pi. 52, 7 ( = my fig. 133). 

^ Furtwangler Geschnitt. Steine Berlin p. 196 no. 4875 pi. 35, G. Winckelmann 
Monumenti antichi inediti Roma 1767 i, 208 fi". {'Ulisse e Telemaco' !) pi. 153. 

'^ Harpokr. s.v. J^aXKeTa ' . . .ra XaX/ceta eoprrj Trap' ' Adrfvaiois '< rrj ' Adrjvg. {ins. Meur- 
sms)>dyofj.ivr) TLvavexpiuivoi evrj kuI veg,, xeipwi/a^i koivt^, /xdXiora 5^ x^^'^^^^'-^i '^^ (prjcnv 
' AiroWuvLos 6 'Axapveijs {Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 313 Miiller, ApoUonios of Acharnai {c. 100 B.C. 
according to E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 134 no. 72) -Kepi tQv 'AdrjvT]- 
ffiv ioprQu frag. 3 (Tresp Frag, gr. Kultschr. p. 99 f.)). #a»'65?7;«os 5e ovk ' Adrjvq. (p-qaiv 
AyeaduL TTjv eopTTjv dXX' 'H^a^crcj; (Phanodemos (on whom see W. Christ Geschichte der 
griechischen Litteratur^ Munchen 1920 ii. i. 110) frag. 22 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 369 Miiller)). 

14 — 2 



212 



Hephaistos and Athena 



winter^ Apollonios of Acharnai, a writer on Athenian festivals, 
states that the rite was observed by all the craftsmen, especially the 
coppersmiths, of Athens. Souidas remarks that some called it the 
Athenaia, while others described it as a festival of the whole folk^ 
It was, he adds, an ancient festival once celebrated by all the people, 
which had come to be viewed as an affair of the artisans only, since 
Hephaistos had wrought bronze in Attike. Phanodemos the 
Atticist even denied that Athena had any part or lot in it^ But 
here, as V. von Schoefifer^ points out, he must have been mistaken, 
for this was the day on which the priestesses with the ArrhephSroi 
began to weave Athena's peplos^. Moreover, we have no sufficient 

yeypa-KTai be /cat 'M.evdvdpcp dpdfjia XaXKela. Souid. s.v. XaX/ceta • eopri} ' Kd-qv-qcnv, a rives 
^ Xd'qvaia KoKovcnv ' oi 5e Udvdrj/xov 8id rb {/tto irdvTiov dyeaOai, XaX/ceta bis' eoprrj dpxo-'i-o. 
Kol drjfidbdrjs TrdXat, vcrrepov 8e virb fxovcov ijyero tQv rexvt-rQv, on 6 "H^atcros ev ry 'Attikji 
XaX/coj' elpydcraro. icrri 8e 'ivr) koX v^a, rod UvavexpLQvos' iv ■§ Kal <. at {ins. A.B.C.)>iepeiai 
fierd rCov dpprjcpopoiv rbv iriirXov bid^ovTai, XaX/ceta ter' eopri) Trap' ^ A$r}vaiois K.r.X. (from 
Harpokr. /oc. cit.). Souid. XaX/ceta bis is repeated by the et. mag. p. 805, 43 ff. and in 
part by Eustath. in II. p. 284, 36 f. Harpokr. XaXAceFa is transcribed in extenso by 
Favorin. lex. p. 1854, 27 ff. 

^ See the diagram supra i. 691 fig. 511. 

2 On the connotation of the word iravd-q/uLos see W. Dittenberger 'AIONTSOS 
AHMOTEAHS' in Hermes 1891 xxvi. 474 ff. citing Zeus Yldv8'r]}xos {Corp. inscr. Att. 

iii. I no. 7, 17 f. [roO Atos ToJO ''Wkevdepiov KaXTrpb\\roviepo\J r\o\} Aibs rod J\av8'q[^p,ov\. 

Cp. ^M^jz-autonomous bronze coins of Synnada with obv. head of 16 VC TTAN" 
AHMOC, rev. CVNNAAenN inNHN Mt Persis{?) (Imhoof-Blumer Choix de 





Fig. 134. Fig. 135. 

monn. gr?^ pi. 6, 194 (= my fig. 134), id. Monn.gr. p. 413 no. 157, Weber Cat. Coins 
iii. 2 no. 7181 pi. 256) or CVNNA AGflN Amaltheia holding infant Zeus with goat 
at her feet (Imhoof-Blumer Monn. gr. p. 413 no. 158) and imperial bronze coins of 
the same town with rev. Zeus enthroned Math Nike in right hand and sceptre in left 
[IjEYCnANAHAAOCCYNNAAEnN {Brit. Mns. Cat. Coins Phrygia p. 399 
no. 39 Domitian (-my fig. 135 from a cast)), ZeVCC TTAN AH[A/VOC] CVN NA- 
A€n N (Imhoof-Blumer Kleinas. MUnzen i. 294 no. 14 Nerva, now at Berlin), or 
AIA TTANAHMON CVNNACIC {sic) {yi\ovmQt Descr. de med. «;//. iv. 368 no. 987 
Nerva) or CYNNAAEIC {id. ibid, and Suppl. vii. 622 no. 593 Nerva, after D. Sestini 
Descrizione di altre medaglie greche del Museo del Signore Carlo d'Ottavio Fontana di 
Trieste Firenze 1829 iii. 80. For the legend see supra ii. 950 f. fig. 842 AIA lAAION 
lAieiC), Head Hist, num? p. 686). 

2 Cp. Poll. 7. 105 XaX/ceta eopri] ev rrj'ArrLKrj'il<pai<rrov iepd. 

* V. von Schoeffer in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 2067. 

^ Souid. s.v. XaXKeia bis (cited supra p. 212 n. o)=et. mag. p. 805, 46 f. 



Hephaistos and Athena 213 

reason to doubt Souidas' statement that the festival itself was 
sometimes called the Athenaia^. Indeed, a fragmentary inscription 
found on the Akropolis might be held to connect the goddess with 
the Chalkeia^. On the whole we are justified in concluding that 
the festival was common to both deities, but that Hephaistos 
bulked bigger at it than Athena. En revanche, in the Erechtheion, 
where Athena Polids had the whole of the eastern chamber, Heph- 
aistos was content with a mere altar^. The two obtained full and equal 
recognition in the Hephaisteion on the Market Hill*, at the foot of 
which the coppersmiths plied their trade ^. A decree^ of the year 
421/0 B.C. concerning the celebration of the Hephaistia mentions the 
sanctuary (?)' 'of Hephaistos and Athenaia' and enacts 'that the 
Council' set up 'the altar for Hephaistos' and 'make his' statue (J)'^. 

^ Souid. s.v. XaXKeM (cited supra p. ill n. o). Souidas' statement is accepted e.g. 
by E. Saglio in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. i. 1098, A. Schmidt Handbuch der 
griechischen Chronologie '^tm. 1888 p. 280, Farnell Cults of Gk. States i. 314, v. 378 n.^, 
C. Robert in the Gdtt. gel. Anz. 1899 clxi. 531, P. S\.Qr\gQ\ Die griechischen Kultusalter- 
tiimer'^ Miinchen 1920 p. 234. It is rejected by V. von Schoeffer in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. iii. 2067. 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. iv. 2 no. 441 ^ [ virkp ui^ d7ra77eX[XoL'<rt 01 Trepi rr\^ dv(Tias 

r}]v ^dvov roh Xa[X/c€tots , -]ai/TO de Kai /c[. .]j8u/c[.]a$ T[as , dyadeji Tijx^t; dedoxdcLi' T€i 

^o[v\€i, TO, fJLev dyada S^xeer^at, a <pa(T(,] yeyovevlai] iv rots ielpois oh ^dvov €<{> vyieiai. Kai 
<X(j}TT]p]iai TT^s re ^ovXijs Kat [tov 8rj/j.ov Kai Traibojv Kai yvvaiKQv^ Kai tCjv crvtiixdx(^\y' eirat- 

vicai. de ]»' ttjs deov rods e7r[t dpxouros Kai tov — aujra);' 2TpaT[6]Xa[oj' Kai 

aT€(pav!jO(xaL] 'iKacrov alyrCov x/oucoj? <XTe(()dvwt, KarcL rbv vdfiop eixre^eia^s €V€K[^ev ttjs irpbs 
Toi)S deovs Kai (piKoTL/xias Trjs ei's rrjv ^o]vXr)v [Kai tov dij/xov k.t.X.]. See H. G. Lolling in 
the Sitzuitgsber. d. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin 1888 p. 314 no. 6. 

^ Paus. I. 26. 5 ecreXdovaL 84 etVt ^u/Moly HoaeidQvos, i(f>' 06 Kai'Epex^^T d\jov<nv ^k tov 
(so E. Clavier and R. Porson for e/c tov codd.) fiavTeij/xaTos, Kai rjpojos Bo6tov, rptros d^ 
"HcpaiffTov. The exact position of these altars, which have perished, is unknown. They 
are commonly thought to have stood in the western part of the building : see Sir J. G. 
Frazer and H. Hitzig — H. Blumner ad loc, but also J. M. Paton The Erechtheum Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts 1927 pp. 484, 491 (locating them 'in the central room or rooms'). 

Id. ib. p. 484 ff. fig. 206, A — c publishes two thrones for the priest of Boutes {Corp. 
inscr. Att. ii. 3 no. 1656 = iii no. 302 iepicjs \ Bo^tov) and for the priest of Hephaistos 
{iepioos I 'H^atoTou) , which were originally carved from a single block of Pentelic marble 
and are inscribed in lettering of s. iv B.C. The former was found near the Erechtheion; 
the latter has been for some time on the terrace of the Hekatompedon. Whether they 
ever stood in the theatre of Dionysos is doubtful. 

^ Harpokr. s.v. KoXwi/^ras. 

^ Andok. or. i. 40, Bekker anecd. i. 316, 23 f. 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. i no. 46-f-iv. i. 2 no. 35(5 = J. v. Prott and L. Ziehen Leges Grae- 

corum sacrae ii no. 12 = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 84. Vv. 17 [ "Ijo he[<f)a]i<TT0 

Kai res 'Adevalas [ ], 38 f. Tbv 8e §op.bv tol he<f>ai\jrTOL ] | [ ] 

TO TTOLeaaTO he /3oXe KadoTi hv auTe[t 8ok€l ]. 

^ L. Ziehen op. cit. ii. 54: 'nescio an sermo fuerit de loco certaminis scribendumque 
sit ev TOL hiepoL toi to B.e<paL(TTO Kai Tes'Adevaias.^ E. Reisch in \h.&Jahresh. d. oest. arch. 
Inst. 1898 i. 60 had inferred ' dass das Fest dem Hephaistos und der Athene gemeinsam gait.' 

' L. Ziehen op. cit. ii. 55: 'v. 38 sq. Kirchhoff acute ita refinxit tov 8k ^wfibv tQi 
H0ai[(rT(«ji ISpvaaTOj Kai TayaXixa to toO 'H^a^orjrou Trotiycdrw 17 §ov\ifj ktX., quae supple- 



214 



Hephaistos and Athena 



His statue must be taken to include the whole cult-monument ; for 
another decree^ has preserved the accounts of a state-commission 
appointed in the self-same year and charged with the duty of 
erecting tw^o statues on a single base in the Hephaistion, which 
statues — it would seem — were completed four years later in 416. 
The accounts specify a great quantity of bronze as purchased for the 




Fig. 136. 



menta etsi universa ratio eorum valde probabilis est, tamen certa non sunt.' E. Reisch 
loc. cit. p. 61 argues well in support of them. 

^ Corp. inscr. Ait. i no. 318 + A. Wilhelm in the Sitzungsber. d. kais. Akad. d. Wiss. 
in Wien Phil. -hist. Classe 1922 p. 43 pi. + Corp. inscr. Alt, i no. 319 (Roberts — Gardner 
Gk. Epigr. ii. 316 ff. no. ii6)= Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i nos. 370, 371. No. 370, 2 ivKXTa.- 

rai dyaXfj-aroiv i[s to h'\i<f)ai(TTLov (list of names). No. 371, 2 fF. xaX/cos €ovid\^e toK- 

avra — ] | KaideKU Kal fxuai 5^/c[a]. TL[fJi]^ [to toXolpto Tpt^laKOVTa irivTe bpaxfJ-o-i- \\ kolttL- 
Tcpos eovide h to avd€fio[v, ToXavTov^ | /cat hejjuTaXavTov kol fjLual eiKoai T[p6S Kof] \ hefii- 
fivatov, TO ToiXayTov diaKOcriov Tp^taKllovTa dpaxi^v- Tifj.4. vacat || fxiadbs toIs ipyacaju^vots t6 
avldlefiop AvTrlo] \ t^v dairida Kal top TreToKov top /i}j[a-T]epov \ irpoaixLcrdodipTOP. \\ ixoKvpbos 
TOL CLPdifJLOi Kal TOLS decfMois TOP | Xidop TO ^ddpo, KpaTevTui SodeKa, tl/h^. || x<^^^(^ 1^0,^ dpdpaKes 
Toi fji6\[6]pdo[i]. II Tpdire^av ToUcravTi. \\ fxiadbs iaayay6pT[i] to [dy]d\fxaT€ kuI \ (XTiffavTi iv 

TOL VeOl. II K.T.X. 



Hephaistos and Athena 



215 



statues and note that tin was bought for 'the floral ornament 
idnthemori) beneath the shield.' Hence E. Reisch^ concludes that the 
statues in question were two bronze effigies of Hephaistos and 
Athena. Further, since a famous statue of Hephaistos, standing and 
so draped as to minimise his lameness, is known to have been made 
for Athens by Alkamenes^ and since Athena with her shield sup- 
ported on a floral ornament is a type existing in several replicas^ 
which are held to reflect more or less closely the style of that great 




Fig. 137- 



sculptor, Reisch not unreasonably attributes the whole group to 
him* B. Sauer^, accepting these results, goes further and attempts a 
restoration on paper (fig. 1 36), which may at least give us some notion 
of Alkamenes' group. Athena thus linked with Hephaistos came. 

1 E. Reisch loc. cit. p. 56 ff. 

^ Cic. denat. dear. i. 83, Val. Max. 8. 11. ext, 3. 

^ E.g. the Athena of the Musee Cherchel (Reisch loc. cit. p. 64 ff. fig. 33), the 
Athena from Crete in the Louvre {id. ib. p. 72 f. fig. 35), the Athena of the Villa 
Borghese {id. ib. p. 74 ff. fig. 36). 

■* E. Reisch in the Eranos Vindobonensis Wien 1893 p. 21, id. 'Athene Hephaistia' 
in ihe/ahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1898 i. 55 — 93 with pi. 3 and figs. 32 — 38. 

^ B. Sauer Das sogenannte Theseion Leipzig 1899 P- '246 ff. (' Rekonstruktion') with 
fig. on p. 250 { = my fig. 136). 



2i6 Hephaistos and Athena 

to be called by the curious^ appellation Hephaistia^. In 343/2 B.C. 
Phanodemos son of Diyllos, jealous as ever for the credit of Heph- 
aistos^, proposed a decree* which directed that a certain 'statue be 
dedicated to Hephaistos and to Athena Hephaistm! After this we 
hear no more of the temple-deities for a good five hundred years. 
But they were still there in Pausanias'^ time: 

'Above the Kerameikos and the King's Portico as they term it is a temple of 
Hephaistos. Knowing the tale told about Erichthonios, I was not surprised to 
find that a statue of Athena stands beside the god ; but observing that her statue 
has glaucous eyes I recognised the myth as Libyan. For the Libyans say that 
she is a daughter of Poseidon and the lake Tritonis and that therefore her eyes 
are glaucous like Poseidon's.' 

A bronze statue might, as Reisch^ suggests, have had eyes inlaid 
with silver; more probably they were of precious stone ^ or vitreous 

^ E. A. Gardner in ih&/ourn. Hell. Stud. 1899 xix. 8 n. i : 'It has been suggested to 
me by Mr G. F. Hill that Athena Hephaestia is a title very difficult to parallel in Greek 
mythology, if the name be derived directly from Hephaestus; such epithets are more 
commonly local in origin, and this one suggests Hephaestia in Lemnos, where there was 
a prominent cult of the goddess, attested by coins, and where she was associated in 
worship with Hephaestus. He further suggests that the famous Athena Lemnia of 
Phidias, whose association with Athenian cleruchs is a mere conjecture, was but another 
form of this Athena Hephaestia. In both alike the goddess was represented in her more 
peaceful aspect, as patroness of art and handicraft. The suggestion of a Lemnian 
association is peculiarly appropriate in a work attributed to Alcamenes, who was himself 
a Lemnian.' 

A parallel to Athena 'H^ato-ri'a is Herakles "Hpaios (Hesych. "H/oatoj/- 'Hpa/cX^a). Cp. 
perhaps Hera EupwTrta {supra i. 532). 

^ Hesych. 'H^attrrta * 'A^T/va. /cat ttoXis t^s A-iqixvov. E. Reisch loc. cit. p. 89 ff. fig. 38 
(= my fig. 137) recognised the appellative on the fragment of a painted terra-cotta jz^/««jf 
from Athens, now at Berlin (Furtwangler Vasensanwil. Berlin ii. 784 f. no. 2759, 
O. Benndorf Griechische und sicilische Vasendilder Berlin (1868) p. 18 f pi. 4, 2, Wien. 
Vorlegebl. iii pi. 2. 3), which dates from the latter part of s. v B.C. and is inscribed 

AOHNAIA : Hct^ApZTlA]. 

^ Supra p. 211 n. 7. 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. ii. i no. 114, Michel Recueil d^ Inscr. gr. no. 100, Inscr. Gr. ed. 
min. i no. 223, Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr? no. 227: b, 17 ff. [$a]j'6[577/tos At]i5\Xou 

Gu^iaiTctST^s etirev • — | - ava — ov eX^adai ttjv ^ov\t]u auT^/c[a fiaXa ] A LA.. A — | 

arov Kadbri, av avroh doKTJi dpi<T[T ] dvadeluai to re a7a | [Xjuia — tQi 'H^aiVrwt K]al 

ttjl' Adr)vaL ttjl 'H^atoriar iTnyploAJ/ai. 8k rb \p'f}(t)i(T jxa rode Kai rods /3ouX]euras irarpodev Kal 
Tov 8ri/x\[ov Kai on ^dvaav] ecf) V7t[e^]ctt koX aojTrjpiai ttjs ffovXrjs Kai rod drjfiov [rod 
' Adrjvaiojv']. Dittenberger in line 20 restores dvaOeivat to re dya\[\iJ.a tQl re 'H0a/(j'Twt 
T7]u po]v\[r}u7 K]ai ttjl 'Adrjvdc rrji 'H0ai(7T/at. 

^ Paus. 1. 14. 6. ^ E. Reisch lor. cit. p. 59. Cp. supra ii. 503 n. o. 

■^ Pheidias made the pupils of Athena Parthenos in precious stone (Plat. Hipp. mai. 
290 c TOV ovv 'iveKa, (prjaei, ov Kai rd fi^cra tQv 6(pda\/Jiu)v €\€(pduTiva eipydaaTO, dXXd Xidiva, 
u»s olov T 7]v bfxoLOTTjTa TOV Xldov Tip eXicpavTi i^evpcbv ;), and his pupil Alkamenes may well 
have followed suit. The bronze statuette of a kdre from Verona (height, without pedestal, 
6 inches) in the British Museum {Brit. Mus. Cat. Bronzes p. 17 no. 192 pi. i, A. S. Murray 
Greek Bronzes London 1898 p. 28 pi. i Frontispiece, H. B. Walters British Museuni: 



Hephaistos and Athena 



217 



Select Bronzes London 19 15 pi. 2 with text), archaistic rather than archaic (Miss G. M. A. 
Richter The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks Yale University Press 1929 p. 137 with 
fig. 523, Miss W. Lamb Greek and Roman Bronzes London 1929 p. 223 pL 88, a), has 
the pupils of her eyes inlaid with crystals of diamond, though the date of their insertion is 




Fig. 138. 

now regarded as doubtful. I take this opportunity of publishing another small bronze 
(height 6| inches) in the British Museum {Brit. Mus. Cat. Bronzes p. 175 f. no. 960 
'Poseidon Hippios'), formerly in the Blacas collection. It represents Poseidon, laureate, 
with a chlamys over his left arm and a horse's head on his right hand. His left hand may 
have held a trident with the prongs downwards. The pupils of his eyes are garnets. My 
fig. 138 is from a photograph taken for me by Mr W. H. Hayles. See also Plin. nat. hist, 
37. d^ ferunt in ea insula {sc. Cypro) tumulo reguli Hermiae iuxta cetarias marmoreo 



2i8 Hephaistos and Athena 

enamel^. One last allusion to Hephaistos and his partner is made 
two hundred and fifty years later by Saint Augustine^. After 
detailing the story of Erichthonios, the reputed child of Hephaistos 
and Athena, he continues : 

'But it must be admitted that men of learning deny the charge and wholly 
exonerate their gods. They say this fanciful tale arose from the fact that in the 
temple at Athens, which is shared by Hephaistos and Athena, an exposed boy 
was found with a snake coiled about him. The snake signified that he would be 
famous. Accordingly, since the parents were unknown, his discovery in the joint 
temple led to him being called the son of Hephaistos and Athena. Yet,' adds 
Augustine with a sudden flash of shrewdness, 'it is the mythical fancy rather than 
the alleged fact that accounts for the child's name^.' 

There is little doubt that the myth of Erichthonios, whenever 

and wherever it originated, had as early as the fifth century B.C. 

become attached to the Hephaisteion. Variations on the type of 

Athena Hephaistia represent the goddess with a kindly maternal 

air, either bearing a basket from which a snake creeps over her 

bosom (fig. I39)^ or dandling the infant on her arm (fig. 140)^ 

The myth itself — a crude, not to say ugly, narrative — is told as 

follows by ApoUodoros^: 

'Some state that he {sc. Erichthonios) was a son of Hephaistos and Atthis, 
daughter of Kranaos ; others, that he was a son of Hephaistos and Athena on 
this wise. Athena came to Hephaistos, wanting him to make weapons. But he, 
being forsaken by Aphrodite, fell in love with Athena and began to pursue her. 
Thereupon she fled from him. And he, when he drew near to her with much 

leoni fuisse inditos oculos e smaragdis ita radiantibus etiam in gurgitem, ut territi thynni 
refugerent, diu mirantibus novitatem piscatoribus, donee mutavere oculis gemmas, ih. 37. 
186 Adadu.,.oculus {supra i. 569 n. 4). 

^ H. Blumner Technologic und Terminologie der Gewerbe und Kunste bei Griechen 
und Romern Leipzig 1884 iii. 209 f., 1887 iv. 330. ^ Aug. de civ. Dei 18. 12. 

^ Id. ib. sed quoniam Minervam virginem volunt, in amborum contentione Vulcanum 
commotum efifudisse aiunt semen in terram atque inde homini nato ob earn causam tale 
inditum nomen. Graeca enim lingua ^pts contentio, xd^jiv terra est, ex quibus duobus 
compositum vocabulum est Erichthonius. 

* A statue from Crete in the Louvre (no. 847). Height 1-42'". The back, the left 
arm, etc. are unfinished. See further P. Jamot 'Minerve a la ciste' in the Monuments 
grecs publies par V Association pour V encouragement des Etudes grecques en France Nos. 
21 — 22 1893 — 1894 pp. 17 — 39 with heliogravure pi. 12, Reinach R^p. Stat. ii. 275 no. 2, 
E. Reisch in ih.Q Jahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1898 i. 55 fig. 32 (head in profile), 72 f. 
fig. 35 (after Jamot), E. A. Gardner in the Journ. Hell. Stud. 1899 xix. 6 ff. fig. 2 ( = my 

fig- 139)- 

^ A statue from Frascati at Berlin {Ant, Skulpt. Berlin p. 37 no. 72 fig. (= my 

fig. 140)). Height 1*82'". Italian marble. Restored: head, neck, right arm with shoulder, 

Gorgdneion ', also the child's head and arms with the upper part of his body. See Clarac 

Mus. de Sculpt, iii. 186 pi. 462 c, fig. 888 E, J. J. Bernoulli Ueber die Minerven-Statuen 

Basel 1867 p. 21. 

° ApoUod. 3. 14. 6, paraphrased also by Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. ill. 



Hephaistos and Athena 219 





Fig- 139- 



Fig. 140. 



220 Hephaistos and Athena 

ado (for he was lame), attempted to consort with her. But she, being a chaste 
virgin, would not brook it, and he dropped his seed on the leg of the goddess. In 
disgust thereat she wiped off the seed with wool and flung it on the earth. So 
as she fled and the seed fell upon the earth Erichthonios was born.' 

This narrative, as appears from a scholion on the Iliad}-, was drawn 
from the Hekale of Kallimachos^. Its far-fetched etymology is 
characteristic of the Alexandrine school. An older version, which 
involves a somewhat less fantastic etymon, is attributed by Erato- 
sthenes^ to Euripides ^ who certainly had leanings toward sophistic 
mythology^: 

'With regard to the birth of Erichthonios, Euripides tells the following tale. 
Hephaistos being in love with Athena was minded to unite with her. But she 
turned her back upon him and, choosing rather to keep her virginity, hid herself 
in a certain spot of Attike^, which they say was called after him Hephaisteion. 
He, thinking to master her by assault, was struck by her spear and let drop his 
desire, the seed falling on the earth. Therefrom, they say, was born a child, who 
for this reason was called Erichthonios.' 

The three derivations of the name ^r/chthonios, which connected it 
successively with eros 'love,' erion 'wool,' and eris 'strife,' are of 
course all wrong'. But their very variety proves that they are not 
an essential element in the tale. It existed before them ; for one of 
the scenes represented by Bathykles the Magnesian on the throne 
of Apollon at Amyklai is described by Pausanias as 'Athena fleeing 
from Hephaistos, who is pursuing herV Bathykles made the throne 



1 Schol. A. D. //. 1. 547. 

^ Kailim.^<2^. 61 Schneider. The sequel is preserved on a wooden tablet among the 
papyri of the Archduke Rainer in the Royal Library at Vienna (T. Gomperz in the 
Mittheilungen aus der Sammhing der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer Wien 1897 vi. 9 f. 
col. 2, 2 ff. = Kallim. Hekale frag. i. 2 Mair, cp. J. U. Powell — E. A. Barber New 
Chapters in the History of Greek Literature Oxford 1921 p. 103J. 

^ Pseudo-Eratosth. catast. 13 \i'^u Se koX 'Kvpnrl87)s wepl ttjs yeviffeus avrov rbv 
rpbirov tovtov "G<pai.crTOv epaadivra ^AdTjvds iBo^/Xeadai avrrj fiiyijvaL, ttjs d^ aTroaTpe(f)OfJievT)S 
Kal T7)v irapdeviav fxaXKov aipovfji.^ur)s 'iv tlvl Tbiri^p ttjs 'Attiktjs Kpi/Trreadai, Sv \4yov(n /cot 
ttTf' eKeivov Trpo<T ay opevdrjvaL 'H.(pai(TT€iov (so F. C Matthiae, followed by A. Olivieri, for 
"li<paL(rTov codd. C. G. Heyne cj. 'H^ato-rioi' or 'H^atorou)' 6s (C. Robert cj. odev 
A. Nauck cj. 6 5e) 86^as avTTjv KpaTTjaeiv Kal ewid^fxtvos TrXrjyeis vtt aiiTijs rip bbpari acprJKe 
T7]v eTndvfxiav, <p€po/xiv7]s els rr)v yrjv rrfS airopas' e^ ^s yeyevijadai Xiyovai iraida, 6s iK 
roOrov 'lEpiX^ovios iKK'qdt), k.t.\. 

■* Eur. frag. 925 Nauck^ ap. pseudo-Eratosth. catast. 13, cp. Hyg. poet. astr. 2. 13, 
schol. Caes. Germ. Araiea p. 394, 20 ff. Eyssenhardt, TertuU. de spectac. 9. 

^ Supra p. 94 f. 

^ J. Escher-Biirkli in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Efic. vi. 441 would identify the spot as 
Marathon on the strength of Nonn. Dion. 27. 317 ff. Kal cv, reXecra-iydvou (piXoirdpdeue 
pvfi^ie Tair)s, \ rjpe/iiieis, "H^aicre, /cat ovk dXeyeis MapadQvos, | rjxt Beds dydfxov ydfiiov 
aiXas; '^ Supra p. 181 n. i. 

^ Paus. 3. 18. 13 Kai'A6r]vd 8id}K0UTa dirotpeiyovad ea'Tiv"ll<pai(rTov. 



Hephaistos and Athena 



221 



perhaps in the middle of the sixth century B.C.^ perhaps rather in 
its last quarter ^ and we have here either — as C. Robert^ suggested 
— the record of an ancient Ionic myth concerning Hephaistos' love 
for Athena or — as L. Malten* contends — the first appearance of 
the Attic myth in which Erichthonios figured as the earthborn 
offspring of Hephaistos' frustrate desire. Bathykles' design cer- 
tainly included Hephaistos and Athena; but it hardly justifies us 
in inferring the Erichthonios-sequel. Athena pursued by Heph- 
aistos was a sixth-century motif, which seems for some time to 
have existed independently and later to have been supplemented 
by the episode of Erichthonios. Thus an early red-figured amphora 
from Bologna (fig. 141)^ has on the one side Athena pursued by 
Hephaistos, on the other a bearded male with a long sceptre — 
presumably Zeus. But Lucian describes a picture in which 'He- 
phaistos in love is pursuing Athena, she is fleeing from him, and 




Fig. 141. 



^ Frazer Pausanias iii. 351. 

2 C. Robert in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. iii. 136, L. Malten in the Archiv f. Rel. 
1909 xii. 425, 446. D. S. Robertson in his admirably careful work A Handbook of Greek 
6^ Ro77ian Architecture Cambridge 1929 p. 105 says 'probably in the second half of the 
sixth century B.C.' 

^ C. Robert loc. cit. iii. 130 no. (20). So too E. Reisch in the [ahresh. d. oest. arch. 
Inst. 1898 i. 83, B. Sauer Das sogenannte Theseion Leipzig 1899 p. 57, J. Escher-Biirkli 
in Pauly— Wissowa ^m/-^??^. vi. 441, O. Gruppe in the Berl. philol. Woch. Dez. 19, 1908 
p. 1598. 

^ L. Malten in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii, 349. 

^ A. Zannoni Gli Scavi delta Certosa di Bologna Bologna 1876 p. 353 pi. 102, 5 (shape 
of 'anforetta'), 6 (obverse), 7 (reverse) (of which, 6 and 7 = my fig. 141). Obv. : Hephais- 
tos, clad in a chlamys, pursues Athena, who is wearing her aigis and holds her spear in 
the right hand, her helmet in the left. Rev.: a bearded male figure ('Giove?') standing 
to the right with a long staff or sceptre. 



222 Hephaistos and Athena 

from his pursuit Erichthonios is born^ Elsewhere he insists that 
the pantomime must be familiar with the whole range of Attic 
mythology — 'all that is told of Athena, all that is told of Hephaistos 
and ErichthoniosV etc. The attempt of Hephaistos on Athena 
might no doubt shock those who worshipped the Virgin goddess, 
and that sufficiently accounts for the evasive versions of Euripides^ 
and Kallimachos^ But mythological apologists had facile answers 
to all questionings. Athena had been given to Hephaistos but had 
vanished at the critical moment^ Athena was Hephaistos' reward 
for freeing Hera from the magic throne that he had made^ Athena 
was the price paid by Zeus to Hephaistos for his manufacture of 
the thunderbolt^, or for his services in cleaving the celestial head*. 

^ Loukian. de domo 27 elra yuerd rairriv dXXr] ' Adrjud, ov Xidos avrr) y€ dXXd ypacprj 
TToXiv "H0atcrTOS a{)TT)v daoKei ipQv, 7} de (peijyei, kclk ttjs Sico^ews 'Epixd^vios ylyuerat. 

^ Loukian. de salt. 39 koX ocra Trepi 'Adrjvd^ Kal ocra irepl 'il<paiaTov /cat ' Epixdoviov, 
K.T.X. ^ SuJ>ra p. 220. '^ Supra ^. 218 ff. 

^ Amelesagoras (on whom see supra p. 157 n. g) frag, i [Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 22 Muller) 
ap. Antig. hist. mir. 12 <pr)ffiv yap "H0ai(rT(^ dodeiarjs rrj^ ^Adrjvds avyKaraKXideiaav 
a^TTjp dcpavLadrjvai, rbv be "Il<pai<TT0V els yrjv ireaovra irpo'teadai to cirepfxa, t7]u 8k yijv 
varepov avT(p dvadoOvai 'Epix^oi'Lov, k.t.X. (cited infra p. 237 n. 5). 

^ Hyg. fab. 166 Vulcanus lovi c[a]eterisque diis solia aurea (so J. Schefifer for soleas 
aureas cod. F. T. Muncker cj. also sellas aureas) ex (J. Perizonius cj. nexa) adamante cum 
fecisset, luno cum sedisset subito in aere pendere coepit. quod cum ad Vulcanum missum 
esset, ut matrem quam ligaverat solveret, iratus quod de coelo praecipitatus erat negat se 
matrem ullam habere, quern cum Liber pater ebrium in concilio (B. Bunte cj. concilium) 
deorum adduxisset, pietati negare non potuit : tum optionem a love accepit, si quid ab iis 
petiisset, impetraret. tunc ergo Neptunus, quod Minervae erat infestus, instigavit Vulca- 
num Minervam petere in coniugium. qua re impetrata in thalamum cum venisset, Minerva 
monitu lovis virginitatem suam armis defendit, interque luctandum ex semine eius quod in 
terram decidit natus est puer, qui inferiorem partem draconis habuit ; quem Erichthonium 
ideo nominarunt, quod ^pis Graece certatio dicitur, x^^^ autem terra dicitur. etc. 

^ Fulgent, myth. 2. 11 Vulcanus cum lovi fulmen efhceret, ab love promissum accepit 
ut quidquid vellet praesumeret. ille Minervam in coniugium petivit ; luppiter imperavit 
ut Minerva armis virginitatem defendisset. dumque cubiculum introirent, certando 
Vulcanus semen in pavimentum iecit ; unde natus est Erictonius [ericthonius codd. R. D. G.) 
[cum draconteis pedibus (only in cod. Marc.)]; eris enim Grece certamen dicitur, rtonus 
vero terra nuncupatur. etc. Cp. Serv. in Verg. eel. 4. 62 2iVidi georg. 3. 113, Myth. Vat. i. 
128, 2. 37, 2. 40, 3. 10. 3. 

^ Ft. mag. p. 371, 35 ff. Srt 6 Zei's ^ovXofxevos diroKvijaaL eK tov eyKecpdXov avrov Trjv 
'Adrjvdu edeiTO avvepyov tov tXyj^outos ttjv Ke(paX7]u Iva diroKvqcr) (so F. Sylburg for diroKVTjdfj 
codd.)' Kal 87) Xdyovs Trpo<r<pepeL T(p 'HipaiaTip Trepi totutov. 6 8e"}l(pataTos ovk dXXojs e'iXeTO 
crxl-cfo-i- TT]v Ke<paXr}v tov At6s, ei /ult) tt]v yeuucofievTjv 8iairapdeve\j(jef Kal 7}uiffx^T0 6 Tievs. 
Kai Xa^i}v TTjv ^ovirXiiya Tefxvei T7]v KecpaXyju avTov, Kai e^ipxeTai i] ' Adrjvd, Kal eTTe8lu3Kev 
ai/TTju 6 "H0atcrros tVa avyyeuvTai' Kal iwidiibKOjv dTre(nripfji7}vev els tov firipbu t?}s^ Adr]vds' 
7] 8k 'AOrjvd Xa^oucra ^piov e^ejxa^e to airipfxa Kal ^pptxpeu ev Ty yrj' Kal eyiveTo eK ttjs yijs 
Kal TOV ipiov dvdpwTTos 8paKOVTbTrovs, ts eKaXeiTO 'EptxOovLos dirb tov epiov Kal ttjs x^opos 
Xa^ihv Tb bvofxa Toi)To = Nonnos Abbas in Greg. Naz. c. Julian. 2. 27 (xxxvi. 1050 Migne) 
printed as Append, narr. 3 p. 359, 24 ff. Westermann= Eudok. viol. i^. The theme is 
first handled by Loukian. dial. deor. 8 ajare, cJ ZeO, /maiooTpd /xol aTrbdos eyyvrjaas ri8T] 

aiTTjV. K.T.X. 



Hephaistos and Athena 223 

Such explanations are the expiring efforts of the mythopoeic mind ; 
but at least they imply that there was something to be explained. 
And that something was the startlingly blasphemous, but ancient, 
orthodox, and wholly irrepressible, conviction that Hephaistos was 
the mate of Athena. 

Now the pairing of Hephaistos with Athena has often been 
regarded as a mere juxtaposition of two deities drawn together by 
their common patronage of the arts and crafts^. And doubtless that 
community of interest did much to strengthen their union. But the 
root of the matter goes deeper. When we remember that the grouping 
together of these two occurs already in Homeric verse^ and Hesiodic 
myth^ that it is attested by the ancient pandemic festival of the 
Chalkeia^ that it produced the Hephaisteion^ one of the noblest 
fifth-century buildings of A-thens^ and finally that the cult-statues 
of Hephaistos and Athena Hephaistia, in all probability the work of 
Alkamenes'^, were there worshipped side by side for more than half 
a millennium^, it becomes increasingly difficult toresisttheimpression 
that in the remote prehistoric past Hephaistos and Athena were 
simply husband and wife^ 

^ See e.g. Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. 1 19 f., F. Diimmler in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. ii. 199 1, Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. 377 (a more cautious statement: 'his 
association in Attica with Athena, which may have been devised originally to connect 
some prominent tribe that worshipped him with the national religious polity, was regarded 
as the natural fellowship of the divinities of art'). 

2 Supra p. 200 f. ^ Supra p. 201. ^ Supra p. 211 ff. ^ Supra p. 213 f. 

'' The identification of the 'Theseion' with the Hephaisteion, first mooted by D. Sour- 
meles 'ArriKd^ Athens 1863 p. 165 ff. and P. Pervanoglu 'Das Hephaesteion in Athen' in 
Philologus 1868 xxvii. 660 — 672, was better founded by H. G. Lolling in the Nachr. d. kon. 
Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Goitingen Phil. -hist. Classe 1874 p. 17 ff. and B. Sauer Das sogenannte 
Theseion Leipzig 1899 pp. 11 f., 255 ff., and is now the almost universally accepted 
opinion (W. Judeich Topographie von Athen Miinchen 1905 p. 325 n. 4, Gruppe Myth. Lit. 
1908 p. 507 f., Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. 378). H. Koch and E. v. Stockar, after a 
thorough examination of the 'Theseion' and its sculptures, would refer the extant 
building to the decade 450 — 440 B.C. {Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1928 xliii Arch. 
Anz. pp. 706 — 721 with 8 figs., summarised in the Am. Journ. Arch. 193 1 xxxv. 174 f. ). 
D. S. Robertson A Handbook of Greek ^ Ro77ian Architecture Cambridge 1929 pp. 118, 
328 dates it c. 428 B.C. 

'' Supra p. 215. ^ Supra p. 218. 

^ This has been seen with varying degrees of clearness by many scholars, e.g. O. Jahn 
Archdologische Aufsdtze Greifswald 1845 P* ^o ^-i ^ ' L« W. Schwartz Der Ursprung der 
Mythologie Berlin i860 p. 208, id. Indogervianische Volksglaube Berlin 1885 P- ^'^^ f.? 
A. Rapp in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 2064, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 27 f., A. R. van der 
Loeff De ludis Eleusiniis Lugduni-Batavorum 1903 p. 54, E. Petersen Die Burgtempel 
der Athenaia Berlin 1907 p. 89, E. Fehrle Die kultische Keuschheit im Altertum Giessen 
1910 p. 188 f. 

Ancient systematisers declared that the first Apollon was the son of Hephaistos by 
Athena (Cic. de nat. deor. 3. 55 Vulcani item complures : primus Caelo natus, ex quo et 



2 24 Hephaistos and Athena 

My own opinion — if I may be allowed to state it with dogmatic 
brevity — is this. The Akropolis at Athens was originally called 
^^>^/;^^, a place-name comparable with the pre-Greek Mykene,Pallene, 
MityUne, Priene^ etc^. The old singular Athene, thanks to its loca- 
tival form *Atkenaz, gave rise to the new plural Athenai, just as 
Mykene came to be replaced by Mykenai or Thebe ( Thebaigenes) by 
Thebai^. The goddess was named Athene like the rock, because at 
the outset she was the rock, a mountain-mother of the usual Anato- 
lian sort. In classical times her motherhood, at first perhaps 
compatible with renewed virginity ^ had passed into perpetual 
maidenhood. But the Elean women, tenacious of archaic beliefs*, 
when their land was bereft of men, prayed that they might conceive 
so soon as they met their husbands, and on their prayer being heard 

Minerva Apollinem eum, cuius in tutela Athenas antiqui historici esse voluerunt, Clem. Al. 
protr. 2. 28. 3 p. 21, 5 f . Stahlin voX jxr\v ^ k.irbXKijiva 6 jnev ' ApLaToreXrjs irpQTou 'Htpaiarov 
Kal'Adrjpas (evraOda 5r) oi/K^ri irapd^vos 17 'Adrjud), Arnob. adzj. nat. 4. 14 sed et Minervae, 
inquiunt, ...quinque sunt, ex quibus prima non virgo, sed ex Vulcano Apollinis procreatrix, 
Lyd. de mens. 4. 86 p. 135, 8 f. Wunsch"H0at(rrot riaaapes- irpQiTos Oipavou Kai 'H/u^pas, 
7raT7]p 'AirdWoovos toO 'Adrjuaiwv dpxvy^Tov, 4. 142 p. 164, 7 f. Wiinsch 'A(TKKr)inol rpeis 
XiyovTaL yeveadai' irpCoTos' AirbWijivo^ rod'HcpalffTov, ^s e^evpe ixyjkriv. There is confusion 
in Firm. Mat, 16. i quinque Minervas fuisse legentibus nobis tradit antiquitas. una est 
Vulcani filia, quae Athenas condidit, etc.). The passage from Clement is printed as Aristot. 
frag. 283 in Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 190 Miiller. Lobeck Aglaophamus ii. 994 speaks of the 
author as ' Aristotelis nescio cujus.' V. ^ost Aristoleles pseudepigraplnts Lipsiae 1863 p. 617 
suspects a mistake for Aristokles of Rhodes (second half of s. i B.C. : see G. Wentzel in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 935 f.). But see now R. Munzel Quaestiones mythographicae 
Berlin 1883 p. 20, W. Michaelis De origine indicis deorum cognominuni Berlin 1898 
p. 47 f., R. Hirzel in the Ber. sacks. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Phil. -hist. Classe 1896 p. 309 n. 3. 

1 P. Kretschmer in Glotta 1921 xi. 277, Nilsson Min.-Myc. Rel. p. 419. 

^ So K. F. Johansson in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogermanischen sprachen 1888 
xiii. Ill ff. followed by K. Brugmann Griechische Grammatik'^ Munchen 1890 p. 122. 
Particular points are criticised by L. Grasberger Studien zu den griechischen Ortsnamen 
Wlirzburg 1888 p. 147 ff. and F. Solmsen in the Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachfor- 
schung 1893 xxxii. 521 n. i, while A. Thumb in K. Brugmann Griechische Grammatik^ 
Munchen 19 13 p. 267 pronounces the whole contention *sehr unsicher.' But the principle 
seems sound and is of wide application. Examples near at hand are Colon (W. W. Skeat 
The Place-Names of Cambridgeshire Cambridge 1901 p. 8: probably 'A. S. coium, dative 
pi. of cot, a cottage. ..the prep, cet (at the) being understood') and Newnham {id. ib. p. 22 
and J. B. Johnston The Place-Names of England and Wales London 191 5 p. 380 f . : 'an 
O.E. dat., "at the new home" '). 

3 Hera recovered her virginity every year by bathing in the spring Kanathos near 
Nauplia (Pans. 2. 38. 2 with Sir J. G. Frazer and H. Hitzig — H. Bliimner ad loc). 
It was perhaps with the same intention that the Argive women once a year took the image 
of Athena and the shield of Diomedes {Pallddion) to the river Inachos and washed them 
there (Kallim. lavacr. Pall, i ff. with schol. on lines i and 37). On the Athenian Plynteria 
as implying a iep6s 7(£^os of Athena see the important discussion by E. Fehrle Die kultische 
Keuschheit im Altertum Giessen 1910 pp. 171 — 177. P. Saintyves Les Vierges Meres et 
les Naissances Miraculeuses Paris 1908 pp. i — 280 ignores the topic. 

^ Cp. supra ii. 823 n. i (Plout. guaestt. Gr. 36). 



Plate XXVIII 




Votive relief in island marble, found on the Akropolis at Athens : 
a husband, with his wife and three children, brings a sow for 

sacrifice to Athena. 

See page 22^ it. r. 



Hephaistos and Athena 225 

founded a sanctuary of Athena Meter^. And at Athens, though 
Athena was Parthenos, yet even in the Parthenon her cult-image 
with its snakes and its pillar was, as we have seen 2, distinctly 

1 Paus. 5. 3. 2. Farnell Cults of Gk. States i. 303 comments: 'Athena Mtjttjp need 
mean little more than Athena the nurse or fosterer of children, just as the nurses who 
reared the infant Zeus in Crete were worshipped under the name of M;7Tepes^ 
(t-Diod. Sic. 4. 79).' But see K. B. Stark in the Mew. d. Inst. 1865 ii. 243 — 275 and 
Gruppe Gr. Myth, Rel. p. 1206 n. 2, who cite Nonn. Dion. 48. 951 ff. (Dionysos entrusts 
the babe Bakchos or lakchos, one of the twins borne him by Aura, to Athena as nurse) 
\apcov 8i ixLV v\{/6dL dicppov | vqinot/ eicrirL Bd/cxoj' iiruivv/jLov via toktjos \ 'ArdidL jULvaTiiroXip 
TrapaKaTdeToBaKXOs'Adrjuri, \ 'Eijia Tra-mrd^ouTa' dea d^ /jllv ^v8o6i vr)ov \ HaWas dvviui.<p€VT({} 
deodiyfxovL de^aro koXtto}- | TratSt de fia^bv ope^e, tov ^a-rraae /u^oduos 'Epex^ej^s, | avroxvTi^ 
(XTa^ovTa vodov yXdyos oixcpaKi jxa^ip and Dion Cass. 59. 28 (CaHgula named Caesonia's 
daughter Drusilla) ^s re to KaTrtrwXtov dvrjyaye /cat es rd tov Alos youaTa ws kuI iralda avTov 
odcrav dvedrjKe, Kal r?/ 'Adrjuq. TidrjveccrdaL Traprjyyrjrjffev, An Etruscan statuette of a winged 
Athena carries a naked infant {infra § 9 (h) ii (X)). 

H. von Prott's dicttmi in the Archiv f. ReL 1906 ix. 87 'Die Akropolis-Athena ist 
Meter, ihr Opfertier eine trachtige Sau' is justified by an early (first quarter of s. v B.C.) 
votive relief of island marble, found to the east of the Parthenon (G. Dickins Catalogue of 
the Acropolis Miiseiuii Cambridge 1912 i. 118 ff. no. 581 fig., B. Staes in the 'E0. 'Apx« 
1886 pp. 179 — 182 pi. 9, Collignon Hist, de la Sadpt.gr. i. 380 f. with fig. 196, Perrot — 
Chipiez Hist, de V Art viii. 618 ff. with fig. 314, E. Pfuhl in the Ath. Mitth. 1923 xlviii. 
132 — 136 fig. 4), in which a family of husband, wife (pregnant), and three children (one 
holding a round object, perhaps a disk or dcnzl^Lov) bring a sow (Farnell Cnlts of Gk. States 
i. 290, P. Baur in Philologns 1899 — 1901 Suppl. viii. 484, 499, O. Walter Beschreibiing 
der Reliefs im Kleinen AkropolisniMseiini in Athen Wien 1923 p. 34 f. no. 48, cp. p. 70 f. 
no. 120 (?)) for sacrifice to an archaistic Athena (helmet carved, crest painted). K. Lehmann- 
Hartleben 'Athena als Geburtsgottin ' in the Archiv f. Rel. 1926 xxiv. 19 — 28 fig. i 
( = my pi. xxviii) — an interesting article to which my attention was drawn by Mr A. D. 
Nock — concludes: 'Es handelt sich also ofFenbar um einen Bittgang fiir eine bevor- 
stehende Geburt.' O. Weinreich ib. p. 28 acutely suggests that the 'foolish stories' told by 
Euhemeros and Varro with regard to the proverb 5s Ty]v 'Adrjvdu, sus Minervam (Fest. 
p. 310 (5 18 ff. Midler, p. 408, 14 ff. Lindsay) in reality gave the ahiov for a pig-sacrifice 
to Athena. 

In this connexion it may be noticed that Niket. Chon. 359 B p. 739 Bekker says of 
a colossal statue in the Forum of Constantine at Constantinople — a statue almost certainly 
to be identified with the Bronze Athena of Pheidias ( W. Gurlitt ' Die grosse eherne Athena 
des Pheidias' in Analecta Graeciensia Graz 1893 pp. loi — 121. E contra S. Reinach in 
the Rev. Et. Gr. 1907 xx. 399 — 417) — e^X^ ^^ Kdivl toIs CTepvois opdoTtTdov 6v ttolklKov 
aiyLdu}5es eirivbvfxa. Athena is opdoTiTdos in many archaising reliefs and vase-paintings 
{e.g. supra pi. xxviii, E. Schmidt Archaistische Kunst in Griechenland tind Rom Munchen 
1922 pi. 8, I — 3, pi. 9, 3, Mon. d. Inst, x pis. 47a, 47c, 47 e, 47f, 47g, 48, 48a), markedly 
so on certain large flat gems of the Augustan period — where however her full breast is 
a late Aphroditesque modification rather than an early maternal trait ((i) a sardonyx at 
Florence (Reinach Pierres gravt^es'g. 61 no. 55, i pi. 61, Furtwangler Ant. Geninien i pi. 39, 
29 ( = my fig. 144 from a cast), ii. 188 ('Der Kopf ist ohne Helm' is wrong; the helmet 
imitates chevehire), Lippold Gem men p. 170 (same mistake) pi. 21, 9: (2) a brown sard 
formerly in the Marlborough collection (Reinach Pierres gravies p. 117 no. 6 pi. 113, 
Furtwangler Ant. Gemmen i pi. 65, 24 ( = my fig. 145), ii. 300)). 

- Supra p. 189. Note also the part played by the priestess, apparently impersonating 
the goddess, at Athens (Souid. s.v. aiyis'...7) 8^ Upeia 'Adrivrjcn ttjv lepdv alyi8a (p^povaa 
Trpos rds veoydfiovs ehrjpxeTO = Zonar. lex. s.v. alyis' ...i] Se UpeLa' Adrjv-qcn rrjv lepdv alyi8a 
(p^povaa Tovs veoyd/xovs eiarjpx^To, cp. Plout. cent. 2. 21 not. crit. [1? yovv] Upeia r-qv lepdv 

C. III. 15 



226 



Hephaistos and Athena 



reminiscent of a 'Minoan' mother-goddess. Indeed, when Alexander 
the Great struck his magnificent gold coins (figs. 142, 143)1 showing 
the head of Athena with a coiled snake on its helmet, we may detect 
a last unconscious echo of the Cretan goddess with a snake twined 
about her head-dress. What the name Athme actually meant, we 
do not know and it is idle to guess. But if any reliance may be 
placed on Kretschmer's ingenious comparisons 2, the word was 
Pelasgian or Tyrsenian and probably hailed from Asia Minor. 




Fig. 142. 



Fig- 143- 





Fig. 144. Fig. 145. 

Hephaistos too appears to have been Pelasgian or Tyrsenian. 
The two chief centres of his worship on Greek soil were admittedly 
Lemnos and Athens, both at one time in Pelasgian occupation. 

aiyida ^Kd'^VQCi <f>4pov(ra dyeipei [airb ttjs d/cpo7r6Xeajs] dp^a/xiur] irpbs rd iepd (so cod. B ; 
words in square brackets added from cod. A)) : supra i. 14 n. i. 

^ Hunter Cat. Coins i. 296 ff. nos. 4 — 7 pi. 21, 2 distdtera, nos. 8 — 22, 24 — 35 pi. 21, 
3 f . statures, no. 36 f. pi. 21, 5 (\\x2iX{.eX'Stath'es, McClean Cat. Coins i. 5 if. no. 3404 
pi. 125, I distdteron^ nos. 3405 — 3408 pi. 125, 2 — 5 stateres, no. 3410 f. pi. 125, 7 f . 
quarter-i-/a/(?r^j-, Weber Cat. Coins ii. 57 ff. nos. 2073 — 2078, 2080 pi. 79 stateres^ nos. 
2072, 2079 P^' 79 (l^^T^ter-stateres, G. F. Hill Historical Greek Coins London 1906 
p. 103 ff. no. 58 pi. 7 stater. Figs. 142 and 143 are from specimens in my collection. 

Hunter Cat. Coins i. 298 no. 23 and McClean Cat, Coins i. 52 no. 3409 pi. 125, 6 
stateres have a griffin in place of the serpent. Head Hist, num.^ p. 226 says 'serpent, 
griffin, or sphinx.' 

2 Supra p. 191 n. 8. 



Hephaistos and Athena 227 

Herodotos^ quoting Hekataios^, tells how the Pelasgians, who had 
built the wall round the Akropolis at Athens, on being driven out 
by the Athenians went and settled in Lemnos. And Thoukydides^ 
in his description of the Chalcidian peninsula Akte says: 'Most of 
the inhabitants are Pelasgians, belonging to the Tyrsenians who 
once dwelt in Lemnos and Athens, together with Bisaltai, Krestones, 
and Edones/ I agree, therefore, with L. R. Farnell* who in 1909 
expressed himself as follows: *It is a reasonable hypothesis... that 
the presence and prominence of Hephaistos in Attica and Lemnos 
is due to the settlement of a Pelasgic population in those localities.' 
A. Fick^ in the same year had independently reached the same 
conclusion: 'Hephaistos from first to last belongs to the pre-Greek 
Pelagonian-Pelasgian-Tyrsenians. Centres of his cult are Lemnos 

and Attike His name Hephaistos too is certainly Pelasgian.' 

Further, I accept the common view that Hephaistos was essentially 
a fire-god. When Agamemnon and the Greek leaders sacrificed an 
ox to Zeus, Homer® relates how — 

Piercing the entrails with spits they held them over Hephaistos. 

This is no late rhetorical trope'' or academic allegory^, but an early 
animistic usage^ It meets us again rather unexpectedly in Aris- 

^ Hdt. 6. 137 with the critical analysis of J. L. My res in the fourn. Hell. Stud. 1907 
xxvii. 201 f. 

^ YiokaX. frag. 362 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 29 MUller) =y>'«^. 127 {Frag. gr. Hist. i. 24 
Jacoby). 

^ Thouk. 4. 109 with J. L. Myres in ihejourn. Hell. Stud. 1907 xxvii. 204 f. 

4 Farnell Cults of Gk. States v. 388 f. 

^ A. Fick Hattiden und Danubier in Griechenland Gottingen 1909 p. 46 cited supra 
p. 191 n. o. 

^ //. 2. 426 (Tifkar^xvo. 5' dp' dfxireipavTes inreipexov^'H.ipaiaTOto. 

^ Apollon. lex. Honi. p. 85, 11 ff. Bekker "HcpaLcrTos' ..JttI 5e rov irvpbs ^ cnrXdyxva 
5' hp dixirelpavTe^ virelpexov 'H0a/crroto' • 6 5e rpdiros fieruPv/JLia, Hesych. i'.z'. "H^atcrros*... 
ore d^ fji.€TOJuviuLiKQs rb irvp. Later examples (Archil, frag. 12 Bergk4=i2 Hiller — Crusius 
= 10 Diehl, Soph. Ant. 123, 1006 f., Kallim, (?) frag. anon. 84 Schneider ap. et. mag. 
p. 241, 55 ff., etc.) are collected by L. Malten in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 329. 
U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Der Glaube der Hellenen Berlin 1931 i. 20 is in- 
adequate: *Wenn Hephaistos schon in der Ilias B 426 metonymisch fiir Feuer gesagt 
wird, so ist er kein hellenischer Gott, ubrigens auch eigentlich nicht das Feuer, sondern 
der Schmied, der es zu seiner Kunst braucht.' 

^ Emped. frag. 98 Diels followed by Ztnon frag, iii Pearson =169 von Arnim ap. 
Min. Fel. Oct. 19. 10 cited supra \. 29 n. 4, Chrysippos /r^^. 1076 von Arnim ap. Philo- 
dem. irepl eme^eias 12 (H. Diels Doxographi Graeci Berolini 1879 P- 546 b 20 f.), Chry- 
sippos/ra^. 1079 von Arnim ap. Philon. de provid. 2. 41 p. 76 Aucher, and many later 
writers: see L. Malten in Pauly— Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 338 ff. (* Allegorische und 
natursymbolische Mythendeutung '). 

^ P. Cauer Grundfragen der Homerkritik^ Leipzig 1923 p. 351 'So ist (f)\b^ 'Rcpaia-TOio 
...nicht die dem Hephastos heilige Flamme, sondern die Flamme, in der Hephastos 
selbst brennt ' etc. 

15 — 2 



22 8 Hephaistos and Athena 

totle's^ treatise on meteorology. The philosopher compares thunder 
to 'the crackle heard in the flame, which some call Hephaistos 
laughing, others Hestia, others again their threatening.' Hephaistos, 
then, was ordinary fire, the fire that burns and crackles on the 
hearth. He was also the jet of flaming gas that leaps like a fountain 
from the rocky vent. For not only did such jets give rise to the 
Lycian place-names Hephaistion, Hephaistia, or the Mountains of 
Hephaistos^, but the lambent flame was worshipped as the very 
god. L. Malten^ justly lays stress on the well-informed words of 
Maximus Tyrius^: 'For the Lycians Olympos sends up fire, not 
like that of Aitne, but peaceful and mild ; and this fire is at once 
the place and the object of their cult.' It must not, however, be 
forgotten that earthly fire was commonly conceived as stolen or 
fallen from heaven ^ Hesiod, Aischylos, and others speak of Pro- 
metheus' theft^ Homer tells how Hephaistos, flung from heaven by 
Zeus because he had dared to help Hera, fell on Lemnos and was 
there tended by the Sinties', or how after his fall (due to the 
unkindness of his mother who wanted to conceal her lame offspring) 
he was hidden for nine years in a hollow cave by Eurynome and 
Thetis^. The descent of Hephaistos on Lemnos gave curative 

^ Aristot. meteor. 2. 9 369 a 29 ff. yiveruL 5' 17 TrXrjyr} rbv avTov rpbirov, u>s TrapeiKaaai 
(xel^ovL fiLKpbv Trddos, T<^ €v TTj <p\oyi ytvofi^vi^ xpoipq}, dv KaXovaiv ol [xkv rbv "H^atcrroi' 
7eXa»', oi 5e t7]v 'Ecriai', 01 5' aTreCkrjv ro{)T(j)v. 

^ Supra ii. 972 n. i. 

■^ L. Malten in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc, viii. 319, 328, id. in the fahrb, d. kais. 
deutsch. arch. Inst. 19 12 xxvii. 237. 

^ Max. Tyr. diss. 8. 8 Diibner Avkiocs 6 "OXv/xiros irvp iKbiboi, ovx ojuloiov t^j Airvalip, 
dXX' elprjuLKOv Kal crv/xfieTpov Kai iffrlv avTots to irvp tovto /cat iepov Kai dya\/j.a. 

^ See e.g: A. Kuhn Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks'^ Giitersloh 1886 
passim^ C. Swainson The Folk Lore and Provincial Names of British Birds London 1886 
pp. 16 f. (robin), 42 and 124 (wren), P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1906 iii. 
156 f. (wren, robin, lark), 159 (swallow), O. Schrader in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of 
Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1909 ii. 39 b, E. Hammarstedt in M. Ebert Reallexikon 
der Vorgeschichte Berlin 1925 iii. 279. 

^ Supra i. 323 f. 

'' //. I. 590 ff., cp. Val. Flacc. 2. 87 ff., Apollod. i- 3. 6, Loukian. de sacrif. 6, Myth. 
Vat. I. 128, 2. 37, 2. 40, 3. 10. 4, alib. Anth. Pal. 15. 26. 8 (Dosiadas) fxarpoppiirTos \ 
Perhaps pLarpSppLTrvos cod. points to a compound of fiarpo- with piKvos, cp. h. Ap. 317 
Trats ^/x,6s"H0ata'Tos, piKvo% irddas. 

^ II. 18. 394 ff. Cp. the refuge of Dionysos as described by Eumel. frag. 10 Kinkel 
ap. schol. A.D. //. 6. 131 irapayevbpLevov bk aiirbv et's ttju Qpg,Kr}u AvKOvpyos 6 ApiJUPTOS 
XuTTTjeras "Hpas fiiaei, jUi6(i}Tn direXavvei, airbv t'^s yi)^ Kal KaddTTTerai avrov Kai tCov TidrjvQif 
ervyx^vov yap avT(^ avvopyid^ovcrai. de-qXdTop be iXavi'djuevoi /xdcrriyL rbv debu '^airevde 
TLfiiopr)<raadai,. 6 de virb diovs eis ttjv ddXaaaav Karadi/veL, Kal virb Qiridos vTroXa/x^dverai 
Kai 'EvpvvbfxrjS. 6 ovv AvKOvpyos ovk d/x(.(rdl duacre^rjaas ^8wk€ ttjv e^ dvOpuiiroiv diKTjv 
d<prip^6r) ydp Trpos tov Atos rbv ocpdaXjjLov. riji L<TTopias iroXXoi efxurjcrdrjiTav, irporjyovfJL^vcos 
8e 6 rrjv 'EvpuTrtav ireTroirjKcoi Ei/'ytiTjXos. 



Hephaistos and Athena 229 

properties to the soil. Dioskorides^ of Anazarbos, a contemporary 
of the elder Pliny, states that Lemnian earth was obtained from 
a tunnel in a marshy spot, mixed with goat's blood, moulded, 
stamped with the image of a goat, and hence called the goat's seal. 
It was drunk in wine as an antidote to poisons, and it countered 
the bites of poisonous creatures. Certain persons used it also in 
religious rites. And it was good for dysentery. Galen visited the 
island twice (162 and 166 A.D.^) to test the accuracy of Dioskorides' 
remarks^. On the second occasion he reached the hill near the 
town of Hephaistias and observes* that its burnt colour and barren 
nature^ account for the myth of Hephaistos' fall. He found the 
priestess scattering wheat and barley on the ground, and performing 

A Roman relief of blue-flecked Italian marble, formerly owned by G. Piranesi and 
now at Berlin (Gerhard Ant. Bildw. p. 320 f. pi. 81, 6 ( = my fig. 146), Ant. Skulpt. Berlin 
p. 369 f. no. 912 fig., Reinach Rip. Reliefs ii. 21 no. r. Height 0-28™, length 0-84"^), 
shows Hephaistos, in the garb and with the tools of a smith, falling through mid air. 
Above is heaven represented by Zeus with a thunderbolt and Hera with a sceptre (faces 
restored) appearing over clouds. Below is a sea-goddess (Thetis ? Thalassa ??) reclining 
with her left arm propped on a pistrix, beneath which are waves. Close by is the rocky 
island of Lemnos, on which stands Athena holding a branch of her olive tree — *als auf 
attischem Besitze' {Ant. Skulpt. Berlin p. 370). The female figure on the left with 
a shield at her feet and a helmet (added by the restorer) in her hand belongs to a different 
scene, as does the canopy suspended on the right. 

^ Dioskor. 5. 113 p. 778 f. Sprengel 17 5e Arjuxvia yevvwixivrj 777 '4<jtlv '4k tivos virovofiov 
dvTpdbdovs (cp. Plin. nat. hist. 35. 31), ava<j)€pofxiv7) airo K-qfivov tt)^ v^crov, ixoT^fftjs eXdjdr} 
rbirov, KaKeWev iKX^yerai Kai /xiyvvrai at/JLari alyeiq: ' rjv oi iKei avdpojiroL dvairXdcraovTes /cat 
(r(ppayi^ovT€S eiKovi aiybs acppayida koKovclv alyos. dvvafxip d^ ^%et avridorov dauacri/xctiv 
(papfJidKCtiu 'i^oxov, TTLvoixivrj avv otvi^ koI irpo\r](pd€T<Ta e^eixeladai duayKa^ei rd d7}\r)Tripia' 
dp/x6^€L de Kal irpbs ras tCov davafflfxojv io^oktav irXrjyds Kal Brj^ets' ixlyvvrai. 8e /cat dvTidoTOLS' 
XP^vrai di rtj/es Kal els reXeras avrrj' 'iari de /cat dvaevrepiaLS xPVC'-f^os. 

2 C. Fredrich in the Atk. Mitth. 1906 xxxi. 73 n. i. 

^ Galen. Trept Kpdaeus /cat dwdfieias tQp dTrXwi' (papfJLaKOJv 9. i. 2 (xii. 171 Kllhn), cp. Trepi 
dvTidoTOtiv I. 2 (xiv. 8 Klihn). 

■* Galen. Trept Kpdaeojs Kal dvvdfieus tCov dirXCov ^apfxaKCvv 9. i. 2 (xii. 173 f. Klihn) /cat 
TO ye vTTo Tov iroLrjTov Xeyofxevov (//. i. 593) eirl roO 'H^atVrou, KaTnreaei' ev Arifjivcp, did ttju 
<f>i(nv TOV X6(f)ov doKel fxoi tov jULvdov iiriaTaadai. (paiveTai yap o/xoioTaTOS KeKavfi^vcp /cara ye 
TTjv xpoaj/ /cat 8id to /xrjdev iv avTcp (pdeadai. els tovtov ovv tov Xo^ov 77 tc Upeia irapayevo- 
fi^vr), Kad' 8v iyui Kaipbv ^ir^^rjv ttjs vqcov, Kal Tiva irvpCov re Kal Kpidwv dptdfxbv efi^dXXovcra 
Ty yrj Kal dXXa Tivd Troirjcracra /cara Tbv eTnx<jopLov ae^acfxbv, eTrXrjpwaev /nev oXrjv d/xa^av ttjs 
yrjs, KOfxiaacra 5' et's ttiv ttoXlv ojs elTrov dpTtus icTKe^acre ras iroXvdpvX'qTovs A-rjixvlas cr<f)payTdas. 
^do^ev ovv fioL TTvd^ffdaL [xt] tl vpoTepov iroTe Tpdyeiov -^ atyeiov atfia ttJ yy Ta^Trj fxiyvijfxevov 
ev laToplq. TrapeLX-^cpaatv. e^ rj ireijaei wdvTes ol aKOvaavTes iy^Xacrav, oix 0^ TVXOVTes dvdpes 
bvTes, dXXd Kal Trdvv ireiraLbevixivoi, ra r' dXXa Kal ttjv e7rt%a;pt0J/ laToplav diraffav. dXXd Kal 
^i^Xiov ^Xa^ov irapd tlvos avTQv, yeypafifi^vov vtto tivos tQv ivixojplojv dvSpQv ^fxirpoffdev, 
ev (jj TTjj/ xPWf-v diraaav edlddffKe ttjs Arj/xvlas yyjs, 'odev ovk (jOKVT^cra Kdyih Treipadrjvai tov 
(papfxaKov, dia/xvplas Xa^cov (xcppaylbas. k.t.X. 

^ Cp. Galen, id. (xii. 170 Klihn) /cat 5ta ttjv xpoav ^vlol Arjfxvlav (xIXtov [sc. ovo/xd^ovcriv). 
^X^' M^" ovv TTJV xpbav ttjv avTrjv ttj ixIXTip, biacfiipeL 5' avTTjs Tip fxr) /xoXijveLV dxTOfxiv-qv 
Kaddwep eKelvrjv, Kal /card ye Tbv Xb<pov iv ttj Aijixvip Tbv 6\ov ovTa Kippbv Trj xP^^i '^^^' ^^ 
oUtc divdpov iffHv oifre ir^Tpa oiiTe (pvrbv, fxbvrj 5' 17 Toia^Tt) yrj. 



230 Hephaistos and Athena 










Hephaistos and Athena 231 

sundry other rites, after which she filled a whole waggon with the 
earth, took it to the town, and made it into the famous Lemnian 
seals\ He asked if there was anything in the tradition that the 
blood of he-goats or she-goats had been first mixed with the earth, 
but was laughed at by those who heard him. One of them, a 
prominent citizen of Hephaistias, furnished him with a treatise 
setting forth all the virtues of Lemnian earth, and said that he 
himself used it in cases of wounds, snake-bites, bites of savage beasts, 
poisonous drugs, etc. So Galen, much impressed, got 20,000 of the 
seals and did not scruple to try them ^. Elsewhere^ he complains 
that dangerous imitations of the real seals were put on the market. 
Philostratos^ of Lemnos {c. 235 A.D.) informs us that Philoktetes, 
when left on the island, was promptly healed by means of Lemnian 
earth, a sovereign remedy for madness, hemorrhage, and the bite of 
the water-snake. F. W. Hasluck^ has traced the further fortunes of 
this specific from the pharmacopoeia of Paulos the Aeginetan^ 
through medieval' to modern times. C. Fredrich^ in his valuable 

^ Id. ib. (xii. 169 f. Klihn) describes in detail their manufacture: TavT7]v yap roi ttjp yrjv 
7] lipeia Xafi^dvovcra fxerd rtvos iirix^^pi-ov TLfj.r]s, ov ^iboov dvojiivoiv, dWd irvpCov kol KpidCov 
duTLdLdofievcav t(^ xwpt'w, KOfxl^eL [xev eh rrjv ttoKlv dva(f)vpd(jaaa vdari Kal tttjXov vypbv epya- 
crafjLevrj Kal tovtov rapd^aaa <r(po5pQs, elr' edcraaa KaTaarrjvaL, irpQrov jxkv dcpaipuTo einTroXTjS 
iidcjp, eW^ utt' avT(^ to Xiiraphv ttjs yrjs Xa^ovaa Kal fxovov diroXnrovcfa to ixpL^rjKos XtdQdh 
T€ Kal ipa/n/nQdes, oirep Kal dxpf]0'T6v icTTiv, dxpt- toctovtov ^rjpaiveL tov Xiirapov irrjXbv axpts 
dv eh (xdaTaaiv d<pLKriTaL ytiaXa/cou Krjpov, Kal toijtov Xa/x^dvovaa fjidpia cfxiKpa ttjv lepdv Til's 
' ApTe/jitdos eiri^dXXeL acppayida, KdiretTa ttoXlv ev cr/cta ^Tjpalj^et, /u^xpts du dKpi^Qs dvLKjxos 
dTTOTeXeadrj Kal y^vqTai. tovto 87] t6 yiuoJCTKOfj-evou iaTpots dwa<n (pdpjxaKov rj Arj/xvia acppayis. 

^ In addition to the immediate sequel cp. Galen. fxeOodos depairevTLKrj 4. 7 (x. 298 Klihn), 
5. 5 (x. 329 Kiihn), irepl dvTefi^aXXofx4vwv (xix. 734 Klihn). 

^ Galen, irepl dPTLdoTcov i. 2 (xiv. 8 Klihn). 

■* Philostr. /ler. 6. 2 KaTaXeLcpdrjuat ixkv yap iv A-qjxvix) tov ^lXokt7)T7]v, ov /xtju 'iprjiJiov tQv 
depafrevcrdvTiov, ov8' drreppLfx^xiuov tou'^XXtjulkov- ...ladT]vaL 5' avTOu avTiKa viro ttjs jScuXou 
ttJs ArjiuLvias, es tjp XeyeTat irecrelv 6"H0aiO'TOS* rj 8' eXavuei jxev Tas /mavLKas voaovs, eKpayev 
5' alp.a tVxet, v8pov 5' I'arat fxovov 8r}yfia ipireTQu. 

^ F.W. Hasluck 'Terra Lemnia' inthe Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1909 — 1910 xvi. 220 — 230 
with 5 figs. 

^ Paul. Aigin. de re nied. 7. 3 (ii. 203, 20 ff. Heiberg). 

^ H. F. Tozer The Islands of the Aegean Oxford 1890 p. 260 *In Western Europe it 
was known from an early period as terra sigillata', but the original Greek term sphragis 
also found its way into the pharmacopoeias of the West, where it appears in such corrupt 
forms as lempniafrigdos, and even lima fragis^ ^ Alphita^ a Medico- Botanical Glossary^ 
ed. Mowat, in the Anecdota Oxoniensia, pp.96, 219. The compiler of the Glossary remarks, 
*■ Lempnia frigdos terra est sigillata.'' 'Frigdos' is a corruption of (rcppayiSos, the genitive 
case being used, as Mr Mowat has pointed out to me, on account of the form employed 
in a doctor's prescription).' Bartholomaeus Anglicus {s. xiii A.D.) London 1535 Lib. 15. 
139, 98 has more to say: 'A serten veyne of the erthe is called Terra Sigillata, and is 
singularly cold and drie. And Dioscorides calleth it Terra Saracenica and argentea, and 
is somedeale white, well smellynge and clere. The chief virtue thereof byndeth and 
stauncheth.' Etc. 

^ C. Fredrich 'Lemnos' in the AtA. Mitth. 1906 xxxi. 72 citing A. Conze Reise auf 



232 



Hephaistos and Athena 



monograph on Lemnos notes that Oriental apothecaries still sell 
packets of Lemnian earth, dug before sunrise on August 6 (the 
Transfiguration) in the presence of Greek and Turkish clergy, and 
guaranteed as genuine by the impress of a Turkish seal^ I may add 
that the well-stocked medical cabinet of J. F. Vigani^ the first 
Professor of Chemistry at Cambridge, now preserved in the Library 
of Queens' College, contains various samples of earth (c, 1700 A.D.) 
distinguished on their labels as Terra sigill. Lemnia^ Terra sigilL 
alb., and Terra sigilL rubr. (fig. 147 a, b, c). Their colours are respec- 
tively light red, white, and dark red. The first and third have stamped 
in relief the Turkish crescent and star on a shield together with a 
bunch of grapes and the legend TERRA SIG(l)^|leh(h)ia. The 






second shows a seven-headed dragon, with wings and a twisted tail, 
and reads TERRA '^M^M SIGILLATA (?). It may be a rival earth of 
alien manufacture. Fredrich holds ^ that this whole business of a 
Lemnian medicament points backwards to a marriage of the fire-god 

den Inseln des Thrakischen Meeres Hannover i860 p. 121 and G. Pantelides 'laropLa rrjs 
vr)<Tov KriiJLVov Alexandria 1876 p. 47 ff- The Turks think that drinking vessels made of 
Lemnian earth render any poison drunk out of them harmless (Conze loc. cit.): cp. Plout. 
de red. rat. aud. 9 on pots made of clay from Cape Kolias. 

^ Other details are given by P. Belon du Mans Les observations de plusieurs singularitez 
df choses niemorables, trouv^es en Grece, Asie, ludie^ Egypte, Arabie, df autres pays 
estranges Paris 1555 P- "^9 f« (Greek mass celebrated in small chapel of Sotira^ after which 
the monks fill 'petits sacs de poil de bestes' w^ith the earth, etc.). He figures a selection 
of the seals, which bear in Arabic letters the words tin imachton, 'sealed earth' { = Ann. 
Brit. Sch. Ath. 1909 — 1910 xvi. 222 fig. i, cp. ib. p. 230 fig. 5). 

2 On which see E. S. Peck in Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society 
1934 xxxiv. 34—49. 

^ C. Fredrich loc. cit. p. 74: 'Dort oben auf dem Mosychlos loderte ja einst ein 
Erdfeuer; der Feuerdamon hauste dort mit der Erdgottin. In der rotlichen Erde sind 
beide vermahlt; sie ist Sacrament und daher wirkt sie Wunder: xpOivrai 5i rives /cai ei's 
reXeras avrrj (Dioskorides, a. a. O.). Wir kommen damit auf uralten Gotterdienst auf 
jenem Hiigel, auf eine Verehrung der allnahrenden Erde, die nirgends wieder im aegaei- 
schen Meere soviel Getreide spendet wie auf Lemnos, und des Feuerdamons, der ein 
Damon der Zeugungskraft ist. w Arj/jLvia x^wi' /cat to TrayKparh cAas 'HipaKyTdrevKTov 
klagt Philoktet (v. 986).' 



Hephaistos and Athena 



233 

Hephaistos with the earth-goddess Lemnos ^ (fig. 152)^, consummated 

^ Steph. Byz. s.v. Aijfxvos (cited supra p. 191 n. o) asserts — perhaps on the authority 
of Hekataios (H. Diels in Hertjies 1887 xxii. 442, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. i2f^ n. 15) — 
that maidens used to be sacrificed to this ixeyakyj deds. Since Aristophanes in his L^mniai 
frag. 8 {Frag. com. Gr. ii. iioo Meineke) ap. Phot. lex. s.v. fjieydXrjv debv^ cp. Hesych. 
s.v. fxeydXr] debs, uses precisely the same phrase of the Thracian Bendis, who is often 
Hellenised as Artemis {e.g. supra ii. 115, 501), it seems highly probable that the Lemnian 
goddess was in historic times regarded as a form of Artemis and that goats had come to be 
substituted for her girl-victims. This at least would account for the persistent tradition of 
goat's blood mixed with Lemnian earth and for the goat as the sacred seal of the local 
Artemis. 

Moreover, an exact parallel may be found in the story of Embaros who, after promising 
to sacrifice his daughter to Artemis Mounychia, substituted a she-goat clad in the daughter's 
garments {supra i. 711 n. 9). This is indeed more than a mere parallel. Since Embaros 
was the reputed founder of the sanctuary of Artemis Mounychia (Pausanias the lexico- 
grapher ap. Eustath. hi II. p. 331, 25 ff. 6 5' avrds Hauo-aj/fas laTopel kuI tlvu "Efji^apop 
iirl evxv <To<f)L<xa<xdai. IdpijffaTO ydp, (prjcn, Movvvxio^s 'Apr^/UiSos iepdv • apKTOV d^ yevofi^vq^ 
ev aura; koI virb' Adrjvaiojv dvaLpedei<X7)s, Xotfibs eireyiveTO, od dTraXXaYT/i' 6 debs ixpV'^I^V^V'^^'^i 
ei Tts TT]v dvyaripa dixrei. ttj 'Apr^^tSt, Bd/oos 5^ ^ "E/x^apos vTroaxbfJi'^vos ovtoj troL-qaeiv iirl 
T(^ rrjp iepdXTvvrjv to yevos avrou di.d §lov ^xeti', diaKoafXTrjaas rrjv dvyaripa, avrrju /xeu 
dir^Kpvxpev ev t(^ d5vT(^, alya de iffdrJTL Ko<r/J.r)aas ws r-qv dvyarepa ^dvaev. odev eis Trapoifxiav, 
(prjcrl, irepL^ffTT} ^''Efi^apos eT,' TOVTicri vovvexv'^, (ppdvifios), who stood in the closest relation 




Fig. 148. 



to the Thracian Bendis {supra ii. 115), it seems likely that he came from the Thracian 
area. And, if so, his name Embaros may well be the would-be Greek form taken by 
a name really akin to Imbros. A mountain in Kilikia Tracheia was called Imbarus (Plin. 
nat. hist. 5. 93), and A. Fick Vorgriechische Ortsnamen Gottingen 1905 p. 55 ct propos of 
Imbrasos writes : '"Ifi^p- ist ein echt karisches Namenwort, wie schon G. M[eyer in the 
Beitrdge zur kunde der indogervianischen sprachen 1886 x. 193, comparing however imber, 
ofjL^pos, etc.] erkannte, und [P.] Kr[etschmer Einleitung in die Geschichte der Griechischen 
Sprache Gottingen 1896 p.] 358 [f.] weiter belegt ; wir entnehmen daher "I/X|8pos Gebirg 
und Kastell in Karien, die Insel Imbros, "IfxjSpafios der karische Hermes und die karischen 
Personennamen "IjU/Sjoacro-is, "lAt/Sa/xrts und 'Ifx^dprjXdos. Auch in lykischen Personen-, doch 
nicht Ortsnamen weist Kr. a. a. o. das Element 'Ifi^p- nach. ' 

The further parallel between the sacrifice of Embaros' daughter (bear killed, girl 
condemned, goat substituted) and that of Iphigeneia (girl condemned, deer or bear (schol. 
Aristoph. Lys. 645, et. mag. p. 748, 2f.) or bull {et. mag. p. 748, 3f.) substituted) is of 
course obvious. 

2 I figure five imperial bronze coins of Hephaistia. Of these, the first two are from 
casts of unpublished specimens now in the British Museum. One has obv. H4>AiC 
TI6nN bust of Hephaistos to right, with slight beard, pilos, and chitd?i over one 
shoulder; rev. Athena, helmeted, standing to left with Nike in right hand, spear in left 
(fig. 148). The other has obv. bust of Hephaistos to right, with full beard, ptlos, and 



^34 



Hephaistos and Athena 



in early days on Mosychlos, the mountain of volcanic vents^ Be 
that as it may, we have in Lemnos ample evidence of the belief 
that the fire which leaps up from the ground had erstwhile leapt 
down from the sky. Nor in Lemnos only. For what else but this 
popular conception underlay the fiery cycle of Herakleitos^, in which 
'the way up and down is one and the same^'? The Stoics, influenced 
as usual by Herakleitos*, identified Zeus with a single great con- 
tinuous fire, which transformed itself into all the vast variety of the 
visible worlds In a special sense Zeus was equated with fire in 
heaven^, Hephaistos with fire on earth '^; and the myth which told 




Fig. T49. 





Fig. 151. Fig. 152. 

chitSn over one shoulder; rev. H4>AIC TIGHN a flaming torch (fig. 149). A third 
shows obv. bust of Hephaistos to right, with full beard, pilos, and no chiton; rev. 
[H]4>AIC|TI6nN a flaming torch between two stars (sc. Kabeiroi or Dioskouroi) {Ant. 
Miinz. Berlin Taurische Chersonesus, etc. i. 282 no. 22 fig. ( = my fig. 150)). Another has 
obv. bust of Hephaistos to right, with slight beard, /i'/^j-, and chiton over one shoulder ; rev. 
H4>6C|T|l6nN Athena, helmeted, standing to left with Nike in right hand, spear 
in left (Imhoof-Blumer Gr. Miinzen p. 5 no. 2 pi. 1,2 (=my fig. 151)). The last gives 
obv. AHM|NOC bust of Lemnos to r|ght as city-goddess, with turreted crown and 
veil; rev. H4»AI|CTI6nN a flaming torch between hammer and tongs (Imhoof-Blumer 
Gr. Miinzen p. 6 no. 4 pi. i, 3 ( = my fig. 152), Weber Cat. Coins ii. 141 no. 2489 pi. 95). 
See further Head Hist, mim.^ p. 263. 

} C. Neumann — ^J. Partsch Physikalische Geographie von Griechenland mit besonderer 
Riicksicht aiif das Alterthum Breslau 1885 p. 314 ff., C. Fredrich in the Ath. Mitth. 1906 
xxxi. 74, 253 ff., id. in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xii. 1928 f. 

- We have more than once found Herakleitos refining upon popular beliefs {supra i. 
28 ff., 358 n. 3, ii. 12, 13 n. i, 130 n. 7, 805 n. 6). 

3 Herakl.yV^^. 69 Bywater, 60 Diels (cited supra ii. 130 n. 7). 

^ Supra i. 29 f., ii. 855 n. 2, 856 n. 9, 858 n. 6. 

^ Plout. de fac. in orb. lun. 12 6 §e Zeus iqixxv ovtos ov rrj fxev avTOv (pvaei xpti/xei'os ev 
iffTi fiiya TTvp Kal crvvex^s, vvvi 5' vcpeXrai kuI K^Ka/xirTai /cat SteffXT^/xartorat, irdv XPVf^^ 
yeyovm Kal yiyudfievos iv rats fiera^oXah ; = Chrysip'pos Jy-ag. 1045 von Arnim. 

^ Cornut. theo/. 19 p. 33, 12 ff. Lang 6 fiev yap aldrjp /cat to StauY^s /cat Kudapov irvp Zeiys 
iffTLy TO 5' iv xP'n<^^'- i«^i- depofiLy^s "H0at(rros, Herakleitos (juaest, Horn. p. 40, 9 flf. Soc. 
Philol. Bonn. dX\' eTret [7/] irvpos ovaia dnrXr), Kal to jxkv aid^pLOv...iTrl ttj^ dvcoTaTO} tov iravrbs 



Hephaistos and Athena 235 

how Zeus had flung Hephaistos down to Lemnos was taken to mean 
that fire terrestrial was derived from fire celestial^. On which showing 
Hephaistos might be interpreted as the Hghtning-flash^ — a fitting 
end for a god who began with a double axe^ In short, it would 
appear that the Stoics by pursuing the plaguy and quite illegitimate 

aidpas ovdev varepovv ^^et Trpos TeXeidTTjra, rov d^ Trap' tj/uuu irvpos r] vKrj, wpSayeios odffa, 
(pdaprr} koI Slcl ttjs viroTpecpoiJcrrjs Trap' eKacrra ^(OTrvpov/Meur), dca tovto t7}v ixev d^vrdrriv 0x67a 
<rvv€Xi*>s "H\l6u re /cat At'a Trpoaayop^^ei [sc. "Ofxrjpos), to 5' cttI yijs irvp "H(})aL<TTOv, eToifxujs 
airrbfievSv re /cat cr^euvv/uevov k.t.X., Serv. m Verg. Aen. i. 47 physici lovem aetherem id 
est ignem volunt intellegi, lunonem vero aerem, et quoniam tenuitate haec elementa paria 
sunt, dixerunt esse germana. sed quoniam luno hoc est aer subiectus est igni id est lovi, 
iure superposito elemento mariti traditum nomen est = Chrysippos/r«^. 1066 von Arnim. 

^ Supra n. 6. Cp. Lyd. de mens. 2. 8 p. 25, 9 ff. Wtinsch oQ^v 01 ixvQikoX ^evyvOovci ttjp 
Aippodirrjv Trore fiev 'H0ai<rT(^, rep x^oi'it^ wvpi, iroTe de "Apei*, rip depiip, Eustath. m II. 
p. 151, 29 ff. ws iirl w\et<jTov 5^ "Ii(pat,aTov 17 dXKrjyopici to irvp avTO voei, tovtccttl ttju 
Kav(TTLK7}v depfxdTTjTa, /cat tovto rj to btaKovLKOV Kal Trept yrjv tj to 4k irddov^ ev toTs [xeTeibpoLi 
yivoixevov, olov to iv Kepavvois /cat dcrTpawah kol tois tolovtols, k.t.X., p. 152, 5"H0at(rTos, 
TO ire pi yi)v drfkovoTi, u>s eppedrj, irvp. 

1 Herakleitos quaest. Horn. p. 42, 2 ff. Soc. Philol. Bonn. Kr\ixvov de irpCoTov o^k d\67ws 
epcOdevae {sc. "Ofirjpos) ttjv viro8e^afievT]v to deoirpo^XrjTov irvp' evTavda yap dvieuTai yijyevovs 
TTvpbs aiiTdfiaTOL <pX6yes. drjXoi de aa(pcos, otl tovto deoppvTbv ecTTi to irvp, i^ (Jov iirrjueyKev ' 

K.T.X. 

^ Cornut. ^/leoL 19 p. 341 3 ff. Lang pitpijuat 6' viro tov Aibs eis yrjv e^ ovpavov X^ycTat 
did TO Toil's irpdoTovs i'cws dp^ajxivov^ xp77(r^at Trupt e/c Kepavvo^oXiov Kaiofxivip avT(p irepiTvx^iVi 
fjt,7)d4Tro} iiTLVolq, tuiv irvpiojv eirnreaelv dvvafxeuovs, Serv. in Verg. Aen. 8. 4x4, Vulcanus... 
ignis est, et dictus Vulcanus quasi Volicanus, quod per aerem volet ; ignis enim e nubibus 
nascitur. unde etiam Homerus dicit eum de aere praecipitatum in terras, quod omne 
fulmen de aere cadit. quod quia crebro in Lemnum insulam iacitur, ideo in eam dicitur 
cecidisse Vulcanus (cp. Myth. Vat. 2. 40, 3. 10. 4, Isid. ori'g. 8. 11. 39f.)> ^^- 2« Verg. 
Aen. 8. 454 ' Lemnius' quia in Lemnum insulam, ut diximus, cecidit, [a love praecipitatus 
vel] a lunone propter deformitatem deiectus, quam aerem esse constat, ex quo fulmina 
procreantur. ideo autem Vulcanus de femore lunonis fingitur natus, quod fulmina de imo 
aere nascuntur: quod etiam Lucanus dicit (2. 269, 273) 'fulminibus terrae propior 
succenditur aer, pacem summa tenent' (cp. Myth. Vat. 2. 40, 3. 10. 4, Isid. orig: 8. 11. 
40), Nonn. Dion. 10. 298 ff. (Dionysos speaks to Zeus) aeio 5' eyiii irprjo-Tijpos dvaivofxaL 
aidipiov irvp, \ ov v4<pos, ov ^povTrjs ed^Xco kt^itov tjv d' ideXi^ffrjs, | 'S(paL(rT(p irvpbevTL 
dldov airivdTJpa Kepawov, Eustath. in II. p. 151, 30 f. (cited supra n. 7), 40 ff. 5t6 ov 
TToXuwpei ev toU dvo), dXXd KdT()j p^Trrerai dirb ^riXov de<rire<rLoio, (lis (f>r}(n fieT oXiya 6 
iroLTjT'qs {IL I. 591). oif yap (piXos iKe2vos Tip Ad, dXXd fiaXXov ttj firjTpV'Jlpa. irddos yap" Upas 
b ToiovTos "H^atoTos, ^rot d^pos dfiiTTUixa, 6t€ /jltj ^tXtws ^x^'- ^rpos tov aiOipa, p.7}de /cara 
<f>i<nv, dXXd rats yrjdev dvadvpudaeaLV diairep (ppayvvfx^vrj irpbs Tbv Ala eKireiroXificoTaL. t6t€ 
yap ol Kepavvol Kal ol cTKyjirTol yivovTai Kal e'd ti dXXo tolovtov T(p aWipi iiTLirpoadovv, p. 152, 
6 ff. e^ dipos yap dXijdws Kal 6 tolovtos {sc. Trept 7171') "H0atcrros, oiu /xovov dioTi 17 (pXb^ drip 
effTiv e^acpdeis, dXXd Kal otl ttjv dpxr^v ^olkcv eis yrjv dvojdiv irodev eXdetv, rj Kepawov cus 
et/c6s KaTevex^^vTos Kal ^6X(p evaKrjxI/avTos Kal ovtios dpxw ^Lva Kal <riripfxa irvpbs evdbvTos 
dvdpujvoLS T] /cat 6ia tlvos p.r)x<ivrjs, irvpbs i^ dipos KaTevex'S^vTos, k.t.X., Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 
227 ^Arjfivaiip irvpV dirb Kepavvo^bXov divdpov (cp. Diod. i. 13) ev 'EXXrjvLKaTs x^^pais ev 
Aififxvip TrpcoTws evpedr) to' re TrOp /cat at birXovpyiai, Kadus ev T(p irepl XLov /criVews '^XXaviKbs 
laTopel'iva fir] /card vXaTos Trjv IcrTopiav eir€^epya^ibfieda=lle\\a,mkos /rag. 112 {Frag. hist. 
Gr. i. 60 Miiller), T^a^. 71b {Frag. gr. Hist. i. 125 Jacoby, who however starts the 
fragment with the words ev Arnxvtp Trptorws k.t.X.). W. Mannhardt Die Kornddmonen 
Berlin 1868 likewise treats Hephaistos as a ' Blitzgott.' 

•^ Supra p. 200. 



236 Hephaistos and Athena 

method of allegorical conjecture had come curiously near to divining 
the original significance of Hephaistos. 

Hephaistos and Athena — if I am right — were at first the sky- 
father and the mountain-mother of a Pelasgian or Tyrsenian race, 
which had its prehistoric home in Asia Minor. And in the rude 
tale of their attempted union I should detect a popular survival of 
their old Asiatic myth. The earliest allusion to it is a propos of a 
sixth-century craftsman from Magnesia on the Maiandros^ That 
may be accident. But it can hardly be accidental that the closest 
parallels to the myth are found on Mount Agdos in Galatia^ and 
among the peasants of the Caucasus^. All the evidence, linguistic, 
religious, mythological, really points in one direction — towards Asia 
Minor as the cradle of both deities alike. 

The worship of Hephaistos and Athena, proper to the Pelasgian 
or Tyrsenian population of Athens, was complicated by that of 
other gods and goddesses as soon as Hellenic settlers entered 
Attike. An influx of Aeolians, who had swarmed off from Thessaly 
and settled on the north bank of the Ilissos^ (let us say, with 
Periphas as their king^j, brought with them from Mount Olympos 
the cult of Zeus Olympios and Ge Olympia. With Ge Olympia was 
in all probability connected the rite of the Arrhephoria and the 
mythical birth of Erichthonios^ These purely Hellenic powers 
never quite dispossessed their Pelasgian predecessors, who in the 
sixth and fifth centuries recovered something of their former prestige 
thanks to the Panathenaic policy inaugurated by Peisistratos'. 
Hence the gradual intrusion of Athena and Hephaistos into 
representations of a myth, which was strictly concerned with Ge as 
fructified by the fertilising dew of Zeus^ Erichthonios, instead of 
being the child of Zeus by Ge, is the child of Hephaistos by Ge^ or, 

^ Supra p. 220 f. ^ Supra ii. 969 n. 4. 

3 Miss E. M. Dance, in an unpublished treatise {An Analysis of the Orphic Myths 1933 
p. 12 f. ) which she kindly allowed me to read in type-script, compares the myths of Mithras 
born of a rock (F. Cumont in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. iii. 1953), Agdistis, and 
Hephaistos with A. Dirr Kaickasische Marc hen {Mdrehen der Weltliteratur) Jena 1922 
p. 182: ' Eines Tages wusch Satana ihve Hosen und breitete sie auf einem Steine zum 
Trocknen aus. Da kam Uastyrdji und sagte: *'Deine Hosen kommen mir nicht aus", 
naherte sich und liess seinen Samen auf sie ausstromen. Davon wurde der Stein, auf 
dem die Hosen lagen, schwanger.' After nine months Satana split the stone and a 
child, the hero of the Marchen, came forth. 

* Supra ii. 1123, iii. 169 n. o. ^ Supra ii. 1121 fif. 

^ Supra pp. 169 n. o, 188. ^ Supra p. 188 n. 3. ^ Supra p. 188. 

^ Isokr. 12 Panathenaicus 126 'E/)tx^oj/tos y^kv yap 6 <pvs e^ 'H^aiVrou Kal Tijs k.t.X., 
Paus. I. 2. 6 iraripa de 'Epix^ovio: Xiyovcnv dvOpuitroiv fxkv ovb^va eXvai, yov^as 5^"H0ai(7'TOJ' 
Kal Tijv, cp. Kallim. Hekale frag. 1. 2, 7 Mair {supra p. 220 n. 2) cl>s hrfQev v<f> 'B.<paia-T(p 
T€Kev Ala and Nonn. Dion. 41. 63 f. cited infra p. 237 n. i. 



The Daughters of Kekrops 237 

more often, of Hephaistos by Athena. But to the last an occasional 
poet describes him as his father's *dewV 

(b) The Daughters of Kekrops. 

The three daughters of Kekrops were Aglauros, Pandrosos, and 
Herse. All of them alike bore names suggestive of the dew. 
Aglauros denotes *the Sparkling One^'; Pandrosos^ 'the All- 
bedewed'; Herse, quite simply 'the Dew^.' 

The oldest accessible version of their myth is that given, perhaps 
as early as s, v B.C*, by Amelesagoras in his Atthzs^: 

^ Kallim. Hekale frag. i. 2, 2 f . Mair oXKa. i IlaXXds | ttjs fxev 'iaoo dr]uaL{6)v d(prj 
dplolcrou 'H<paiffToio, | k.t.\., Nonn. Dion. 41. 63 f. ov tvttov dyptov €t%oi' 'Epex^^os (by 
confusion with Erichthonios : supra p. 181 n. 2), hv re/ce FaiTys | uOXukl vvfJi<pe\j(Tas ya/j.ir]v 
"HipaiaTos eeparjv. 

^ The simplest and most satisfactory derivation of "A7Xai;pos is from dy\a6s {* dyXafSs for 
* dya-yXaf-ds : see Prellwitz Etytn. Worterb. d. Gr. Spr.'^ p. 4) and the common suffix 
-/)os. Nik. ther. 62 uses ayXavpos, 'sparkling,' as an epithet of rivers, and id. 441 as an 
epithet of a snake. 

H. Usener G'dtternainen Bonn 1896 p. 136 f. inferred from the masculine ending that 
X.yXo.vpo^ was a compound of d7(a)X- {dydXKeiv, dyaXfjio) and aiipax *eine gottin heiterer 
luft, hellen himmels,' cp. 'AyXa'ta. A. Fick in the Beitrdge zur kunde der indogermanischen 
sprachen 1901 xxvi. 112 similarly derives "A7Xaupos from d7Xa6s+ ai/pa (taking dyXo,vpo% 
irdvdpoa-os epfft] to have been a dactylic line or half-line, 'die bei heiterer luft...alles 
betraufelnde...bethauung'). E. Maass ' Aglaurion' in the A^A. Mitth. 1910 xxxv. 337 — 341 
does the same, but holds that o-iipa. (connected with d'{]p) was an old word for 'water' 
(hence dvavpos 'mountain-torrent,' Hesych. iwajjpovs- roi/s x^^f^'^PP^^^ Trorafjioijs, Hes. 
^heog. 353 HXrj^aijpr) re FaXa^ai^pT; r' as Nereids, and perhaps dyavpos ' abundant, affluent '), 
which came to mean 'moist, cool air' and so 'breeze.' On this showing "AyXavpos would 
be a water-nymph (cp. //. 2. 307 dyXabp iidcop, Hom. ep. 4. 7 dyXabu ...vdcop) and 'AyXa^pcov 
a Nymphaeujn. 

Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 7 n. 3 thinks that "AyXavpos may refer to the dew 
('blinkende Tauperlen'), but proposes no etymology. 

In any case "AyXavpos, not " AypavXos, is the inscriptional form (K. Meisterhans 
Grammatik der attischen Inschriften^ Berlin 1900 p. 83 n. 712). Both are found in literary 
texts (J. Toepffer in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 826). "A7pauXos seems to have been 
taken by popular etymology from an epithet of Pan, to whose flute the Dew-sisters danced 
(Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 1196 n. 3 sub fin., i394 i^- 4)> 

^ Supra pp. 166, 179 f. * Supra p. 157 n. 9. 

^ Amelesagoras frag, i {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 22 Mtiller) ap. Antigon. hist. mir. 12 
A/MeXrjaayopas de 6 'A$7]va2os 6 ttjp ' Ardlda cvyyeypacpois oij (prjcn Kopuivqv TrpoaiiTTaadaL irpbs 
TT^v dKpbiroXiv , ov8^ ^xot cLf eliretv ewpa/cws ovdeis. dTrodidwcriv de ttjv airiav jivOlkCos. (pTjatv 
yap 'H0aio-T(^ dodelarjs ttjs 'Adrjvds avyKaraKXideTffav avTT]v dcpavLadrjpai., rbv de"Ii(pata-Tov 
€LS yrjv weabvTa irpoteadai rb aTrip/xa, tt]u d^ yrjv varepov avT(^ dvadovvat ^'EtpixBbvLOv, 8u 
rpi(f>eLV T7)v ' Adr)vdv Kal ets KiffTTjv Kadelp^ai Kal irapadeadai. rats KiKpoiros iraLcriv, 'AypatjX(p 
Kal Tlavbpbaq} KaVlStpari, Kal iiTLTd^aL fii] dvoiyeiv ttjv kl<jt7)v, 'ius 'dv avrr) ^Xdrj. d(piKOfi^vT)v 5e 
els JleXXrjVTjv ^^peiv opos, IVa ^pvfjia irpb ttjs d/cpoTroXews iroLTj^rj, tcls 8^ KiKpoiros dvyaTipas Tds 
diOf' AypavXov KalUdvdpocrop, ttjv kIctttiv duoi^ai Kal Ibetv dpaKOVTas 81L10 irepl Tbv 'Epix&bviov 
TT} 5e Adrfvq. (pepoia-rj t6 6pos, 6 vvv /caXetrai AvKa^TjTTOS, KopuvTjv (prjixlv diravTrjaat Kol 
direiu OTL ^pLxOovios kv (pauepc^, ttjv be dKoijaa^av pixj/ai Tb opos 6irov vvv icTi, ttj 8^ Kopdovri 
5td TT)v KaKayyeXlav elireiv ws ets dKpoiroXiv ov dijMS avTrj ^o-rat d(piK^(x6at.. 



238 The Daughters of Kekrops 

'Amelesagoras of Athens, author of the Atthis, asserts that no crow flies to 
the AkropoHs and that nobody can claim to have seen one so doing ^. He adds 
a mythical explanation. He states that, when Athena was given to Hephaistos, 
she lay down with him and vanished^. Hephaistos fell to earth and spent his 
seed. The earth afterwards produced Erichthonios, whom Athena nurtured and 
shut up in a basket and entrusted to the daughters of Kekrops — Agraulos, 
Pandrosos, and Herse — charging them not to open the basket until she 
returned. She then went to Pellene^ and fetched a mountain to serve as a 
bulwark in front of the Akropolis. The daughters of Kekrops, two of them, 
Agraulos and Pandrosos, opened the basket and saw two snakes coiled round 
Erichthonios. As Athena was carrying the mountain, which is now called 
Lykabettos, a crow — he states — met her and said "Erichthonios is exposed." 
She on hearing it threw down the mountain where it now is, and told the crow 
as bearer of evil tidings that never thereafter would it be lawful for it to go to 
the Akropolis.' 

1 Andron of Halikarnassos yra^. 16 (Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 352 MWlXtx) = frag, i (Tresp 
Frag. gr. Kultschr. p. 67 f.) ap. Apollon. hist. mir. ^"Avdpwv €v ry 8' tQv irpos ^tXtTTTro:' 
dv<7LCov ' KopdbvT} €V T7/ ' A.TTLKrj €13 Tr]P OLKpoTToXiv ov8e/xia eibpazai eiaepxoiJ.^v'r), Kaddirep ovde 
€v nd0y irepl TO. dvpdifxara to, ttjs 'A0/oo5ir7/s fjivTa i^nrrafjiiv'r) (supra ii. 783 n. 3), Plin. 
flat. hist. 10. 30 ab arcturi sidere ad hirundinum adventum notatur earn {sc. cornicem) in 
Minervae lucis templisque raro, alicubi omnino non adspici, sicut Athenis, Ail. denat.an. 
5. 8 Kopwvri 8^ is TTjv ' Adrjvaiwv aKpoiroXiv ovk ^artv eTTijSard, cp. Ov.afn. 2. 6. 35 armiferae 
comix invisa Minervae, Hyg. fab. 166 hae cum cistulam aperuissent cornix indicavit (on 
the crow as a typical informer see O. Keller Die antike Tierwelt Leipzig 1913 ii. 103 f.). 

Some modern travellers accept as true the statement that crows avoid the top of the 
Akropolis (R. Chandler Travels in Greece Oxford 1776 p. 54 'Crows, as I have often 
observed, fly about the sides of the rock, without ascending to the height of the top'). 
But such avoidance cannot be 'due simply to the height of the hill' (D'Arcy W. Thompson 
A Glossary of Greek Birds Oxford 1895 p. 99). Rather, the site is too rocky to furnish the 
crows' accustomed food. Besides, it is still tenanted by plenty of owls (on the war of owls 
V. crows see Aristot. hist. an. 9. i. 609 a 8 if., Antigon. hist. mir. 57 (62), Plout. de invidia 
et odio 4, Ail. de nat. an. 3. 9, 5. 48, Souid. s.v. dWo yXaij^, &X\o Kopdovrj (pdiyyerai, Zenob. 
I. 69, Diogenian. 2. 16, eiusd. cod. Vindob. i. 31, Greg. Kypr. i. 39, Makar. i. 80, 
Apostol. 2. 32, Arsen. p. 44 Walz. Cp. A. de Gubernatis Zoological Mythology London 
1872 ii. 245 f. ('The Owls and the Crows'), D'Arcy W. Thompson op. cit. pp. 46, 98, 
H. T. Francis — E.J. Thomas /a/a^a Tales Cambridge 1916 p. 213 ff. (' The Owl as King ')). 

^ Supra p. 222. 

3 Pellene, an ancient city of Achaia, ' stands on a hill which rises at the summit into 
a sharp point. The top is precipitous and therefore uninhabited' (Paus. 7. 27. i. But 
see Sir J. G. Frazer ad loc). 'At the entrance into the city is a temple of Athena built of 
native stone. The image is of ivory and gold : they say that it was made by Pheidias 
before he made the images of Athena in the Akropolis of Athens and at Plataiai. The 
people of Pellene also say that there is an ddyton of Athena running down deep into the 
earth under the pedestal of the image, and that the air from this ddyton is damp, and 
therefore good for the ivory' {id. 7. 27. 2). The statue is shown on imperial bronze coins 
of Pellene (Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner Num. Comm. Paus. ii. 91 f. pi. S, 10, Frazer 
Pausanias iv. 183 f. fig. 25, H. Hitzig— H. Bliimner on Paus. 7. 27. 2 with Mllnztaf. 5, 4, 
Furtwangler Masterpieces of Gk. Sculpt, p. 36 ('not by Pheidias'), G. M. A. Richter 
The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks New Haven, Yale University Press 1929 
pp. 161, 173). 

Amelesagoras' mention of Pellene is borne out by Kallim. Hekale frag. i. 2, 11 Mair 
UeW^PTjv icpiKaveu 'AxauSa. But Kallim. frag. 19 Schneider ap. et. mag. p. 160, 30 f. 



The Daughters of Kekrops 239 

Euripides, who likewise mentions the two snakes placed by Athena 
as guards over Erichthonios^, further hints at the fate of the maidens: 
having opened the ark they must needs perish and stain the rocky 
cliff with their blood ^. Apollodoros^ is more explicit: 

'Athena, wishing to make him {sc. Erichthonios) immortal, reared him in 
secret without the knowledge of the other gods. She laid him in a basket and 
entrusted it to Pandrosos, daughter of Kekrops, forbidding her to open the 
basket. But Pandrosos' sisters out of curiosity opened it and saw a snake coiled 
beside the babe. Then, as some say, they were destroyed by the snake itself, or, 
as others declare, by reason of Athena's anger they were driven mad and flung 
themselves down from the Akropolis.' 

According to Hyginus*, the sisters maddened by Athena hurled 

i) jj-kv aeprd^ovaa jx^ya rpijcpos 'Tipi^ivpov \ dcrrvpov elcrave^aiv — points rather to Pallene, the 
promontory of Chalkidike (Plin. nat. hist. 4. 36 oppida Pallene, Phlegra. qua in regione 
montes Hypsizorus, etc.), and this suits better the position of Lykabettos (N.E. of the 
Akropolis). See further Mommsen Fesk d. Stadt Athen p. 498 n. i. Pellene-*-Akte (?) 
-*• Akropolis and Pallene -»• Lykabettos-*- Akropolis were alternative versions of the myth. 

^ Eur. Ion 21 ff. /cetVy ykp 17 Atos Kopy] \ <ppovpih -rrapa^ejj^aaa <pv\aK€ cnb/xaTOi \ diaaic 
dpoLKOvre wapdivoLS ' AyXavpiai \ didojaL aui^eiv odev 'Epex^e^Sats '4ti, (so J. Barnes for e/ce? 
codd.) I v6p.os tIs ia-Tiv 6<pe<nv ev XjOucTyXdrots | Tpi(peiv t4kp^ (on which custom see id. 
1427 ff. with the remarks of E. Kuster Die Schlange in der griechischen Ktmst und 
Religion Giessen 1913 p. 113 n. : 'so haben diese Schlangen zweifellos eine apotropaische 
Bedeutung, die Kinder vor Unheil zu schiitzen ; es scheint aber hinter dieser Sitte als 
tieferer Kern die sehr alte Vorstellung verborgen zu sein, wonach eigentlich zwischen 
Schlange und damonischem Kind kein grosser Unterschied besteht,' cp. Sosipolis at Elis 
(Paus. 6. 20. 4 f , supra i. 58, ii. 1151), Zeus Sosipolis at Magnesia on the Maiandros 
{supra i. 58) if it be he who on a coin of the town is seated above a basket and snake 
[supra i. 153 fig. 128, O. Kern in the /ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1894 ix. Arch. 
Anz. p. 81), the snake born and suckled by Klytaimestra in her dream (Aisch. cho. 526 fif.), 
and the modern Greek custom of calling an unbaptised child dpaKos, dpaKovras or dpaKuiva, 
8paKov\a, dpuKovriaaa according to sex (C. W^achsmuth Das alte Griechenland im neuen 
Bonn 1864 pp. 34, 62, W. Mannhardt Wald- und Feldkulte'^ Berlin 1905 ii. 64, Harrison 
Proleg. Gk. RelP- p. 331 n. 2)). 

^ Eur. Ion 267 ff. ION eic 7-^5 Trarpds aov irpoyovos ^jSXaa-TCP irar-qp; \ KP. 'Epix^oj'tos 
76- TO bk yevos /x' ovk co0eXei. | IfiN rj Kai acp' 'Addva yijdev i^aveiXeTO ; \ KP. es irapdivovs 
ye X"/ocis, ov reKovad vlv. \ K^N didwai 5', wa-irep (A. Kirchhoff cj. alaTrep) iv ypacprj 
vofxi^erai \ KP. K^Kpowds ye (Xih^eLv Traiaiu ovx bpoifxevov. \ IfiN iJKOvaa XucraL irapdevovs 
reOxos ^eas. | KP. roiydp davov<xai (XKOireXov yfia^av ir^rpas. 

* Apollod. 3. 14. 6 (continuing the passage cited supra p. 2 18 if.) tovtov 'Adr]vd Kp^<pa 
Twv dXXcov 6eQv ^rpecpev dddvarou deXovaa Trotijaat, /cat KaradeTaa avrbu els Kiarrjv Ilavdp6(rq} 
Trj K^/fpOTTOs irapaKaredeTO {eTriKUT^deTO cod. P.), dTrenrovaa rrjv KLtXT'qv dvolyeiv. ai de 
ddeX(pai T^s IlauSpdcrov dvoiyovatv virb irepiepylas Kai deijovrai t<^ ^p4(pei irape<nreipafxevov 
(C. G. Heyne cj. irepLeaireipaixevov) dpdKovra, Kai, cbs ixkv '4vioi X^yovaLV, vir' avrov diecpddp- 
7}crav ToO dpdKovros, (hs d^ eVioi, 8l' opyrjv 'Adrjvds ipLpi^aveh yevofxevat Kara r^s d/cpoTroXews 
aurds ^ppixf/av. 

^ Hyg- poet. astr. 2. 13 eum dicitur Minerva in cistula quadam ut mysteria contectum 
ad Erechthei filias detulisse et his dedisse servandum ; quibus interdixit, ne cistulam 
aperirent. sed ut hominum est natura cupida, ut eo magis appetant, quo interdicatur 
saepius, virgines cistam aperuerunt et anguem viderunt. quo facto, insania a Minerva 
iniecta, de arce Atheniensium se praecipitaverunt. anguis autem ad Minervae clipeum 
confugit et ab ea est educatus. 



240 The Daughters of Kekrops 

themselves from the citadel at Athens, while the snake fled for 
refuge to the shield of Athena and was reared by the goddess. But 
the same author elsewhere^ informs us that the maidens, when 
maddened by Athena, hurled themselves into the sea. The tale was 
popular, and later writers repeat it with other unimportant variations^. 
Under the empire the versions degenerate till Fulgentius^ {c. 500 
A.D.) makes the fateful basket entrusted 'to two sisters, Aglauros 
and Pandora'! Even Ovid^ following some Hellenistic source 
(Nikandros?)^, and himself followed by a prose compiler misnamed 
Lactantius Placidus^, rewrites the whole narrative in absurd romantic 
vein. 

Miss J. E. Harrison' in an ingenious but hardly convincing 
passage claimed that the story of the Kekropides was invented to 
account for the ritual of the Arrhephoria. It may indeed have been 
an aetiological myth; for the Athenians are said to have performed 
mysterious rites for Agraulos and Pandrosos, who had sinned in 
opening the chest ^. But it was the Kallynteria and the Plynteria 

1 Hyg. fab. i66 (continuing the passage cited supj-a p. 222 n. 6) quern Minerva cum 
clam nutriret, dedit in cistula servandum Aglauro Pandroso et Hersae Cecropis filiabus. 
hae cum cistulam aperuissent comix indicavit [supra p. 238 n. i) ; illae a Minerva insania 
obiecta ipsae se in mare praecipitaverunt. 

The same alternative versions were given in the case of Aigeus' suicide (K. Wernicke 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 954, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 31 n. 13). The attempt 
to harmonise them was a failure (Nikokrates frag. 2 [Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 466 Miiller) ap. 
schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 831 Ni/c o/cpdr?;? 5^ <pr\(jiv 6tl airb Aiy4(as KaTaKprj/xpiaavTos eavrov dirb 
TTJs aKpoTrdXeojs et's ttjv ddXacrcrav. ovk ed. ttoXv yap dir^x^'- V cLKpdTroXis ttjs daXdffarjs 
TTapairXiovTi). 

2 The literary evidence was diligently collected and arranged by B. Powell Erich- 
thonius and the three Daughters of Cecrops ( Cornell Studies in Classical Philology xvii) 
Ithaca, New York 1906 pp. i — 7, 56 — 63. 

3 Fulgent, juyth. 2. 11 (continuing the passage cited supra p. 222 n. 7) quem Minerva 
in cistam abscondidit draconeque custode opposito duabus sororibus Aclauro et Pandorae 
commendavit. 

4 Ov. met. 2. 708—835. 

^ ^ .^ QV^gxdJ^ Nikander und Ovid QxoxixngQXi 1909!. 118. 

^ Lact. Plac. narr. fab. 2. 12 Athenis virgines per solemne sacrificium canistris 
Minervae ferunt pigmenta (B. Powell op. cit. pp. 5 n.^, 40 n.^ cj. figmentd) : inter quas 
a Mercurio eminens specie conspecta est Herse Cecropis filia. itaque adgressus est 
sororem eius Aglauron, precatusque ut se Hersae sorori suae iungeret. at ilia cum pro 
ministerio aurum eum poposcisset, Minerva graviter offensa est avaritia eius, ob quam 
cistulam etiam traditam sororibus eius custodiendam adversus suum praedictum aperuisset : 
Invidiae novissime imperavit eam sororis Herses exacerbare (so A. von Staveren, after 
Giselin, for sorori Hersae exacerbavit cod.) fortunio : diuque excruciatam saxo mutavit. 

'^ Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. xxxiiff., cp. ead. Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ y>' i33> ^^^' 
Primitive Athens Cambridge 1906 p. 50 f. 

^ Athenag. supplicatio pro Christianis i p. i Schwartz 6 5^ 'A^i^j'aios'Epex^et notretSw/zi 
Qvf.1 KoX ' A.ypa{)Xi^^ Ad'qvq. [/cat reXerds /cat fxvffTrjpLa ' Adrjpalot ayovcnv {seel. E. Schwartz)] 
Kol Havdpdaip, at ivoixiadrjaav dae^eiv dvoi^aaai rrju XdpvaKa. Athenagoras, like Ameles- 
agoras {supra p. 237 f.), makes Agraulos and Pandrosos the guilty sisters. J. Toepffer in 



The Daughters of Kekrops 241 

rather than the Arrhephoria that were connected by the ancients 
with the life and death of Agraulos^ or Aglauros^. And naturally 
so; for the Kallynteria fell on the nineteenth, the Plynteria probably 
on the twenty-fifth of Thargelion, and modern meteorological records 
taken in the Botanical Garden at Athens show that heavy dews 
begin to fail in May, are lacking throughout June, July, and August, 
and begin to return in September^. In mythological parlance, 
Aglauros, 'the Sparkling One,' dies. Her death was associated with 
the Plynteria, a very ill-omened day in Thargelion (May — June). 
Three weeks later, in the middle of Skirophorion (June — July), when 
the dew was rarer still, it became necessary to fertilise Mother 
Earth, not only with white clay {skiros) used as a manure, but also 
by means of a ceremonial dew-bearing. This was done in the 
Arrhephoria, as we have already seen. 

Closer investigation* makes it probable that Aglauros, Pandrosos, 
and Herse were not originally a triad of sisters. Of the three, 
Aglauros appears to have been the eldest and most venerable. 
Euripides speaks of them all as 'the Aglaurid maidens^' or, again, 

Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 828 identifies these reXeras Kai fxv<TTr)pLa with the opyia... 
a-wdpp-qTa performed by the Praxiergidai at the Plynteria (Plout. v. A Ik. 34). 

Bekker anecd. i. 239, 7 ff . Aenruo<p6pos' eopTTJs ovofxa. Aeiirpocpopia yap icm, to (p^peiv 
deiTTva rats Ke/c/)07ros dvyarpdaiv '"Epcr-^ Kai Havdpocrq} /cat 'Aypa^Xqj. e(pip€TO 5^ TToXvreXQs 
Kara riva fxvariKOv Xbyov. Kai tovto iwoiovv ol ttoXXoL' (piXoTifiias yap etx^To is discredited 
by K. F. Hermann Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitdten Heidelberg 1832 i § 56, 12 and 
Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 284 n. 4 (' Herse und Aglauros mochte man als erste 
Ersephoren ansehen, und da die Ersephoren im Pyanopsion den Peplos zu beginnen 
hatten [supra pp. 166, 212], so ward die diesem Monat angehorige Speisung, welche 
den Oschophoren gait [Philochoros op. Bekker anecd. i. 239, 11 ff.], fiir die Ersephoren 
in Anspruch genommen'). But see J. Toepfifer in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 829 and 
infra p. 242 n. 10. 

^ Phot. lex. s.v, K.aXXvvT7)pLa Kai HXvvTTjpLa' eoprQv dud/xara' yivovrai p-ev adrat 
QapyrjXLQvos ij.7)v6s, ivdrr) fiev iiri deKa KaXXvuT'/jpiay devr^pg, 8^ (pdivovros rd HXvun^pta- 
TO, p.€v liXvvTTipLd (pTjcTL 5td < r6 fX€Td> Tov ddvarov rij^' Ay pavXov ivrb^ evLavrov /xi} irXvdyjvac 
<:Tds i€pds> io'drjras' eW^ ovtu) TrXvdeiaas ttjv ovofxaalav Xa^eiv ravTrju - rd 5e KaXXi'j'T77/)ta, 
OTL irpibTT] doK€t 7} "AypavXos yevofievT) Upeia roi)s 9€oi>s Koa/xijffai- did Kai KaXXwrripia avry 
dir^dei^av Kai yap to <KaXXvv€cv> Koaixetv Kai Xa/uiTr prjveiv iaTLv. The words inserted are 
due to S. A. Naber, who cp. Bekker anecd. i. 270, i ff. dTro tov KoXX^veiv Kai Koap-elv 
Kai XajxirpTuveLv. "AypavXos yap iepeia irpdoTT] yevop.^VT) Toi)S deods eKdcrfxrjcxe. UXvvTrjpia Se 
/caXetrai 5id to fxerd tov ddvaTov ttjs 'AypavXov evbs iuLavTOv fxri TrXvdijvat rds iepds iadiJTas. 

^ Hesych. s.v. HXvvTrjpLa' eopTrj'Adrjurjaiv, rjv iiri ttj 'AyXavpov ttjs J^iKpoiros dvyaTpbs 
Tip.rj dyovcLV. 

^ Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 8 n. 2, cp. infra § 9 (h) ii (e). 

^ Miss J. E.Harrison 'The Three Daughters of Cecrops' in \}i\Q. Joiirn. Hell. Stud. 
1891 xii. 350 — 355 was, so far as I know, the first to attempt any general investigation 
of the subject. She was followed by H. Usener Gdtternamen Bonn 1896 p. 135 ff. And 
he, by B. Powell Erichthonius and the three Daughters of Cecrops [Cornell Studies in 
Classical Philology xvii) Ithaca, New York 1906 pp. i — 86 figs, i — 12. 

^ Eur. Ion 23 irapO^voLs' AyXavpiffi (cod. P, supra p. 239 n. i). 

C. III. 16 



2^2 The Daughters of Kekrops 

as 'the three daughters of Agraulos (Aglauros?)'^ and later writers 
state that their mother Agraulos or Agraulis^had for sire Aktaios^ 
or Aktaion*. But this duplication or distortion of her name is, of 
course, a mere genealogist's device. In unsophisticated times there 
was but one Aglauros, she whose precinct lay beneath the steep 
northern side of the Akropolis^ Here the Athenian youths 
assembled to swear that they would fight till death on behalf of 
their country^ This solemn oath took a curious and unexpected 
form. The young soldiers swore that they would regard wheat, 
barley, the vine, and the olive as the boundaries of Attike, deeming 
their own all the tamed and fruitful earth'. The emphasis thus 
placed on earth as 'fruitful' {karpophoros) recalls the rock-cut 
inscription of Ge Karpophoros still legible on the summit of the 
Akropolis^ It \s^ indeed, probable that Aglauros herself was, to 
begin with, none other than the earth-goddess 'Sparkling^' with 
the dew which enabled her to bring forth in their season corn and 
oil and wine. And on these things human life depended. Demeter 
Kourotrophos^ ' Who rears the young,' was worshipped, and rightly 
worshipped, in the precinct of Aglauros ■'^°. 

^ Eur. Ion 496 ' K'^pa.i\ov (A. W. Verrall prints ' k.'^Xa.ijpov) Kdpai rpiyovoi. 

2 Euseb.^ra<?/. ev. 4. 16. 2 rfj' KypavXi^ rrj K^Kpoiros Kai vvfKpijs'AypavXidos. 

^ Apollod. 3. 14. 2 K^Kpoxj/ d^ yrj/xas ttju 'Aktuiou Koprjv " kypavKov 7rai8a /j,€V ^ax^v 
^^pvaix^ova, ds direKvos pLcrriWa^e, dvyar^pas 8e" Ay pavXov "Eparjv IldvSpocroi', Paus. i. 2. 6 
airodavbvTos be 'A/crat'ou K^Kpoxp e/cS^x^''"'*' "^W ^PXh^ dvyarpi crvvoLKdv 'AKraiov (cp. i. I4. 7), 
Kai oi yivovrai dvyaripes fM€i^"^par] Kai"Ay\avpoi Kai JIdvdpocros, vlbs 5e 'Epucrtx^w;'. 

^ Skamon of Mytilene {s. iv k.c, according to F. Jacoby in Pauly — Wissowa J^eal- 
Enc. iii A. 437) frag. 2 {Frag: hist. Gr. iv. 489 f. Miiller) ap. Phot. lex. and Souid. s.v. 
^OLVLK-qia ypdfj./xaTa, cp. Apostol. 17. 89 (Kdyuwv, 'AKraiovos, 'AyXavprjv, 'AKraiopa), makes 
Aktaion the father of Aglauros, Herse, Pandrosos, and Phoinike. See further J. Toepffer 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 12 12. 

^ Paus. I. 18. 2, cp. Eur. Ion 497 f. 

^ Dem. de fals. leg. 303, Lykourg. in Leocr. 76 f., Philostr. v. Apoll. 4. 21 p. 141 
Kayser. The oath is quoted by Poll. 8. 105 f., cp. Stob.y?£'r. 43. 48 p. 14, 7 ff. Hense. 

Philochor. frag. 14 {Frag. hist. Gr» i. 386 Miiller) ap. Ulpian. in Dem. de fals. leg. 
303 (p. 95 b 32 fif. Baiter — Sauppe) "AypauXos KaV'^par) Kai Ildudpocros dvyarepes KiKpowos, 
ci's <f>'qcrLv 6 ^iXoxopos. X^yovai 8e otl ttoX^juov avix^dvros irap 'AdijvaioLS, ore 6 ^v/moXttos 
iffrpdrevae Kara 'Fipex0^<^s, Kai /jLTjKVVofi^uov toIjtov ^XPV^^^^ 'AvdXXoju aTraXXayrjcrecrdai, 
idv TLi dveXrj eavrbv vwep rrjs TroXews. i) roivvv "AypavXoi eKovaa avTTjv i^edojKev els ddvarov 
'ippixpe yap eavTTjv ^k tov reixovs. elra diraXXayivTos rod iroX^fiov lepbv virep tovtov icrry)- 
aavTo airy irepi ret II/aoTri^Xaia rrjs irbXeios' Kai iKelcre ojfxvvov oi ^(prj^ot p-eXXovres e^Uvai els 
irbXeixov. 

'' Plout. V. Alcib. 15 ou jx-riv dXXd Kai ttjs 777s avve^oijXeveu di'Texeo-^at toIs 'Adrjvalois, 
Kai rbv ev 'AypaijXov irpo^aXXbixevov dei rois ecprj^OLS opKOv 'epy^p ^e^aiovv. ofJLvvovffi yap 
bpoLS x/377a'a(r^af rrjs 'Attiktjs irvpois, Kpidals, dfiir^XoLs, iXaiais, olKeiav iroielffdai didacKo- 
fxevoL TTjv Tjfxepov Kai Kapiro(f>bpov. Cp. Cic. de rep. 3. 15 Athenienses iurare etiam publice 
solebant, omnem suam esse terram, quae oleam frugesve ferret. 

^ Supra ii. 21 n. 4. ^ Supra p. 237 n. 2. 

1° Corp. inscr. Att. iii. i no. 372 (with facsimile on pi. 4) Kovporpbcpov \ i^ 'AyXavpov \ 



The Daughters of Kekrops 243 

Pandrosos too had a sanctuary of her own^, called the Pandros- 
eion^ immediately adjoining the Erechtheion at its western end^. 
Here grew the sacred olive*, beneath which stood the altar of Zeus 
Herkeios^. And, just as the youths of Athens in the fourth century 
B.C. swore in the precinct of Aglauros that they would defend their 
country and preserve the fruitful earth ^, so in the first century B.C., 
when about to take the field, they offered a sacrifice on the Akropolis 



A'r)/j.7){T)pos, W. Larfeld Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik Leipzig 1898 ii. i. 266 
pi. I (note the proximity of no. 371 Aei7rj'o06/)o[ts], cp. supra p. 241 n. o). Hesych. s.v. 
KovpoTp6<pos ' TraidoTpdcpos. v<p' erepcou i] ArjfxrjT'qp. 

^ Paus. I. 27. 2 T(^ vac^ 8e ttjs ' A.0y}vas Ylavbpbaov vao% avve-xrj-s ian. 

2 (i) Corp. inscr. Att. i no. 322 a 44 f. and 63, 69 f. — Michel Recueil d^Inscr. gr. 
no. 571 i 44 f. and ii 63, 69 f. = Roberts — Gardner Gk. Epigr, ii. 318 ff. no. 117 i 44 f. 
and ii 63, 69 f. = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 372 i 44 f. and ii 171, 177 f. = L. D. Caskey 
in J. M. Baton The Erechtheum Cambridge, Mass. 1927 p. 276 ff. no. 2 i 44 f. rov kiovov 
TOP irri TO ToLxo \ to wpos to TLavdpocreio and ii 63 eiri top toIx^v top tt/oos to Jlavdpoae^io), 
69 f. iirl TOP ToTxop t6p irpos \ to Ilavdpoaeio (409/8 B.C.). Cp. Corp. inscr. Att. i no. 321, 
43 f. = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 373 i 43 f. = Caskey loc. cit. no. 8 a, 43 f. 

(2) Corp. inscr. Att. iv. i. 3 p. 148 fif. no. 321 2, 19 f., 27 f. and 3, 6, iv. i. 2 p. 74 ff. 
no. 321 iii 31 ff. = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 373 ii 74 f., iii 114 f., 127 f., v 251 ff. = 
Caskey loc. cit. no. 10 i 19 f. [^ttc rot toLxoc rjoi irpbs r|[o Ilapdpo<reio], ii 27 f. ^tti t6[/u. 
7r/)]6s TO Ilapdpoceio | aleTOP, 40 f. ipyaalas to \ [Trpos] to Jla\p8poaeio atjero, no. 1 1 iii 
31 ff. bia(pdpx<^0'v\Ti Ta pieTaKidpia, TCTTupa optu, tcl | Trpos to llapSpoceio (409/8 B.C.). 

(3) Corp. inscr. Att. ii. 2 no. 829, 11 = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. ii — iii. 2. 1 no. 16^^ d 34 
= Caskey /oc. cit. no. 28, 36 /card to ^o.pbp6(7eio\p\ (405/4 or 395/4 B.C.). 

^ J. M. Baton The Erechtheum Cambridge, Mass. 1927 pp. 119 — 127 ('The Ban- 
droseum') and Index p. 669. 

* Supra p. 187 n. 2. 

^ Bhilochor.yra^. 146 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 408 f. Muller) ap. Dion. Hal. de Dinarch. 3 
ip hh T-Q epaTy (prjai {sc. 6 ^iXoxopos)' *" tov §' epiavTOv Tovdi (307/6 B.C.) dieXdoPTOS, CT^pov 
8' elawPTOS, ep CLKpoiroXei crrjfxelop iyipeTO tolovto. kvcop els top ttjs IloXtdSos peojp eiaeXdovca, 
Kai dvaa els to IlapdpoaLOP, eiri top ^oojxbp dpa^dcra tov 'E/)/cetou Aios top vwo ttj eXaig, 
KaTCKeiTo. vaTpiop 5' ecTTi TOis 'Adrjpaiois kvpu fir] dpajSaipeip els dKpoiroXtp.' The topo- 
graphical bearings of this passage are discussed by J. M. Baton op. cit. p. 747 f. On the 
cult of Zeus 'E/9/ce?osor Meo-^p/ceios (schol. B. L.T. //. 16. 231, Hesych. s.v. Me(T^pK{e)LOp) 
see O. Jessen in Bauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 686 f. Blout. quaestt. Rom. iii, 
a propos of the rule that ihejlamen Dialis must neither touch nor mention a dog or a goat, 
says ipaalp ^plol /xTjTe ttjs 'Adrjpaicop aKpoiroXeajs eTn^aipeLP Kijva /xrjTe ttjs AtjXIwp ptjctov, 8id 
TTjp epLKpaPTj fii^LP K.T.X. Similarly dogs would not enter the island of Sygaros (Blin. nat. 
hist. 6. 155), nor the temple of Hercules in the Forum Boarium at Rome {supra ii. 783). 
Any dog that entered the market-place at Argos during the days called dpprjLSes was killed 
(Kleaxch. /rag. 79 {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 327 Midler) ap. Ail. de nat. an. 12. 34, cp. Athen. 
99 E — F fiT] Kai Tipa Kvpo<p6pTip eopTrjp TroLTjaw/xeda dpTi ttjs Trap' ^ApyeioLS eTnTeXov/xeprjs) — 
a custom explained by the story that dogs had torn to pieces Linos the son of Apollon 
by Bsamathe daughter of Krotopos (Konon narr. 19). S. Bochart Hierozoicon rec. 
E. F. C. Rosenmiiller Lipsiae 1793 i. 781 ff., L. Hopf Thierorakel und Orakelthiere in 
alter und neuer Zeit Stuttgart 1888 p. 55 ff., and F. Orth in Bauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
viii. 2573 ff. collect facts bearing on the significance of dogs in ancient religion. And 
Frazer Coldest Bough^: Taboo p. 13 n. 6 has a parallel to the avoidance of dogs drawn 
from the Kafirs of the Hindoo Koosh. 

^ Supra p. 242. 

16 2 



244 The Daughters of Kekrops 

^to Athena Polids and to the Kourotrophos and to Pandrosos^' It is 
reasonable to infer that Pandrosos, Hke Aglauros^, was only another 
name for Ge^. Kourotrophos too was, at Athens, an epithet of the 
same goddess ^ Ge Kourotrophos was worshipped near the western 
approach to the Akropolis^, and Souidas^ dwells on the importance 
of her cult: 

'They say that Erichthonios was the first to sacrifice to her on the Akropolis 
and to build her an altar, in gratitude for Earth having reared him. He also 
made it customary that those who sacrificed to any god should sacrifice first 
to her^.' 

Details are of interest. When a cow was sacrificed to Athena, a 
sheep was first sacrificed to Pandrosos^ or, as others would have it, 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. ii. i no. 481, 58 f. = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. ii — iii. i. 1 no. 1039 ^ii 
58 f. (attributed to the period 83 — 73 B.C., though W. Larfeld Handbuch der griechischen 
Epigraphik Leipzig 1898 ii. i. 145 says 48 — 42 B.C.) 6/x[ota>s tk /ca]i rh e^LrrjTrjpLa h 
d/C)0o|7rdXct r^t re 'AdrjuaL ttjl IloXtdSt Kai rrjL Kou/)[oTp6]0Wi Kai ttji Ylav8p6(r[ioL /caji e/caX\- 
Lep7}(Tav. 

^ Supra p. 242. 

^ This conclusion was anticipated by Miss J. E. Harrison in the Joiirn. Hell. Stud. 
1891 xii. 352 : * Pandrosos... is none other than a form of Ge Themis, who is but the earlier 
aspect of Demeter Thesmophoros.' 

^ Aristoph. thesm. 299 koX t^ KovpoTp6(l)ii} [ry Trj (this gloss was expunged by P. P. 
Dobree, cp. the schol. etre rrj yy eiVe rrj ecrrig:,)]. See further B. Prehn in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. xi. 2215, who cites Solon frag. 43 Bergk"* ap. Chorik. p. 107 Boissonade 
raOra hi] crov ttjs TroXews rd yuojpicr/jLaTa, rjv ai kolvuI tov ^iov depdiraivai yij re Kai ddXaacra 
TOis eavTTJs eKaripa dibpois d^pvvei- yi] jxkv yap tois ivoiKOVcnv iiridraTai (pipeiv baa tIktov(xlv 
(Zpac, VTTTia re irdcra Kai Kadeifx^vr), Kat to tov IIoXojpos, 'XnrapT] KovpoTpo(f>os^ ' ddXaTTa 5e 
K.T.X., Prokl. in Plat. Tz^n. iii. 144, 4 fif. Diehl ovtio dij Kai avTT) {sc. r) 777) dwdfieis ^xei 
TTOt/ciXas, Kai cl;s ixkv ^Tpo(pbs' t7]v reXeaLOvpybv fxifxelTai rd^Ly, Kad' rjv Kai irdrpiov ' Adrjt^aiois 
' KOvpoTp6(pov ' avTrjv vfiveiv koI ' dvrja'i8<J}pav,' ws /cat dvieiaav rd (pvrd Kai rd ^t^a Kai 
rpi(pov(Tav, K.r.X., et. fnag. p. 529, 50 f. KopeadrjvaL ' on Kovporpocpov rr^v yiju KaXovai, Kai 
rbv iK ravrrj^ Kapirbv Koprju, K.r.X. , and A. R. Rangabe Antiquites hellhiiques Athenes 
1855 ii. 746 no. 1083 KaXXias '' AyaBdpxov . .VriL Kovporp6<f>(aL (an inscription noted by 
K. S. Pittakis *a I'entree de TAcropole,' but now lost). 

^ Paus. I. 22. 3 (cited stipra p. 177 n. i) with Sir J. G. Frazer and H. Hitzig — H. 
Blumner ad loc. 

^ Souid. s.v. Kovporp6<poi' irai^orpocpo^ (cp. Hesych. s.v. Kovporp6(pos). KovporpScpos 
Tij. ravrji 8^ dOaai (paai Trpdrov 'Epix^ovLov iu dKpoiroXei Kai ^cjfxbv Ibpijcaadai, X^/"'' 
aTTobidbj^ra ry Ty rdv rpo^eiojv ' Karaarijcrai be vofju-ixov rovs dvovrds nut dei^ raijrrj Trpodveiv. 
P. Stengel Opferbrduche der GHechen Leipzig und Berlin 1910 p. 31 n. 5 holds that this 
■n-podvua consisted in an offering probably of grain, possibly of blood, but hardly of a 
prescribed animal, and in any case must not be confused with the sheep for Pandrosos 
{infra n. 8). 

'^ Cp. Plat. com. ^dwv frag. 2. 7 f. [Frag. cotn. Gr. ii. 674 f. Meineke) ap. Athen. 
441 F irpQra fiev ifxol yap Kovporpotpcp irpodverai \ irXaKovs ivopxv^^ ajxvXos iyKVfjLUV, k.t.X. 

^ Philochor. frag. 32 {Frag. hist. Gr i. 389 Mliller) ap. Harpokr. s.v. iTri^oLov 
AvKovpyos ev r^ irepl rijs iepelas {frag. 4 Sauppe). "I'lXoxopos 5' iv j8' (prjalv ovrojs' ' edp 8i 
ns ry Adrjva dvr) /3oCv, dvayKaXov ian Kai ry UavSpoa-Ci) (so codd. B.C.P.Q. iravbibpq, cod. 
A. ed. Aid. and the epitome Harpokr.) diLteLv ol'v, Kai e/caXetro rb dOfia eiri^oLov.^ bfj-oius 
Kai Srd^uXos iv a rCov irepl 'AdrjuCov {frag. 6 {Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 506 Mliller)). 



The Daughters of Kekrops 245 

to Pandora, this preliminary sacrifice being known as epiboion'^. 
Pandrosos had a circular garment zd^^^A poddnycho7i^ ox podonychos^. 
Her priestess^ according to Pollux ^ wore the same sacred attire. 
But Photios^ and Souidas'' are apparently alluding to the same 
vestment when they state that the protonion is a small himdtion worn 
by the priestess and from her transferred to the man slaying the 
victim. They add that it was named protonion because Pandrosos, 
or Pandora, with her sisters was the first {prote) to make woollen 
raiment for men. The etymology, as usual, is naught, but the rite 
of the transferred garment is of value as providing a parallel to the 
custom implied by the peplos-sc^no. on the eastern frieze of the 
Parthenon ^ 

The case of Herse is different. She is definitely a personification 
of the Dew, and as such must be comparatively late. Hence, though 
Athenian youths swore by Agraulos^, who indeed heads their list of 
witnessing deities ^^, and though Athenian women might swear either 
by Agraulos^^ or, less frequently, by Pandrosos ^^, nobody swore by 
Herse^^ Nor had she, unless we can credit an unsupported state- 
ment of Ovid^*, any sanctuary set apart for her. Again, Athena — 

1 Souid. s.v. iwl^OLov ' 6rav ris rfj 'Adrjuq, Wve j3ovu, ^due Kal t-q Hapdibpa olv /jLera /3o6?" 
Kal e/ca\e?ro to dvjULa iirl^oLov. Favorin. lex. p. 701, 7 ff. combines Philochor. frag. 32 
{supra p. 244 n. 8) with Souidas' 6lv /jLera j8o6s, adding de suo koI eiri^OLOv t6 iirl rrj 
dvofxivr] ^ot dvofxeuov. 

2 Phot. /ex. s.v. irodJivvxov {Travddovvxov cod.)' i(rdrjs ttjs Havdpoaov KVKXorepris. 
'^ Hesych. s.v. iroduuvxos (Troddouvfios cod.) ' iffdr)^ iepa r^s Havdpoffov. 

** Corp. inscr. Att. ii. 3 no. 1160 (a broken base of Pentelic marble found on the 

Akropolis) [6 5?7/x]os — | — Arj/xoxo-pov \ [ d]vyaTepa | [Up€iav{?) Ilau]8p6<rov, cp. id. 

no. 1369 (a round base of Hymettian marble found on the Akropolis) 'AyXa^pov Upea 
^eLdoarpdrr] | 'Ereo/cX^ous AlddXidov dvydrrjp. 

^ Poll. 10. 191 el 8^ ^otjXei Kal &\\a tQp iepQv (TKevCov, ^(ttl fxev v<pdapLaTa, /caXeZrai 5e 
Iffrpiavov, irpoTovLov, Tj/xifxtrpou. irobdovxjxov t] icrdr]s ttjs tepetas ttjs Hapdpoffov. 

^ Phot. /ex. s.v. irpoTQPLov ifxaridLOv i) lepeia dfx<f>i.ipvvTaL ' iviTideTai 8^ diro rrji 
iepelas t^ cripoTTOPTL' irpoTOPioP Se eKXrjdr) 6tl Trpurr] Udpdpocro^ jxerd tQp d5eX0a;;' 
KaT€(TKcijaa-e rots dpdpihiroL^ ttjp €k tQ)p eplwp iffdrjTa. This hangs together with the attempt 
to derive 'Epi-x^oJ'tos from '^ptop {supra p. 220). 

^ Souid. s.v. irpoTOPLOP' ifxaTiSiop 6 iepeia dfJL<f)t4pvvTai ' eTrtTlderaL 8^ dirb rijs lepeias t<^ 
<r<pdrTOPTL' irpoTOPLOP 8k iKXrjdr) otl irpibrr} Uap8djpa fxerd tQp d8eX(f)Qp KarecKe^affe rois 
dp6pd}TroLS Trjp iK tCip ipicov eadrjTa. 

^ Supra ii. 1136 (pi. xliv). 

^ Supra p. 242 f. 

^^ Poll. 8. 106 Lo-Topes deoi," Ay pavXos, 'EvudXtos, "Ap?7s, Zeijs, QaXXtb, AiJ^w, "Ryefidpr]. 

^^ Aristoph. thesm. 533 ov tol fxd T7]p"AypavXop (R. F. B. Brunck c]. " AyXavpop) , J 
yvpoiKes, ed (ppopelre with schol. ad loc. Kara (so I. Bekker for e/c codd.) ttj^ ^Aypa^Xov 
dfipvop, Kara 8k rrjs HapSpoffov (nrapubrepop, /card 8e r^s "E/xtt;? ovx evprjKafjLep. 

^"^ Aristoph. Lys. 439 f. ei rdpa vt) ttjp Ildp8po(rop ravTrj ix6pop \ ttjp %€?/)' iiri^aXeiSf 
ixLxeffei iraToiL)[xepos with schol. thesm. 533 (quoted supra n. 11). 

^^ Schol. Aristoph. thesm. 533 (quoted supra n. ii). 

^* Ov. met. 1. 737 fif. pars secreta domus ebore et testudine cultos | treshabuit thalamos, 



246 The Daughters of Kekrops 

originally an earth-goddess^ or mountain-mother ^ — absorbed into 
her all-prevailing cult the worship of both Aglauros and Pandrosos, 
and was occasionally called Athena Aglauros^ and Athena Pan- 
drosos^ \ but she never came to be equated with Herse. We may, 
then, subscribe to Usener's opinion that Herse is later than 
Pandrosos, Pandrosos than Aglauros, the three names being pro- 
gressively clearer expressions for a single religious idea^ 

Aglauros^ and Pandrosos', if not Herse also, were — we have 
seen — intimately associated with a goddess dubbed Kourotrophos. 
What better guardians could Athena have found for the infant 
Erichthonios? Perhaps they fed him, shut up in the basket, on dew^ 

Some support for this surmise might be found in the myth that 
the Muses fed Komatas, shut up in a chest, on honey ^, or in the 
tale of Meliteus, son of Zeus by the nymph Othreis, who through 
fear of Hera was exposed in a wood, but was there fed and fattened 
by bees^^. For honey, as W. H. Roscher^^ has well shown, was held 
by most Greeks and Romans to be a sort of dew, which fell from 
the sky on trees and flowers and was thence collected by the bees. 

Another case of confinement and dew-diet is that of Tithonos. 
Herse, some said, became by Hermes the mother of Kephalos^^. 
Kephalos, they added, was carried off by Eos, the 'Dawn,' to Syria 

quorum tu, Pandrose, dextrum, | Aglauros laevum, medium possederat Herse. Supra 
p. 240 Ovid's three thalami may be derived from the internal arrangement of the Erech- 
theion, modified to suit Roman readers familiar with the Etruscan temple of lupiter 
Capitolinus. 

^ Supra p. 200 n. o. ^ Supra pp. 224, 236. 

^ Harpokr. s.v. "AyXavpos {dypavXos codd. A.C.M.Q. But the alphabetical order 
requires dy\ — ) * i] dvydrrjp KiKpoiros. '4cri 5e kol iiribvvixov 'Ad-rjvds, Athenag. supplicatio 
pro Christianis i p. i Schwartz (cited supra p. 240 n. 8). 

* Schol. Aristoph. Lys. 439 dvyarepes K^Kpoiros IldvSpocros /cat 'Aypa6\r} (R. F. P. Brunck 
cj. "AypavXos). €k ttjs UaudpSaov d^ Kai 7) ^Adrjvd Udvdpoaos /caXeZrat. 

^ H. Usener Gotternamen Bonn 1896 p. 139. 

^ Supra p. 242. ^ Supra p. 244. 

^ It is on record that Herse, Pandrosos, and Agraulos had a popular festival called 
Deipnophoria, at which a dinner was served for them with much pomp in accordance with 
a mystic tale {supra p. 240 n. 8) ; and it is known that certain Deipnophoroi occupied a 
seat in the theatre adjoining that of the Kourotrdphos worshipped in the sanctuary of 
Aglauros {supra p. 242 n. 10). But of the nurture supplied by the Kekropides to their 
koHros nothing explicit is said. 

9 Theokr. 7. 78 ff. with schol. ad loc. 

I*' Ant. Lib. 13 (after Nikandros erepoiovneva 2). 

^1 W. H. Roscher Nektar und Atnbrosia Leipzig 1883 pp. 9, 13 ff., cp. W. Robert- 
Tornow De apium niellisque apud veteres significatione Berolini 1893 p. 75 ff. 

12 Apollod. 3. 14. 3. Hermes' union with Herse is hardly older than the Hellenistic 
age {supra p. 240 nn. 4 and 5). In Hyg. fab. 160 he becomes the father of Kephalos by 
Kreousa, daughter of Erechtbeus. Other pedigrees are noted by A. Rapp in Roscher 
Lex. Myth. ii. 1089 ff. and Y. Schwenn in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xi. 2i7f. 



The Daughters of Kekrops 247 

and there begat Tithonos the father of Phaethon^. Some such 
sequence of mythical events must have been known to the painter 
of the red-figured kylix from Corneto, now at BerHn {supra p. 186 
fig. 95); for, whereas on the outside of the cup Herse witnesses the 
birth of Erichthonios, on the inside Heos is carrying off Kephalos. 
Be that as it may, we are concerned with the fortunes of Tithonos. 
The Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite {s. vi (?) B.C.^) says that, when 
Tithonos despite his Zeus-given immortaHty began to get gray- 
headed, Eos refrained from union with him, but tended him in her 
halls with food and ambrosia (i.e. honey) and, as downright old age 
crept upon him till he could not stir, shut him up in a chamber 
ithdlamos), where his voice flows on unceasingly ^ The poet is hinting, 
discreetly enough, at a tale that later writers tell with more directness. 
When Tithonos grew so old that he rolled himself round in a wool- 




Fig- 153- 

basket or a basket-cradle {Izknon) and slept like a baby (fig. I53)^ 
the goddess transformed him into a cicala {tettixf. Confusion 



^ Apollod. 3. 14. 3. But the parentage of Tithonos is variously given. He is also 
described as the son of Laomedon (//. 20. 237) by Strymo (schol. A.B.D. //. ii. i, Tzetz. 
in Lyk. Al. i8) or Trymo (schol. V. //. 20. 237) or Rhoio (schol. and Tzetz. in Lyk. 
Al. 18). 

^ W. Schmid — O. Stahlin Geschichle der griechischen Literatur Mtinchen i9'29 i. i. 
240. See further T. W. Allen — E. E. Sikes The Homeric Hymns London 1904 p. 197 f. 

3 H. Aphr. 218 ff. 

^ E. Gerhard tjber die Lichtgottheitcn auf Kunstdenkmdlern Berlin 1840 pp. 8, 16 
pi. 4, 4 {id. Gesammelte akadeniische Abhandlungen und kleine Schriften Berlin 1866 i. 
149, 347 pi. 8, 4) = my fig. 153, J. Schmidt in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1029 fig. 4 an Etruscan 
relief in stamped gold foil, found at Vulci, then in the Campana collection, and later at 
Petrograd (?). It represents Eos pouring the contents of a jug (?) over Tithonos, who lies 
on a concave couch or cradle. 

^ Tzetz. in Lyk. Al. 18 dddparov de tov Tidojvov iroirjaacra iTrikadero iroLrjcraL kuI dyfjpoj. 
yripd(ravTa de tocovtov cos iv ToKapip Kai XUvip (Eudok. viol. 920 has <hs iv raXapip Kai 
XiKuip, iJTOi Kioviii}) avTov Tr€pi(TTp€(p6fjLevou 8iKr}v j8pe0uXXtou KaOeijdeiv eis T^mya ixeri^aKev, 
Eustath. in Od. p. 1528, iff. Xripot {X-qpeil \rjpoi7) 8^ 6 jxvdos Trepl Tidbivov, Kai on did 
yrjpas iv ToXdp^} ?) /caprdXy t<^ ST/Xou/^^vy iv rots tov kw/jukov iKpefidcdrj, ws civ 8r}\adi] fir) 
<paivoiTO rots ttoXXoIs, fj ets rirrcya fxeTe^Xrjdr]. 



248 The Daughters of Kekrops 

between the liknon and the kernos'^, which figured in similar rites ^, 
may account for the late tradition that the couch of Eos and 
Tithonos was on Kernel an island off the west coast of Libye or, 
as mythographers and poets declared, at the ends of the habitable 
earth*. Two points appear to justify the comparison of Tithonos 
with Erichthonios. We have seen^ that Athena, wishing to make 
Erichthonios immortal, kept him as an infant in a basket (pi. xxix 
and fig. 154)^ Similarly Eos, bent on making Tithonos not only 
deathless but ageless, tended him like a babe in a basket'. Again, we 

1 For the \Ikvov see Miss J. E. Harrison 'Mystica Vannus lacchi' in ihtjourn. Hell. 
Stud. 1903 xxiii. 292 ff., ib. 1904 xxiv. 241 ff., ead. *Note on the Mystica Vannus lacchi' 
in the Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1903 — 1904 x. 144 ff., ead. Proleg. Gk. Rel.'^ pp. 401 ff. 
('Dionysos Liknites'), 517 ff- {'The Liknophoria'), H. G. Pringsheim Archdologische 
Beitrdge zur Geschichte des eleusinischen Kults MUnchen 1905 pp. 29 — 38, Kruse in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xiii. 536 — 538, W. Kroll ib. xiii. 538 — 541. 

For the K^pvos, D. Philios in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1885 pp. 171 — 174, ib. 1906 pp. 197 — 212, 
R. C. Bosanquet in the Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1896 — 1897 iii. 57 — di ('The so-called 
Kernoi'), H. von Fritze in the 'E0. 'Apx^ 1897 pp. 163 — 174, K. Kourouniotes ' kepnoi' 
ib. 1898 pp. 21 — 28, O. Rubensohn 'Kerchnos' in the Ath. Mitth. 1898 xxiii. 271 — 306, 
L. Couve in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. iii. 822 — 825, E. Pernice in the /ahrb. d. kais. 
deutsch. arch. Inst. 1899 xiv. 69 — 72, B. Staes in the 'E0. 'A/ox- 1901 pp. 11 — 21, 
J. N. Svoronos in \he Journ. Intern, d^ Arch. Num. 1901 iv. 169 — 191, R. M. Dawkins in 
the Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1903 — 1904 x. 220 — 223, H. G. Pringsheim op. cit. pp. 69 — 78, 
S. Xanthoudides 'Cretan Kernoi' in the Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1905 — 1906 xii. 9 — 23, 
Leonard in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xi. 316 — 326, C. D. Bicknell in ihejourn. Hell. 
Stud. 1921 xli. 231. 

The two utensils are confused by the schol. Plat. Gorg. 497 c p. 913 « 42 Kipvos 8^ rb 
\Lkvov rjyovv to tttijou iariv. S. N. Dragoumes in the Ath. Mitth. 1901 xxvi. 46 infers from 
Poll. 4. 103 rds 5e vivaKidas copxovvTO ovk otda ei'r iwl TrivaKcov etre irlvaKas (pepovres' to 
yhp Kepvo(f)6pov opxvi^^ old' otl WiKva i) ecrxapiSas (pipovTe^' Kipva 8^ raOra e/caXetro that 
dvfiLaTTjpLOP and \Ikvov had both come to be identified in popular parlance with the old 
mystic K^pvos. 

2 Ammonios of Lamptrai vepi ^oifxCov koI dvciCov frag. 6 (Tresp Frag. gr. Kults chr. 
p. 96) ap. Athen. 476 E — f, Polemon of Ilion irepi tov Aiov KcpSiov/rag. 2 (Tresp Frag. Gr. 
Kultschr. p. 87 f.) ap. Athen. 478 c — D. See further Harrison Proleg. Gk. Rel.'^^. 159, 
Leonard in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xi. 317 f. 

^ Lyk. Al. 16 ff. with Tzetz. ad loc, cp. 1084 with schol. and Tzetz. ad loc. 

•* C. T. Fischer in Pauly — Wi.ssowa Real-Enc. xi. 315 f. 

^ Supra p. 238. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases \\\. 243 no. E 372 a red-figured/(?//X'^ from Kameiros showing 
{a) Athena and Erichthonios, who sits up in his basket to greet her. The wicker lid 
(cp. Ov. met. 2. 554) is off, and from the rock (Akropolis) rise two spotted snakes (Eur. 
Ion 23 cited supra p. 239 n. i), one bearded, one beardless, {b) Two draped figures 
moving to the right, probably Aglauros and Herse, but possibly two youths by mistake 
of the artist (so Harrison Myth. Mon. Anc. Ath. p. xxxii). See further R. Engelmann in 
the An7t. d. Inst. 1879 li. 62 ff. pi. f, id. in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 1306 f. fig., 
H. Heydemann in the Ann. d. Inst. 1879 li. 112 ff., Harrison op. cit. p. xxxi f. fig. 4, 
J. A. Hild in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. ii. 808 fig. 2766, Reinach Rep. Vases i. 342, 2. 
Existing illustrations being inadequate, I have given both a photographic plate and a 
development of the design by Miss E. T. Talbot. 

7 Supra p. 247. 



Plate XXIX 





Pelike from Kameiros, now in the British Museum : 
(a) Athena finds Erichthonios in his basket guarded by two snakes. 
{b) Aglauros (?) and Herse (?) make off. 

Sec page 24S /;. 6 and^a^tf 2^<)^g, 



The Daughters of Kekrops 249 








to 



250 The Daughters of Kekrops 

have conjectured that the Dew-sisters fed the infant Erichthonios on 
dew^. So with Tithonos. Eos fed him on ambrosia, that is honey ^ 
a species of heavenly dew^. Moreover she changed him into a 
cicala ^ and that little creature was popularly believed to subsist on 
dew^ The transformation was apt, for the cicala, once more like 
Erichthonios the 'very child of the Ground^', was notoriously 
earth-born"^ and the traditional badge of an autochthonous Ionian 
people^ (figs. 158 — i6i)^ It may even be surmised that Tithonos 

^ Supra p. 246. 2 Supra p. 247. ^ Supra p. 246. 

■^ Hellanikos/r«^. 142 {Frag.' hist. Gr. i. 64 yiSXWex) = frag. 140 [Frag.gr. Hist. i. 140 
Jacoby) ap. schol. A.B. Gen. 11. //. 3. 151, Hieronymos of Rhodes [c. 290 — 230 B.C.: 
Daebritz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. viii. 1563) ap. schol. B.L.T. //. 11. i, Eudok. 
viol. 920, and Eustath. in II. p. 825, 43 fF., schol. A.B.D. //. 11. i, Eustath. in II. p. 396, 
33 ff., Klearchos_/"rrt^. 20 {Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 309 f.) ap. Zenob. 6. 18, Plout. i. 68, Append. 
4. 68, Apostol. 16. 57, Arsen. viol. p. 447 Walz, Phot. lex. s.v. Ti^wj/oO 7?7pas, Souid. s.v. 
KaTayrjpda-aii Tidojvov ^apvrepov, Serv. m Verg. georg. 3. 328, in Verg. Aen. 4. 585, 7. 188, 
interp. Serv. in Verg. georg. i. 447, Myth. Vat. i. 139, 2. 194. 

J. T. Kakridis 'TI0i2NOS' in the Wiener Studien 1930 xlviii. 25 — 38 makes it 
probable that the transformation of Tithonos into a tettix kept in a cage was an early 
myth, purposely ignored by the author of h. Aphr. 218 ff., but presupposed by certain of 
his phrases (231 — 238) and resuscitated by later writers. See also F. Dornseiff 'Der 
homerische Aphroditehymnos' in the Archiv f. Rel. 1931 xxix. 203 f. 

^ Hes. sc. Her. 393 ff., Aristot. hist. an. 4. 7. 532 b 10 ff., 5. 30. 556 b 14 ff., Theokr. 
4. 16, Anacreont. 32. 3 Bergk^, 32. 3 Hiller — Crusius, Verg. eel. 5. 77, Plin. nat. hist. 
II. 94, Ail. de nat. an. i. 20, Philes de an. propr. 500. 

In Loukian. Icaromen. 13 Empedokles, speaking as an inhabitant of the moon, says 
atTOVfiai dpoaov. 

^ Supra p. 181. 

^ Plat. syw/>. 191 c, Anacreont. 32. 16 Bergk"*, 32. 16 Hiller — Crusius, Plout. symp. 2. 3. 
3, schol. Hermog. (cited infra p. 251 n. o). See further Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 797 n. 6. 
In point of fact the cicala lays its eggs in the ground (Aristot. hist. an. 5. 30. 556 a 29 ff., 
Plin. nat. hist. 11. 93. O. Keller Die antike Tierwelt Leipzig 19 13 ii. 401) and remains 
for a long period in the larval state (Aristot. hist. an. 5. 30. 556 b 7 TemyoixriTpa, Plin. 
nat. hist. 11. 93 tettigometra. R. Lydekker The Royal Natural History London 1896 
vi. 193 fig.), so that it would easily be regarded as earth-born, 

^ As\os, frag. 13, 4 f. Kinkel ap. Athen. 525 E — F (Samians visiting the precinct of 
Hera) xairat 5' -^(jopevvr av4fx(^ xp^'^'^o^s ivl dea/xoh, \ xpiycetai 5^ Kbpvfi^aL iv' avT^uiv 
T^TTiyes ciis, Aristoph. e^. 1331 65' eKelvos {sc. the Athenian Demos) opdv t err Ly 0^6 pas, 
dpxO'l'V o'XVP'-^'^'- ^CLfiirpSs with schol., nud. 984 dpxald ye Kal ALrroXubdrj Kai TCTTiyojv 
dvdfxeaTa with schol. AXXws* oi apxcuoTaTOL tGjv 'AOrjvaiuu T^rriyas XP^^^^^ ^^ "^0*^ tQv 
TpLX^v Tr\iyixa(Tiv elxov, BlStl oi riTTiyes fiovaiKol oVres dudKeivrai t^ 'KirbXKuivL, 8s rjv 
irarpi^os rrj iroXei and schol. R. tovs reTTiyas vapeXa^ev, iTrecdri oi TraXatoi Kara tt]v dvair\oK7]v 
tQv rpixcDj/ XP^^V ^XP^^'^^ T^myi, TeKfirjpiov did to (paiveffdai on ai/rdx^opes etev, Thouk. 
I. 6 Kal oi irpea^vTepoL avrois {sc. the Athenians) ru)v evdaifiSvcov did to d^podiatTOv ov rroXi/s 
Xpiivos ^Treidrj xtTWi^ds re \ivovs eiraicravTo (popovvTes Kal XP'^'^^^ TeTTiyoJv iu^paei Kpoj^ijXov 
dvadoOfJLevoi tCov ev ttj Ke^aXrj Tpix(Jov d0' ov Kai ^libvuv Tods irpea^VTipovs /cara to ^i;77ej'^s 
iwl TToXv avTT] 7) aK€V7] /carecrxev, Corp. inscr. Att. ii. 2 no. 645, 12 = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. 
ii — iii. 2 no. 1377, 13 (aninventory of the Parthenon 399/8 B.C.) [x/3u<J't5ta SidXi^a o-iy/ijatj/cra 
TrXivdiiay Kal TeTTiycov, C. Curtius Inschriften und Studien zur Geschichte von Santos 
Lubeck 1877 p. 10 ff. no. 6, 50 ff. pi. i = Michel Recueil d' Inscr. gr. no. 832, 50 ff. (an 
inventory of the Samian Heraion 346/5 B.C.) yvvi] iirl ^'^fiaTos ^vXlvov, xet|pes irpoauiirov 



The Daughters of Kekrops 251 

7r65es Xldivoi, aiirif] ^xet r^riyas iirixp^^^ovs, eVXeiVei | tQu reTTiyoju tplQjv kol tCjv ivwiSiojv 
(which incorporates the revised readings of U. Kohler in the Aih. Mitth. 1882 vii. 371 f.), 
Herakleides Pontikos {Frag. hist. Gr. \\. 200 n. o Milller) ap. Athen. 512 C Kopiix^ovi 
d' dvadov/xevoL {sc. the Athenians) tQv Tpix^v xP^<^ous reTnyas irepl rb fxiruiirov koX ras Kdfxas 
(T. Birt cj. Kdppas) icpbpovv paraphrased by Ail. var. hist. 4. 22 Kop^ix^ov^ 5k dvadoijfxevot 
tG)v ev rrj KecpaXrj r/atxwi', x/aucroOs iveipovres avrais riTTiya^ koI Kba^iov &X\ov irpbcrdeTov 
7repiaTrT6iut,€uoi XP^<^°^ irporjeaav, Verg. cir. 126 if. ergo omnis cano residebat cura capillo, | 
■ aurea sollemni comptum quern fibula ritu | crobylus et (so Nic. Loensis (anon. cj. Crohyliae) 
for Corpsele cod. A, Corpselle cod. H. Corpselae cod. R. Corselle cod. L. E. Bahrens 
prints Scaliger's cj. Cecropiae) tereti nectebant dente cicadae, Loukian. navig. 3 01 irpbyovoi 
T)fiG}v {sc. Athenians), oh i56K€L koKov elvai KOfxdv roiis y^povras, dvadovfjiiuovs Kpo}^}j\ov 
vwb riTTLyi xP^^^i dveiK-qfxixevov. k.t.X., Clem. Al. paed. 2. 10 p. 220, 11 ff. Stahlin /cat 
Kp<A)j3ij\op, 6 ifXTrXoKTJs iariv eWos, duedovvro (sc. Athenian magistrates) XP^^^^ ev^pcrei 
Terrlyoju Koc/xoijfievoL, to yrjyeves ojs d\7}du>s direipoKoXiq. Kivaidias evbeLKV^ixevoi, Tertull. 
de virg. vel. 10 debebunt enim et ipsi aliqua sibi insignia defendere, aut pennas Garamantum 
aut stropulos barbarorum aut cicadas Atheniensium aut cirros Germanorum aut stigmata 
Britonum, schol. Hermog. in C. Walz Rhetores Graeci Stuttgartiae et Tubingae 1833 iv. 
70 n. 3 Ven. /cat iraXiv ^dos rjv 'Kd'qvqaL Temyotpopelu tQv evirarpibGiv roiis TratSas, 6 /cat 
fJ^^XP'- "hf^^v 5te(rc6^€To /cat to apxci-bTepov, cos QovKvdidrjs (j)ri<xi KpojjBijXou dvadeladai twv iv Trj 
K€(pa\r) TpLx^v, id. 79 n. 40 Par. ad marg. TeTTiyas i(p6povv ol ' AdrjvcuoL Xi^'^^'ous, ^(rrt 5' 6 
T€TTi^ 5e(ryu6s Tts eTTi TTJs KCipaKrjs ^fiirpoffdev iyKa6rj/j.€vos ' oi 8' aXXot iirl tov Tpax'nXov, <bv ol 
iirlaiqixoi. i(p6povu Kpoj^^Xov dvadovfievoL' Kpo}^6\os 84 ccttl itXok^ Tpix^^v els o^v Xrjyovffa, et's 
rjv 5td TO 6^1) eKcpepofievos 6 T€tti^ (rOudecr/JLOs ^v tCiv Tptx^^t (^<J'T€ crvaTTjvai /cat /xv dLoXvdijuaL 
T7}v irXoK-qv a^ix^oXov 5' rjv aurots 6 t^ttl^ tov etvai avTbx^ova^ /cat fxovaiKoiis r^ tov 
TeTTiya /cat avToxOova eXvac Kal fiovaiKov, Prokop. of Gaza epist. 18 /cat yap ae vvv iwidvixCov 
dpxdifiP (rx''7/«ct7"t T€TTiyo(p6pov I5e7v Kexw^ ''"27 daXaTTrj k.t.X., Hesych. s.v. TeTTiyo^opas ' 
'AttikoI i-rri tQv ttjs KCipaXrjs TpLX^i^v elpov xP^<^o^^ T^TTiyas {eipofjLevoiv xP^<^ovs reras cod. 
N. I. Schow cj. elpov. Musurus corr. xP^<^o^^ T^TTLyas), Isid. orig. 19. 30. 3 Athenienses 
enim cicadas aureas gerebant partim in vertice, nonnulli in fronte, Phot. lex. s.v. 
T€TTiyo(p6poi, ' oi 'AdrjvatoL ' TeTTiyas yap icpopovv XP^^^^^ (XVjx^oXov tov yrjyeveci elj/at * 
QovKvdidrjs a k.t.X., Souid. s.v. TCTTiyocpopoL ' (after transcribing Phot. loc. cit.)...7J otl 
IxovcTLKol. fiovatKOS yap 6 t^ttl^. yrjyevels di, dibTi, Kal 'Epex^eus 6 oIklcttis tQv 'AdrjvQv dirb 
TTJs yijs CT^x^Vi id' ^•'^' T€TTiyojv dvdiix€(TTa = schol. R. Aristoph. nud. 984 (cited supra), 
Tzetz. chit. i. 232 f. TroXXy XP^<^V KaTadeTov eXx^ {sc Euphorbos, cp. //. 17. 52) TTf]V 
irXoKafxida \ Kal Koaav^ov {an legendian KoffvfijSov?) Kal Kpoo^vXov Kal TeTTLyo(popiav, Eustath. 
in II. p. 395, 33 ff. 01 5^ v(TT€pov evyevei's ' Adrivaloi. wpay/xaTLKQs t^ttl^lv eaifxvvvov iavTovs, 
T€TTLyo(p6poi 6vT€S' TSTTLyas ydp €(t>6povv x/oucroOs, cos /cat QovKvdidrjs <j)Ti<xiv, et's (njfi^oXov tov 
yqyeveis etvai. 

The name KepKcbirri applied to a small species of tettix (Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. iv. 
1 476 A — b) is noteworthy on account of its possible relation to KiKpo\l/ (cp. P. Kretschmer 
in Glotta 19 13 iv. 309). 

'^ Various views have been taken in modern times with regard to the precise nature of 
these tMiges : 

(i) W. Helbig in the Bull. d. Inst. 1874 pp. 61 — 63, id. 'Uber die goldenen Cicaden 
der alten Athener' in Commentationes philologae in honorein Theodori Mommseni Berolini 
1877 pp. 616 — 626, id. in the Rhein. Mus. 1879 xxxiv. 484 — 487, id. Das homerische 
Epos aus den Denhndlern erldutert Leipzig 1884 p. 169 f., ib.'^ Leipzig 1887 p. 246 put 
forward the view that they were gold spirals wound round the hair. F. Studniczka 
*Krobylos und Tettiges' in ih^Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1896 xi. 248 — 291, com- 
bining Helbig's hypothesis with that of A. Conze 'Krobylos' in the Mem. d. Inst. 1865 
ii. 408 — 420, maintained that tittiges were gold spirals wound round the back-hair 
{krobylos) to keep it in position. This view was advocated also by H. Lechat in the 
Rev. £t. Gr. 1897 x. 342 — 344, id. ^XpvaeoL T^TTiyes' in the Revue des etudes anciennes 
1899 pp. 19 — 22, who noted that such metallic spirals in the hair might produce a sound 
reminiscent of the cicala, and by A. Boulanger in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. v. 164. 



2^2 The Daughters of Kekrops 



Similarly L. Kjellberg ' Zur TeTTiyo^opla der alten Athener' in Eranos 1909 ix. 164 — 175 
explained the t^ttiges as threads of thin bronze or gold twined in the hair and rustling 
like an Aeolian harp in the wind. W. Bremer in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. 2124 
concludes that they were thin gold leaves sewn on to a fillet or soldered on to a metal 
band. 

(2) F. Hauser 'Tettix' in t\vQ Jahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 
1906 ix. 75 — 130 would identify the tettix with the st/engis, 
a gold diadem covering the front hair {krodj'los). This hypo- 
thesis roused much controversy. An attack by E. Petersen 
id. 1906 ix Beiblalt pp. 77 — 86 elicited a reply by Hauser 
'Tettix 11' z'd. 1907 x Beiblatt pp. 9 — 32, and a renewed 
attack by Petersen in the Rhein. Mus. 1907 Ixii. 540 fF. 
called forth a further reply by Hauser 'Tettix iii' in the 
Jahresh. d. oest. arch. Inst. 1908 xi Beiblatt pp. 87 — 96. 

Another opponent of Hauser was W. Bremer Die Haartracht 
des Mannes in archaisch-griechischer Zeit Giessen 191 1 p. 
60 ff., id. in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. vii. 2 121 fif. The 
reader is inclined to quote^ I^aty -did, Katy- didn't,^ etc. 

(3) Meantime the old view that the t^ttiges really were 
golden cicalas can claim the support of much archaeological 
evidence. H. Schliemann Mycence London 1878 p. 176 nos. 
259, 260 ( = my fig. 155) illustrated two out of 'ten golden 
grasshoppers with chains' from the third shaft-grave: these 
he took to be 'ornaments of the breast or hair'; Stais Coll. 
Mychtienne: Athenes p. 20 nos. 77, 78 calls them, with less 
likelihood, 'des jouets d'enfants.' Sir A. J. Evans, however, 
in the Jour n. Hell. Stud. 1925 xlv. 55 with fig. 52, 4 points 
out that these pendants are 'intended for chrysalises' and 
compares a better-marked chrysalis-bead of gold {j-b. fig. 
47 = my fig. 156) found by A. J. B. Wace in a chamber- 
tomb (no. 518 of the Kalkani cemetery) at Mykenai 
(A. J. B. Wace in The Times Literary Suppletnent for Oct. 
26, 1922 p. 684, id. in The Illustrated London News for Feb. 
24, 1923 p. 300 fig. 4, id. 'Chamber Tombs at Mycenae' in 
Archaeologia 1932 Ixxxii. 87 no. 76, 194 pi. 38). L. Stephani 
in the Compte-rendu St. Pet. 1877 p. 28 ff. Atlas pi. 2, 15 
(= my fig. 157 : scale c. |, F. Hauser in the Jahresh. d. oest. 
arch. Inst. 1906 ix. 89 f. fig. 30) published a small gold 
pendant representing the larva of a cicala, which was found 
in the fourth barrow of the 'Seven Brothers' group near 
Temrjuk on the Sea of Azov, a tomb dating from s. v B.C. 
(E. H. Minns Scythians and Greeks Cambridge 19 13 p. 210, 
M. Rostov tzeff Iranians <2r* Greeks in South Russia Oxford 




Fig. 156. 





Fig. 157- 




The Daughters of Kekrops 253 

1922 p. 53 f.). F. Studniczka in Wi^ Jahrb, d. kais, deutscJu arch. Inst. 1896 xi. 282 
n. 201 cites another from the Bull. Sardo iii. 21, cp. P. Wolters in the Arch. Zeit. 1884 
xlii. 7 n. 12. 

A more satisfactory tMix in the form of a gold brooch (length .oren^) came from the 
earliest Artemision at Ephesos (D. G. Hogarth Excavations at Ephestis London 1908 
p. 98 pi. 4, 33 and pi. 3, 3 (= my %• 158 : scale \)). Another tittix-hxooz\v of gold was 
found by A. N. Skias in a cave of Pan and the Nymphs, known as Lychnospelia, on 
Mt Parnes at the depth of half a metre below the surface (A. N. Skias in the ripaicr. 
d/)x. ^r. 1900 p. 40, 'Funde' in the Ath. Mitth. 1900 xxv. 456, R. C. Bosanquet in the 
Journ. Hell. Stud. 1901 xxi. 350, and finally K. Rhomaios in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1906 pp. 
89—96 fig. I (=my fig. 159: scale 1)). The pin has a ring at one end and originally 
worked on a metal axis between two other rings attached to the upper part of the 






Fig. 158. 




Fig- 159- 





Fig. 160. 



Fig. 16 r. 



insect's body. The other, pointed, end of the pin was caught by the hook on the lower 
part of the body. The axis having dropped out or been broken, the owner, lest he should 
lose the little gold pin, had twisted it up as best he could through the other two rings. 
A couple of tettiges in gold foil, sent by Count Peroffsky in 1852, were figured in the 
Antiquit^s dti Bosphore cimm^rien S*-Petersbourg 1854 i. 155, iii pi. 22, 20 (= my fig. 160 : 
scale ^) and 21 (= my fig. 161 : scale f ), ib. ed. S. Reinach Paris 1892 p. 69 pi. 22, 20 and 
21, cp. L. Stephani in the Melanges grdco-romains tirh du Bulletin historico-philologique 
de r Acadimie Impiriale des Sciences de St. -Peters bourg St.-Petersbourg 1855 ii- '2^5' i'^- 
in the Co?7ipte-rendu St. Pet. 1870 p. 54 n. 2, E. Beule Fouilles et dicoicvertes, restunies et 
discutees en vue de r histoire de fai't Paris 1873 ii. 411, V. Dwxuy Histoire des Romains 
Paris 1883 vi. 413 fig. (of no. 20), T. Schreiber in the Ath. Mitth. 1883 viii. 272, 
F. Studniczka in thejahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1896 xi. 282 fig. 13 (of no. 20). 
Fibulae of late Roman and early mediaeval date found in Hungary again represent the 



2 54 The Daughters of Kekrops 



cicala, though with less approximation to nature (F. Studniczka in the Jahrb. d. kais. 
deuisch. ai'ch. Inst. 1896 xi. 283 f. fig. 15 (= my fig. 162)). 

On the whole it may be concluded that the tMix of Thouk. i. 6 was a golden y?<?'w/^ 
shaped like a cicala, that being the traditional, perhaps the tribal, badge of Ionian 
autochthones. 

We are not, therefore, surprised to find that the tettix occurs as a private badge on 
tetradrachms of Athens with two monograms struck c. 229 — 197 B.C. {Hwitej' Cat. Corns 




Fig. 162. 

ii. 59 no. 73 pi. 34, 6, nos. 74, 75, J. N. Svoronos Les nionnaies d Athenes Munich 1923 — 
1926 pi. 37, 6 — 15) and again on tetradrachms and drachms with the names of the 
brothers Lysan[dros] and Glaukos issued in 159 B.C. {Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Attica etc. 
pp. xliii, 62, Hunter Cat. Coins ii. 64 no. 114, J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 48, 21 — 31. On 
the date see J. E. Kirchner 'Zur Datirung der athenischen Silbermiinzen ' in the 
Zeitschr. f. Num. 1898 xxi. 82, J. Sundwall Untersuchungen iiber die attischen Miinzen 
des neueren Stiles Helsingfors 1908 p. 96, Head Hist, num? p. 383. Fig. 163 is from 
a specimen in my collection). On bronze pieces the tdttix is sometimes a 'symbol' ((i) obv. 
head of Athena Parth^?ios ; rev. owl on amphora {Brit. Mus. Cat. C^wj Attica etc. p. 78 



The Daughters of Kekrops 255 

nos. 525, 526, J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 71, 17, 18 and pi. 79, 38 — 42). (2) obv. head of 
Athena Parthinos ; rev. statue of Apollon at Delos by Tektaios and Angelion {supra ii. 
232 n. o fig. 161. To the bibliography there given add J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 56, 26, 
27 and pi. 80, 8 — 14. Fig. 164 is a further specimen from my collection)), sometimes 
a 'type' ((i) obv» head of Artemis; rev. cicala {Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Attica etc. p. 87 
pi. 15, 9, J. N. Svoronos op. cit. pi. 107, 28 — 35 and 42 — 45. In fig. 165 I append a 
specimen of mine). (2) obv. cicala; rev. owl on thunderbolt (Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins 
Attica etc. p. 85 pi. 15, 5, J. N. Svoronos^/. cit. pi. 107, 50 — 54, cp. Hunter Cat. Coins 
ii. 74 no. 201 pi. 34, 17). (3) obv. cicala; rev. amphora and branch {Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Coins Attica etc. p. 88 nos. 618 — 620 ('palm'), 621 — 626 ('branch'), J. N. Svoronos op. 




Fig. 163. 




Fig. 164. 



Fief. i6^. 



Fig. J 66. 





Fig. 167. 



Fig. 168. 



cit. pi. 107, 55 — 69. Fig. 166 is from a specimen in my collection). (4) obv. cicala; rev. 
quiver and bow {Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Attica etc. p. 88 no. 627, J. N. Svoronos op. cit. 
pi. 107, 70 — 74). (5) obv. cicala; rev. letter, monogram, or simple type (J. N. Svoronos 
op. cit. pi. 18, 26, 38, 106, 117 (?) kdllyboi)). 

A creature with such a record behind it would serve as an excellent amulet to keep 
off mischief (L. Stephani in the Compte-rendu St. Pet. i860 p. 91, 1864 p. 130 f., 1865 
p. 84, 1869 p. 130, 1877 pp. 28 — 31, 91, 1880 p. 99 f.). Two engraved chalcedonies of 
early Roman date at Berlin show cicalas equipped with shield, sword, lance, etc. (Furt- 
wangler Geschnitt. Steine Berlin p. 239 nos. 6524 and 6523 pi. 45, id. Attt. Gemmen i pi. 
29,41 ( = my fig. 167) and43 ( = my fig. 168), ii. ^44)* Prophylactic virtue probably attached 
to the terra-cotta models of the t^ttix, of which sundry specimens are extant. One from 
Tanagra, in our national collection, has its upper side coloured black, with markings in 



256 The Daughters of Kekrops 

red, on a white slip {Brit. Mtis. Cat. Terracottas p. 83 no. B 72 fig. i7 = my fig. 169 
(scale y), O. Keller Die antike Tienvelt Leipzig 1913 ii. 404 fig. 125). Another, in my 
possession, is a child's rattle and by means of a pellet within makes a noise more or less 
resembling that of its original (fig. 170: scale ^). A phidle mesomphalos by the potter 




Fig. 169. 





Fig. 170. 



Sotades, now at Boston, has perched upon its central. boss a most life-like tdttix in pale 
terra cotta (W. Froehner Collection van Branteghe?n Bruxelles 1892 no. 159 pi. 35, 
H. B. Walters History of Ancient Pottery London 1905 i. 445 pi. 40, i, Perrot — Chipiez 
Hist, de VArt x. 722 fig. 395, Hoppin Red-Jig. Vases ii. 428 no. i fig., J. D. Beazley 
Attic red-figured Vases in Ainerican Museums Cambridge Mass. 1918 p. 129). Was this 
prophylaxis or a practical joke? 



The Daughters of Kekrops 257 

was ab oiHgine a personification of the cicala^, and that he bore 
a name which was primarily onomatopoeic^. In any case Tithonos 

^ The personification of the cicala is by no means an unexampled effort of the imagina- 
tion. The Laconian town Tainaros was called ' the seat of Tettix ' because it had been 
founded by Tettix the Cretan (Hesych. s.v. Thriyos edpavov). When the Naxian Kalondas, 
surnamed Korax, had killed Archilochos in battle, he was bidden by the Pythian priestess 
to go to 'the dwelling of Tettix' and appease the soul of Archilochos. 'The dwelling of 
Tettix ' meant Tainaros because Tettix the Cretan had come thither with his ships, founded 
a town, and dwelt beside Sht. psychopompeion (Plout. de ser. num. vind. 17, cp. K-A. frag. 
80 Hercher ap. Souid. s.v. 'Apx'^oxos). O. Hofer in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 402 rightly 
infers from Archil, frag. 143 Bergk^ ap. Loukian. pseudolog. i rerTvya. tov irrepov 
(rvv€l\7f<pas that the poet had spoken of himself as a tittix, and this lends the needed point 
to the anecdote. 

A folk-tale from Naxos says that the cicala (6 r^tr^t/cas), the ant, the bee, and the 
spider were brothers and sisters. Their mother lay dying and bade them all come to receive 
her blessing. The bee alone came. So her mother wished that she might make wax for 
the saints and honey for men. The rest were cursed. The spider should spin all night and 
unravel her web by day. The ant should drudge the year through and eat but a single 
grain. The cicala should chirp, chirp till he burst (N. G. Polites Ila/aaSdcrets Athens 1904 
i. 194 no. 352, ii. 943, O. Dahnhardt Nattirsagen Leipzig and Berlin 1910 iii. 468). In 
northern Greece the cicala is held in greater honour — witness G. F. Abbott Macedonian 
Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 60 : ' The farmers of Macedonia out of the newly ground corn 
make a large thin cake, which they take to the village fountain or well. They sprinkle it 
with water and then distribute it among the bystanders, who in return wish them " a happy 
year." This cake is called "Grasshopper-Cake" {t^lt^tjpokXlko), and is supposed to be 
a kind of offering to their favourite insect. The following rhymes express the insect's 
satisfaction at the sacrifice: 'Awz/i^ere, depi^ere /c?} 'fxepa kXLki Kavere, | Kal pi^re to 's ti] 
PptjffL va TTctw pd TO irdpia, \ Nd KaTcrco vd to <pdoj fia^i/ fie Ta TraiSta /xov, \ Net, iriaw vd iredduo}^. 
[^ A. A. Tovaiov, "'H /card t6 UdyyaLov Xcipa," p. 47] "Thresh and mow and make a cake 
for me. | Throw it into the fount that I may go and fetch it, | And sit and eat it with my 
children, | And then lay me down and die." ' 

A popular Tuscan song tells how the grasshopper {grillo) married the ant. After the 
wedding he became first a greengrocer and then an innkeeper, but finally went bankrupt, 
beat his wife, and died in misery (A. de Gubernatis Zoological Mythology London 1872 
ii. 48 f.). 

See further B. Laufer Insect Musicians and Cricket Champions of China {Anthropology 
Leaflet 22) Chicago 1927 (reviewed in Folk-Lore 1928 xxxix. 112: 'A champion cricket 
is looked on as the incarnation of a great warrior or hero of the past, and fetches the price 
of a good horse. If he has won many victories, his burial will be in a small silver coffin, 
for good luck, and in the neighbourhood of his grave excellent fighting crickets are expected 
to be found in the following year'). 

The main objection to my view is that the evidence directly connecting Tithonos with 
the cicala is not older than s. v B.C. See, however, h. Aphr. 2^6 ff. and infra n. 2. 

2 Names for the cicala regularly involve a reduplicated t ox k together with an ?-sound 
(O. Keller Die antike Tierwelt Leipzig 191 3 ii. 406). So with the ancient Greek t^tti^, 
T€TTiy6pLov, TLTiyovLov (L. Dindorf in Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. vii. 2091 A — d), kI^los 
(Hesych. /ct^ios- t^ttl^), kIkovs (Hesych. kLkovs- bvios t^ttl^. It is just possible that in 
h. Aphr. 237 f. TOV d rj rot (pojuT] pet da-ircTos, ov84 tl kTkvs \ '4<xd\ olt) wdpos '4<xk€v evl 
yvafiTTTo^ffL fxiXeacnv the choice of the word kikvs was determined by a reminiscence of 
kUovs. Neither Welcker Gr. Gotterl. i. 686 (A. Rapp in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 1263) nor 
J. Schmidt in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 1025 is convincing), the modern Greek T^iT^ipas or 
T^yiT^yipa.^, T^iT^LKas, and the Latin cicada with its derivatives (G. Korting Lateinisch- 
romanisches Worterbuch Paderborn 1901 p. 238 notes Italian cicdla^ cigala, Lombard 
Hgada, Proven5al cigala, French cigale, Spanish cigarra, chicharra, Portuguese cigarra, etc. 

C. III. 17 



258 The Daughters of Kekrops 





Fig. 171. 



Fig. 172. 




Fig. 173- 



The Daughters of Kekrops 259 

and adds: 'Nach gewohnlicher Annahme soil die Benennung der "Cigarre" (span. ptg. 
cigarro^ ital. sigarro, frz. cigare in.) auf span, cigarra zurtickgehen, wegen einer gewissen 
Ahnlichkeit des Tabakrollchens mit der Cicade, sei es in Gestalt oder in Farbe.' Cp. 
E. Weekley ^w Etymological Dictionary of Modern English London 1921 p. 303). But these 
imitative formations are apt also to have an z'w-sound, as in the modern Greek rcrti/r^i/cas, 
T^Lvrl^tKas, rcrivT^Lpas (Prellwitz Etym. Wbrterb. d. Gr. Sprp- p. 458), the Macedonian- 
Roumanian chincala (Korting loc. cit.), and the hatin verb friti/znire {Suet. /rag. p. -252, 2 
Reifferscheid cicadarum fritinnire {frintinnire cod. N . fretinnire alii codd. ), F. Buecheler — 
A. Riese Anthologia Latina^ Lipsiae 1906 i. 2. 248 no. 762. 35 et cuculi cuculant et rauca 
cicada fritinit), late Latin frintinnire (Ducange Gloss, med. et inf. Lat. s.vv. *baulare,' 
' frintinnire '). 

The same variation meets us in the case of the hero, whose name Tt^wj/os, Tithonus 
appears in Etruscan as Tindnn or Tindn (C. Pauli in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 971 f., 
J. Schmidt ib. v. 102 1, 1029). A mirror from Chiusi (?), published by E. Gerhard in the 
Arch. Zeit. 1852 x Anz. p. 160, ib. 1857 xv. Anz. p. 71*, id. Etr. Spiegel iv. 22 f. pi. 290 
( = my fig. 171), E. Hiibner in the Bull. d. Inst. 1857 p. 165, H. Brunn ib, 1859 P- ^°9j 
A. Fabretti Corpus inscriptionum Italicarum Aug. Taurinorum 1867 p. ccxviii no. 2513 bis, 
shows Tindun and Qesan as a pair of lovers flanked by Memrun (Memnon) on the right 
and La\s'\a (W. Deecke in Roscher Z^jc. Myth. ii. 1903) on the left. Another, owned and 
published by Gerhard Etr. Spiegel iii. 217 f. pi. 232 ( = my fig. 172), Fabretti op. cit. 
p. ccxvii no. 2506, has a similar scene in which Tindn (S. Bugge in W. Deecke Etruskische 
Forschungen tend Studien Stuttgart 1883 iv. 34 notes that Deecke read \tinQn\, and 
A. Furtwangler itindu (adding ' der erste Strich kann allerdings auch zu der Randeinfas- 
sung der Inschrift gehort haben')) is embraced by Evan (Gerhard read Efan { = Evan), 
comparing E/as { = Evas) as the name of Memnon in Etr. Spiegel iii. 218 f. pi. 235, i. 
C. Friederichs Kleinere Kunst und Industrie im Alterthum Dtisseldorf 1871 p. 60 no. 70, 
W. Helbig in the Bull. d. Inst. 1878 p. 84 f., and S. Bugge loc. cit. p. 35 ff. accept Evan, 
on which goddess see W. Deecke in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 1440, E. Samter in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. vi. 838 f. W. P. Corssen Ueber die Sprache der Etrusker'L.evpzig 1874 
i. 260, 820 and W. Deecke in K. O. Mliller Die Etrusker Stuttgart 1877 i^. 481 propose 
\Q'\esan', but there is no trace of an initial B) with Tvamii (Gerhard read Tfami (= Tvami) 
or Tsafni, Fabretti Tiami; Bugge loc. cit. p. 34 f. hazards tiasii for ^^dulxnos, i.e. 
Achilles) standing on the right and Qedis seated on the left. 

There is some reason to think that the Etruscan Tindun is still remembered by the 
peasants of north Italy. C. G. Leland Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition 
London 1892 p. 122 states that the Romagnoli regard Tituno or Tifuno as 'the spirit of 
thunder,' and ib. p. 215 asserts that, when it hails, people invoke Tituno or Tignia. If his 
information be reliable {supra ii. 421 n. o), it is possible to suppose that the -in- of Tindun 
led to confusion with the Etruscan Tinia. Be that as it may, Tinia, like Tindun^ is 
grouped with Qesan and Qedis on a mirror now in the Vatican (E. Braun in the Bull. d. 
Inst. 1837 pp. 73 — 80, Mus. Etr. Gregor. i pi. 31, i, Gerhard Etr. Spiegel iv. 5. 44 
pi. 396 ( = my fig. 173), Fabretti op. cit. p. ccxv no. 2477), which presumably represents 
Zeus supplicated by Heos and Thetis {supra ii. 734, 753 n. 3 (3)). Leland op. cit. 
pp. 75 — 78 claims that Qesan too has survived as Tesana, 'the Spirit of the Dawn,' and 
quotes a popular poem in which she appears as a dream to a sleeping contadino and 
promises to help him when he is weary. 

More ingenious, but also more speculative, are the suggestions of S. Bugge Das 
Verhdltnis der Etrusker zu den Indogermanen und der vorgriechischen Bevolkerung 
Kleinasiens und Griechenlands ed. A. Torp Strassburg 1909 p. 229 ff. : — Ti^ct>i'6s was 
a pre-Greek Anatolian name, borne e.g. by a brother of Priam (//. 20. 237). A cuneiform 
tablet found at Eyuk in Kappadokia mentions a town Tintunia, perhaps to be located 
in Armenia rather than in Asia Minor (E. Chantre Recherches archeologiques dans PAsie 
occidentale. Mission en Cappadoce j8gj — ■^Sg4 Paris 1898 p. 45 ff. no. i, loTi-in-tu-u-ni-ia). 
With this agrees the form tindun, which the Etruscans may have brought with them from 
their early home in Asia Minor. Tintunia (for * Tinthonia) is to tindun as 'AiroXXojyia 

I'J 2 



26o The Daughters of Kekrops 

had by Eos a son Memnon; and here too the dew-connexion re- 
appears. When Memnon was slain by Achilles, his mother Eos 
wept for him, and in the morning dew-drops we still see her tears^ 
Aglauros, Pandrosos, and Herse were alike associated with Zeus. 
Their mother was the daughter of Aktaios^; and Aktaios is a cult- 
epithet of Zeus^. Possibly Zeus Aktaws, Zeus 'of the Point,' was 
at one time worshipped on the high ground of Akte overlooking 
the harbours of the Peiraieus* More probably he drew his title 
from Akte, the old name for the whole promontory of Attike^ which 
indeed represents an earlier Aktike^. Pandrosos, again, stood in 
close relation to Zeus. In the Pandroseion was his altar'; and, 
though we must not with O. Gruppe^ assume the existence of a 
Zeus Pandrosos^ yet we may feel sure that here Zeus the sky-father. 



to *A.Trb\\u)v. On this showing tindun was the god or godlike hero of Hittite-speaking 
Cappadocians. Memnon as son of Tithonos implies that Tithonos was known in Anatolia. 
Tithonos founded Sousa on the Choaspes (Strab. 728, Diod. 2. 22, cp. Hdt. 5. 53, 7. 151, 
Paus. 4. 31. 5) and was worshipped as a god by the Susians (Souid. s.v. 2oi/(rtor ovofxa 
^dvovs. Tov veKpbv Ka^aavres oi "Sio^cnoi ra oara KOfxii^ovai T(p irarpl Tt^wvt^). Further, 
Tithonos was a personification of the day {ei. mag. p. 758, 2 7f. Tt^wj'6s, 7} rjfxipa- Trapa 
t6 Tidaads rb (rrjfiaivop rb ^fxepos [Etymology at its worst! A. B.C.]). Now it seems that 
the Etruscan stem fZ7t- denoted both the 'day' and the 'daylight-god' ^inia or ^ma, the 
equivalent of Zeus or lupiter (S. Bugge op. cii. p. 190 f.). Accordingly, Tri^wv^s pre- 
supposes an Anatolian form in which in before d became a nasal i [i). The Etruscan 
inscription on the wrappings of the Agram mummy speaks of the Dawn of the Day-god 
(G. Herbig in C. Pauli Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum Lipsiae 1919 — 192 1 Suppl. i 
(liber linteus Zagrabiensis) col. v, 19 Besan-tini vi'x'Cti pi. 5 : see further C. Pauli in Roscher 
Lex. Myth. v. 676 f.). This makes it certain that HnQun associated with desan, the Dawn 
{supra fig. 171), involves the syllable lin- 'day.' The termination -dun is of doubtful 
origin, but may be a combination of 6 the enclitic article with the suffix -un (cp. -ujvo- of 
Ti^ajj/6s). The schol. A. L. //. 11. i equates Tiduivb^ with Tltolv and both with Apollon. 
'T/rav [j^V]...scheint mir ebenfalls vorgriechischen Ursprungs und auf dieselbe Grund- 
wurzel wie Tidiavbs zurlickzugehen.' C. Pauli in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 971 f. is likewise 
inclined to accept an original connexion between Tindun, *TLvd(J}u, TWcjvos, Tituno on 
the one hand and Tinia, Tignia on the other. But the whole edifice is a house of cards. 

^ Ov. met. 13. 621 f., Stat. silv. 5. i. 34 f., interp. Serv. m Verg. Aen. i. 489. Cp. 
O. Puchstein Epigramniata Graeca in Aegypto reperta Strassburg 1880 no. 18. 

2 Supra p. 242 n. 3. ^ Supra ii. 869 n. 2, 904 n. 2. 

^ Supra p. 238 n. 3. 

^ Eur. Hel. 1673, Lyk. Al. 1339, Strab. 391, 397, Harpokr. s.v. 'Akt'tj (Favorin. lex. 
p. 102, 43 ff.), Apollod. 3. 14. I, Steph. Byz. s.v. 'Aktti, et. mag. p. 167, 51. 

^ Prellwitz Etym. Worterb. d. Gr. Spr."^ y>- ^^ ^'ATTLKr) = *'AKTLK7j.' But W. Judeich 
in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 2184 f. had already derived 'ATTiKrj 'offenbar gleich 
^Aktlk^' from 'Akt'tj and had cited in support, not only the lexicographers {supra n. 5), 
but also the niarm. Par. ep. i p. ^ Jacoby and Strab. 397 (cp. Paus. i. 2. 6), in both of 
which the precise form 'Aktikt^ occurs. 

"^ Supra p. 243 n. 5. 

^ Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 29 n. 6, iiii n. i, 1217 n. 3. Ld. ib. p. 29 says: 
* urspriinglich wohl "Allbetauer."' But Trdvdpoffos is at least as likely to be passive as 
active in meaning. 



Zeus ^rrhos 261 

who distilled the fructifying dew^had as his consort Pandrosos the 
earth-mother 'All-bedewed.' Lastly, Herse was for Alkman the very 
daughter of Zeus^. 

(c) Zeus Brrhos, Ersaios, Ikmaios, tktnios, Aphrios. 

In view of the foregoing sections we are not surprised to find 
that Zeus had sundry titles characterising him as the god of dew, 
moisture, and the like. 

It seems probable that Errkos, an obscure name for Zeus quoted 
by Hesychios^ from some unknown source, meant simply the 'Dew.' 
Zeus, as Plutarch* put it, turned himself into dew. If so, his 
appellation will be connected with those of the Athenian ^rr^^^<?>^2^ 
the Lesbian Ersophoros^^ and the Attic Apollon Erses'^, Another 

^ Even the honey-dew {supra p. 246) came from Zeus. When in summertime a cold 
night was followed by a hot day, and consequently trees and plants were found to be 
coated with a sweet exudation (dpocro/JieXi, depSfxeXL), Greek farmers exclaimed : 6 Zei>s 
^^pe^e /x^Xl (Galen, irepl Tpo<f>G}v dvud/jiecjs 3. 39 (vi. 739 Klihn)). Virgil says of lupiter : 
inellaque decussit foliis [georg. i. 131)- See further infra p. 498 ff. 

2 Supra i. 732 n. 5, iii. 179 f. 

^ Hesych. "Eppos- 6 ZeiJs. M. Schmidt is silent. J. Alberti, who records the guesses 
of G. Soping (cp. Hesych. 'Epi;/x6s* Zei^s) and J. J. Reiske (* An Herusl^), is not particu- 
larly helpful. 

* Supra p. 180. ^ Supra p. 166. ^ Supra pp. 167 n. 10, 168. 

' About an hour's walk to the north-east of Vari (Anagyrous), some 290"^ above the 
sea, near the top of one of Hymettos' southern spurs — a height known formerly as 
Kapsdla but now as Spilaion — is a very remarkable cave, first thoroughly explored in 
1 90 1 by members of the American School at Athens. The best map of the neighbourhood 
is in E. Curtius and J. A. Kaupert Karten von Attika Berlin 1904 Blatt 8 (Vari) with 
Text by A. Milchhofer Berlin 1889 iii. 16 f. The official reports of the excavation were 
published by C. H. Weller in the Am. /ourn. Arch. 1903 vii. 263 — 288 (description) with 
pi. I (plan) = myfig. 174, pi. 2 (sections) = my figs. 175, 176, and figs, i — 10, M. E. Dunham 
ih. 289 — 300 (a score of inscriptions). Miss I. C. Thallon ib. 301 — 319 (marble reliefs) 
with pis. 3 — 9, Miss L. S. King ib. 320 — 327 (vases) with pi. 10 and figs. 1, 2, 328 — 334 
(terra cottas) with pi. 11, Miss A. Baldwin ib. 335 — 337 (coins), S. E. Bassett ib. 338 — 
349 (lamps) with pis. 12 — 14 and figs, i — 5. The cave consists of an outer and an inner 
grotto, the former with a series of interesting rock-carvings and -cuttings, the latter dimly 
lit and containing a cold spring of water said to be ' /ca^apri/co.' The excavators failed to 
find any prehistoric remains. The evidence pointed to two periods of more or less con- 
tinuous resort, c. 600 — c. 150 B.C. and c. 300 — c. 400 A. D. Inscriptions prove that during 
the earlier period the cave was devoted to the worship of the Nymphs, Pan, Charis, and 
Apollon £rsos or Hdrsos. Lamps etc. show that during the later period it was adapted 
for Christian usage. 

We are concerned only with the shrine of Apollon, which is hewn out of the rock at 
the spot marked e on the plan (fig. 174). This shrine was arranged in two levels, each 
divided into halves by a low partition. The floor of the upper niche has a couple of 
D-shaped cavities (for libations or votive gifts? Cp. supra i. 140). The lower divisions 
lack such receptacles, but may have had fitted into them a pair of similarly concave stones. 
Two little holes on the left of the upper level, with corresponding holes on the right, 
perhaps imply pillars supporting a roof as a protection against the drip of water, which 
is here constant. Small fluted columns — two fragments were found — may or may not 
have been the pillars in question. Legible till lately was the rock-cut inscription 



262 



Zeus Err/ios 



APOAAnNOZ : EPSC {Corp. inscr. Att. i no. 430 'A7r6XXw»'os "Epcrou, Inscr. Gr. 
ed. min. i no. 783 'AttoXXw^/os : "Epo-o, E. Curtius and J. A. Kaupert Atlas von Athen 
Berlin 1878 p. 30 description with pi. 8, 2 sketch by F. Adler ( = my fig. 177), H. Blumner 
Technologie und Terminologie der Gewerbe und Kiinste bet Griechen und Rdmern Leipzig 
1884 iii. 217 fig. 25, T. Schreiber Atlas of Classical Antiquities ed. W. C. F. Anderson 
London 1895 p. 15 pi. 8, 5, C. H. Weller in the Am. Journ. Arch. 1903 vii. 270 f. fig. 5 
photo, fig. 6 sketch, M. E. Dunham ib. p. 296 no. 14 'AttoXXwj/os- "Epo-ou). This is usually 
transcribed "Epo-ou, but A. Boeckh in the Corp. inscr. Gr. i no. 456/^ prints 'Epo-o 




Fig. 174. 

and H. van Herwerden Appendix lexici Graeci suppletorii et dialectici Lugduni Batavorum 
1904 p. 90 assumes a nominative "Epo-Tys or "Epcros {id. Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et 
dialecticum'^ Lugduni Batavorum 1910 p. 587 gives 'Epcros ("Epa-?7S?)). H. Stuart Jones in 
the new ed. of Liddell and Scott, Oxford 1929, has '"Ep(ros...perh. cf. "Eppos.' To the 
left of the shrine is a crude carving of a stone-cutter, who bears a hammer or pick and 
a square and is inscribed twice with the name Archedemos {Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 787 
Apx^^Vf^os. I 'Apxedrj/iios.). Inscriptions found elsewhere in the cave describe him as 
Archedamos of Thera {ib. no. 786 ['A]px^5a^tos | [/^]o Oepatos), who being possessed 
by the Nymphs was bidden to adorn their grotto {ib. no. 788 'Apx^5>?Atos Q\i]pa'cos 6 
vvjj,<p\6\r)TrTos <ppad\a2(TL 'Nvpicpov T\avTpov i'^'qpy\d^aro=-Qoxiigny Anth. Pal. Append, i. 48), 
planted a garden for them {Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i nos. 784/785 a 'Apx^Sa/jios ho 9ep|a?os 
Kairov 'N6\fJi,<pais i<pvTev<T€v = a. sixth foot plus a complete hexameter), and constructed a 



Zeus Rrrhos 



263 



dancing-ground [ib. nos. 784/785 (5 'Apx^^WA^os ho Geplatos koI x^pov ^p\x^(^'^^[^] Nuv^ai 
€x\(^oiK[o56]iJ.€a€v = a. sixth foot phis the first half of a hexameter phts a complete hexa- 
meter). The date of Archedemos is uncertain. C. H. Weller places him c. 400 B.C. But 
his vagaries of dialect, lettering, and metre seem to me to indicate a much later (Hadrianic?) 
period, when archaisms were in fashion. 





a» I I t t I f r 7 I f 



Fig. 176. 



In addition to the deities already mentioned there was the seated goddess, whose rock- 
cut effigy and ompka/os are still to be seen at the point marked j8 on the plan (fig. 174. Cp. 
the sectional drawing in fig. 175). Her headless torso has been twice portrayed (E. Curtius 
and J. A. Kaupert Atlas von Athen Berlin 1878 p. 30 pi. 8, i sketch by F. Adler 



264 



Zeus FjTrhos 




Fig. 177. 




Fig. 178. 



Zeus Ersatos 265 

title of kindred origin preserved by Hesychios^ is perhaps Ersaios, 
Zeus 'of the Dew.' 

Keos was once so well watered that, like certain others of the 
Kyklades^, it was known as Hydroussa^. Hither came Aristaios, one 

{ = my fig. 178), C. H. Weller in the Am. /ourn. Arch. 1903 vii. 267 ff. fig. 4 photo) and 
is variously interpreted as Isis (R. Chandler Travels in Greece Oxford 1776 p. 150 *Isis, 
the Egyptian Ceres,' J. C. Hobhouse (Lord Broughton) A Journey through Albania^ London 
1813 i. 403 'supposed to represent Isis, the Egyptian Ceres,' E. Dodwell A Classical attd 
Topographical Tour through Greece London 1819 i. 553 'probably a statue of Isis') or 
Deineter (L. Ross Reisen des Konigs Otto und der Koniginn Anialia in Griechenland 
Halle 1848 ii. 76 'vielleicht einer Demeter') or Kybele (A. Milchhofer in the A th. Mitth. 
1880 V. 217 'offenbar... Kybele,' L. Bloch in Roscher Lex. Myth. iii. 531. This would 
agree with the lion's head carved in the rock at % on the plan (fig. 174). See also A. Rapp 
in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 1642, 1644) or Rhea (A. Milchhofer in E. Curtius and 
J. A. Kaupert Karten von Attika Berlin 1889 Text iii. 16 'Rhea?'). 

On the whole I conclude that the seated divinity is an earth-goddess, very possibly Ge 
herself, who here as at Delphoi [supra ii. 169 ff., 231, 239, 1216, cp. ii. 258 pi. xvi) had 
her omphalos. Further it would appear that deeper in the cavern, just where there was a 
perpetual drip of water, the Greeks established the cult of Apollon £rsos or Hdrsos, the 
'Dew'-god, — Apollon, rather than Zeus, in deference to the 07Jiphal6s. C. Wordsworth 
Athens and Attica London 1836 p. 198, ib.'^ London 1855 p. 170, was not very wide of 
the mark when he wrote : 'Ersus... appears to have been venerated here, as the beneficent 
power to whose influence — shed like dew {^pa-r}) upon the earth, — all rural produce in its 
infant state, the tender blade, the opening blossom, and the young firstling, were alike in- 
debted for their preservation and increase.' More succinctly let us say that down here, in 
the dark womb of mother earth, Apollon £rsos with his gentle moisture impregnates Ge 
for the benefit of mankind. And, if so, then the cave at Vari furnishes a noteworthy parallel 
to the Ersephoria [supra p. 165 fif.) at the underground descent (of Ge Olympta} supra 
p. 188) beside the Ilissos. 

Finally, if — as seems probable — the cave at Vari was the actual spot on Mt Hymettos 
to which the infant Platon was taken by his parents for a sacrifice to the rustic powers 
(Ail. var. hist. 10. 21 on top nXdrwi'a i] HepiKTcSvr} ^(pepev iv rats d7/fc£Xats* Otjovto^ de 
rod ' ApicTCovos iv 'T/iTyrrtT rats Moi^crats tj rats NvfX(pais, oi fiev Trpbs ttjv iepovpyiav fjcxav^ 7/ 
5^ KUT^KXive nXdrwj'a iv rais ttXtjctIov fivppivais daaeiais oijcrais /cat ttvkvcus. Kade^dovri de 
iafibs fxeKirrCov iv rots xetXectj/ avrov Kadlaaaai vTrrjdov, tt)v toO YLXdrcavos eiyXcoTTiav 
lxavT€v6fievai ivreOdev, Olympiod. v. Plat. p. i, 14 fif. Westermann koX yevvrjdivTa rbv 
nXdrwj'a Xa^ovres ol yoveXs ^pi<(>os ovra TedeiKaaiv iv rip 'TyttT/rry, (SovXo/xevoi virep avrov 
rots iKcT deols Havl Kai Ni5;u0ats /cat 'AiroXXcovi No^ttfj dvcai, koI Kecfjiivov avrov fxiXcrrai 
irpoffeXdovaaL rreirXripdoKacnv avrov rb (xrbfia Krjpiojv fxiXiros, 'iva dXrjdis irepl avrov yivrjrai rb 
'rod /cat awb yXdocar}^ fxiXiros yXvKicov piev a{>drj' [II. i. 249)), it maybe that the honey found 
on the babe's lips was accepted as the divine dew vouchsafed by the deities of the cavern. 

^ Hesych. 'EpYaios* dipios Zetjs (cp. supra i. 30, ii. 351 n. o, 808 n. o (o)). A. Meineke's 
cj. 'Epcatos is commonly approved and squares with Hesych. ipaata' ...dpoadbd-r] and ipa-air)' 
dpoa-dbdrjs. If this is right, Nonnos had the sanction of cult-usage, when he made Semele 
dream of herself as a fruit-tree in a garden ' Drenched by the nurturing dews of Kronos' 
son' [Dion. 7. 146 vL(p6ixevov Kpoviojvos de^L(pijroi(nv iipcraLs). 

2 Andros (Plin. nat. hist. 4. 65 Hydrusam). Tenos (Aristot. /rag. 553 Rose, 595 
Rose^ «/. Plin. nat. hist. 4. 65 Hydrusam, Steph. Byz. s.v. Trjvos'...'T5povcr<ra, Eustath. 
in Dionys. per. 525 "Tdpovaa). Cp. an island off the deme Aixone (Strab. 398 'Tdpova-aa : 
see further L. Blirchner in Pauly— Wissowa Real-Enc. ix. 79), etc. (Gruppe Gr. Myth. 
Rel. p. 749). 

2 Herakl. Voni. frag. 9. i [Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 214 Miiller) 'TSpoOtra, Plin. nat. hist. 4. 
62 Hydrusam, Hesych. s.v. 'Tdpovaa. 



266 Zeus Ikmatos 

of the great culture-heroes of Greece, who learnt the care of sheep 
and oxen from the Nymphs and of bees from the Brisai. But 
drought befell the island, for the Etesian Winds failed and plants 
and animals suffered ^ At this point the narrative as told by 
Herakleides of Pontos, the pupil of Aristotle^, breaks off abruptly. 
It is continued by Apollonios of Rhodes^. Aristaios by his wisdom 
averted disaster. Gathering together the Parrhasian folk of Lykaon's 
lineage (presumably Arcadian settlers in Keos*), he made a great 
altar for Zeus Ikmatos, Lord 'of the Damp^,' and sacrificed on the 
mountains both to the star Seirios and to Zeus son of Kronos. 
Thereupon Zeus sent the Etesian Winds to blow for forty days and 
cool the earth. Hence the Cean custom that priests offer burnt- 

^ Herakl. Pont. loc. cit. 

^ Aristot. /rag-. 511 Rose'^. 

"^ Ap. Rhod. 2. 519 ff. Xiirei' 5' oye irarpos etperfi^ \ ^dirjv, iv de Kicp KaTeudaffaro, \aov 
dyeipa? \ IlappdaLov, Toiirep re KvKdovb% elcn yevidXrjs, \ Kat ^wfiov iroirjae fjieyav At6s 
'iKfialoLO, I iepd t ed '^ppe^ev iv oi^peaip dcripi Keivifj \ Heipli^ avTCp re Kpouidr] Ad. tolo 5' 
€Kr}Ti I yaiav eTrL\p{)xov(nv iTTjaiaL e/c Atos adpai [supra p. 142 n. 6) TJ/JLara TearffapdKovra' 
K^Cfj 5' ^TL vvv leprjes \ dvToXiuv wpoTrdpoide Kvvbs pe^ovai dvrjXds. So Theophr. de vent. 14 
et 5e TTOT e^iXiTTOv Kal ' ApLcrralos aureus dveKaX^aaro dvcras ras iv Ke(^ dvaias t($ Ad 
Kaddirep /xvdoXoyovai, k.t.X. and more fully Clem. Al. strom. 6. 3 p. 444, 30 ff. Stahlin 
TrdXiJ' icTopovaiv "EiXXrjves iKXeLirovroov Trori rCov iTTjaiuv dvijxwv ' ApiffraTov iv Kiip dvaai 
'lKfxai({} (so L. C. Valckenaer for Iffdfxioji cod. L.) Ad ' ttoXXt) yap rjv (pdopd, (pXoyjULi^ 
diairLixTrpafxivfav irdvTUv /cat di] Kal rdv dva\pvx^i-v Toiis KapiroOs eioodSruv dvi/xuv /xi] 
TTvedvTCjv '<c6 5e [ins. U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff)>p^5^aJS avToi)^ dveKaXiaaro. Cp. 
Hyg. poei. astr. 2. 4 praeterea Canicula exoriens aestu Ceorum (so B. Bunte for eorum 
codd. D.G.N.) loca et agros fructibus orbabat et ipsos morbo adfectos poenas Icaro cum 
dolore sufferre cogebat, quod latrones recepissent. quorum rex Aristaeus Apollinis et 
Cyrenes filius, Actaeonis pater, petiit a parente, quo facto calamitate civitatem posset 
liberare. quem deus iubet multis hostiis expiare Icari mortem, et ab love petere, ut, quo 
tempore Canicula exoriretur, dies XL ventum daret, qui aestum Caniculae mederetur. quod 
iussum Aristaeus confecit et ab love impetravit ut etesiae flarent. quas nonnulli etesias 
dixerunt, quod quotannis certo tempore exoriuntur (^ros enim Graece annus est Latine) ; 
nonnulli etiam aetesias (so A. van Staveren for etesias codd., diro tov aXreiv) appellaverunt, 
quod expostulatae sunt ab love et ita concessae. 

* A. Pridik De Cei insulae rebus Dorpati Livonorum 1892 pp. 19 — 21 vv^ould dis- 
credit this notion of an Arcadian settlement in Keos (' Quod veteres scriptores Aristaeum 
aut cum Parrhasiis ex Arcadia venisse aut postea in Arcadiam se contulisse narrant, 
collegerunt nimirum ex Aristaei Jovisque cultu et Ceis et Arcadibus communi'). F. Hiller 
von Gaertringen in Pauly — Wissovva Real-Enc, ii. 853 is less sceptical ('Indessen hat eine 
Wanderung von Arkadern nach Keos an sich nichts Unwahrscheinliches; auch an der 
ionischen Wanderung nahmen nach Herodt. 1 146 'Ap/cdSfs HeXao'Yo/ teil'). 

^ Schol. Ap. Rhod. 2. 522 'iKfxaiov 8i Aibs iepbv iffriv iv Kiq}, TovricTTi AiOypov, 
iveKev TTjs iKfiddos /cat rrjs Trvorjs tQv dvi/xcjv. So cod. Par. The vulgate has Atos 
'iKfxaloio. 'iv€Ka r^s iKfxddos. iv rrj K(p (sic) 8i iariv lepbv Atos iKfxaiov, TOVTicTi di^ypov. 
fTrei at'rtos yiyove rrji irvorjs tQiv dvepiwv. K, Manthos thought he could locate the temple 
of Zeus Ihnatos at a place called yut/cpd 'EXXT^i/t/cd, near 'EXXT/j'tKct between loulis and 
Karthaia. There were remains of Cyclopean walls, which had been used as a quarry for 
building two neighbouring churches, one being that of the Taxiarchai [Inscr. Gr. ins. 
V. I no. 543). 



Zeus Ikmatos 267 

sacrifice before the rising of the dog-star. The poet's allusion to 
Arkadia and Lykaon suggests that the altar of Zeus Ikmatos 
resembled that of Zeus Lykaios on the summit of Mount Lykaion^ 
We do not, however, hear that in Keos, as in Arkadia^ and Elis^, a 
starving populace, when famine stared them in the face, resorted 
to the desperate expedient of human sacrifice. Milder methods had 
come into vogue. The priest of Zeus Lykaios made rain-magic with 
an oak-branch*. And Aristaios, after sacrificing a bull, poured a 
libation of honey on the altar of Zeus Ikmatos^ — a libation 
thoroughly appropriate to the god that sent refreshing dew^ 

Aristaios, then, was famous as a culture-hero. But admittedly' 
he was more than that. As early as 474 B.C. Pindar^ identifies him 
with Zeus Aristaios or with Apollon Agreus and Nomios — high 
gods of field and fold. Cheiron, foretelling to Apollon the destiny 
of Kyrene's son, says that Hermes shall receive him from his mother 
and bring him to the fair-throned Horai and to Gaia: 

And they shall set the babe upon their knees, 
And nectar and ambrosia take, and these 

Upon his lips let fall, 

So make him once for all 

A power that shall endure — 

Zeus and Apollon pure, 
A present help to men upon their way, 

Of flocks a guardian sure, 
Agreus and Nomios named of some to-day, 
Of others Aristaios, as they pray. 

1 Supra i. 81 ff. ^ Supra i. 70 ff., 654. 

* Infra § 9 (g) Molpis. 

^ Supra i. 76, 87, infra § 9 (a) iii. 

^ Nonn. Dion. 5. 269 ff. koX irvpi ffeLpidovra Kareijuacrev daripa Maiprjs, \ Kal Atos 
iKfialoLo 6v(Jodea ^wfibv dudxf/as \ al'ytiart ravpdc^ yXvKcprjv eTrex^^cLTO \ot^r)p \ iroiKiXa 
(poiToXirjs iirt^ibfiLa 5Qpa /xeXlaaris, \ Tr\-f]<xas d^pd K^ireWa fieXLKprjTov KVKeQvos- \ Zevs Se 
TraT7}p iJKOVffe Kal vUos via yepaipcou \ ir^fixf/ei/ dXe^iKdKCjv dve/Ji^uiv avTitrvoov aiiprjv, j ^eiptou 
aidaXdevTOS dvaffreXXojv irvpeToto. \ elcrerL vvv K-qpvKei ^ ApicxTaioco dvrjXrjs \ yaiav dva\p6x- 
ovaip 'ErT^o-itti ^k At6s adpai^ \ dinrdTe ttolklXo^otpvs de^erat olvds oirdopr}. 

^ Hesych. s.v. LKfiaaia- 6 ^p8po<TOi d'/jp, vypaaia. In Paus. i. 32. 2 L. C. Valckenaer 
cj. ^w/a6s 'I/CyuaX^ou Aios, but lirjjuaX^ov codd. is right {supra i. 121, ii. 4, 897 n. 6). 

'' £.g: Schirmer in Roscher Lex. Myth. i. 547 ' ein Gott der Urbewohner Griechen- 
lands,' Preller— Robert Gr. Myth. i. 455 ' eines Schutzgottes ' etc., F. Hiller von 
Gaertringen in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 852 'die ehemalige Bedeutung dieses einer 
sehr alten und urspriinglichen Entwicklungsstufe angehorenden Gottes,' Smith— Marindin 
Class. Diet. p. Ill 'an ancient divinity' etc., Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 17 10 ' Wetter- 
gott,' E. Thramer in J. Hastings EncydopcBdia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1913 
vi. 546 ^ 'an ancient Thessalian deity' etc., H. J. Rose A Handbook of Greek Mythology 
London 1928 p. 144 'a rustic deity.' 

^ Pind. Pyth. 9. 112 ff. (quoted supra i. 372 n. 8). 



2 68 Zeus Aristatos Ikmios 

Pindar appears to be weaving together a warp and a woof of diverse 
origin. The one tradition, which we may call Boeotian since it was 
found in Hesiod, equated Aristaios with the pastoral Apollon\ 
The other, which is rather Arcadian, identified him with Zeus 2. 
This is the version accepted by Kallimachos when, wishing to ascribe 
a noble pedigree to Akontios of Keos, he makes him descended 
'from the priests of Zeus Aristaios Ikmios^! Later writers repeat, 
with less precision, this twofold claim to divinity*. We are left 
wondering whether Aristaios was a god who had faded into a hero, 
or a mortal who had put on immortality. 

And here we must take into account an attractive hypothesis 
advanced by L. R. Farnell ^, who observes that A ristaios means * sprung 
from Ariste' and that Ariste was an appellative of Artemis^: 'His 

^ Hes, jfrag. 98 Flach, 129 Rzach op. Serv. in Ytxg. georg. i. 14 Aristaeum invocat, 
id est Apollinis et Cyrenes filium, quern Hesiodus dicit ApoUinem pastoralem. 

^ Interp. Serv. in Verg. georg. i. 14 huic opinioni {sc. that Aristaios went from 
Thebes to Keos and thence to Sardinia) Pindarus refragatur, qui eum ait de Cea insula 
in Arcadiam migrasse ibique vitam coluisse : nam apud Arcadas pro love colitur, quod 
primus ostenderit qualiter apes debeant reparari, ut ait poeta de hoc ipso Aristaeo 
'tempus et Arcadii memoranda inventa magistri | pandere' (Verg. georg. 4. 283 f.). 

^ Kallim. aitia 3. i. 32 ff. Mair Ko5/)ei57;s o'u 7' ^vwdev 6 irevdepds, aiirap 6 Ketos | yafi- 
jSpds ' ApicTTaiov [Tirjlvbs d(p^ lep < e > lav \ 'iKfxlov, olai pi.i tJi\T}]Kev iir' oijpeos ajx^doveffffw \ 
irpyjvveLv xa\[e'\Tr7]v M.atpav avepxofiivqv, \ alreLadai to 5' &rjp,a irapal Aios, <l re daix < t > 
vol I irXrjcaovTai \iv4aii oprvyes ev ve<j)e\cjLis. In line 33 the papyrus has ya/m^pocrapiaTaLov . . 
Tio(Ta/x(pt€p(av with /x of d/A0 apparently crossed through. A. S. Hunt in T/ie Oxyrhynchus 
Papyri London 1910 vii. 27 no. loii prints U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff s cj. 
X^ < tr > OS d/i0' iepCov, but id. p. 63 admits that X'^iros 'cannot actually be read.' A. W. 
Mair did well to prefer A. E. Housman's [Z?7]j'6s d^' iep < i > lau. The form 'Ik/xIov, in- 
stead of the usual 'I/c^ta/ou, is tiietri gratia. 

* Schol. Find. Pyth. 9. 112 rov ' KpiaToXhv rive% 'AwdWuva, rcves 8e Kal 'Ayp4a, 115 a 
iartou otl tov ' ApiaToiov 6td to ttjv KTr)voTpo(pLav /cat Kvvqyealav evprjKevai, 'Aypia Kal 
N6yatoj', At'a Kai ' AirdWupa TrpoarjySpevov, schol. Ap. Rhod. 2. 498 /cat KaTaKoKeaaixevos 
Toi>s iT7](riai Zeus 'Apttrraios €K\7)6r] /cat 'AiroWtou 'Aypei/s Kai N6/xtos (cod. Par. has didi 8^ to 
cCiTLOv yeveadai tQv eTrjaiQv {leg. eTrjaiuv) Zeiis 'Aptaraios IkXtjOt) /cat 'A7r6XXwj' 'Ayuteus {sic) 
/cat N6/xtos), Athenag. supplicatio pro Christianis 14 p. 15 Schwartz Ketoi 'A/ottrratoj' {sc. 
idpvvTaL deov), Tbv aiiTov Kai ALa Kai 'AttoXXw vo/xi^ovTes. Cp. Diod. (probably from 
Timaios: see E. Schwartz in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. v. 676) 4. 81 5td 5e ttjv evxpWT- 
lav TTjv iK to6toi}v tQ)v evp'qfxdTWv tovs evepyeTiqdlvTa^ dvOpiiiTrov^ Tifiijcrai tov 'ApurTaiov 
iaodeoLS Tifiais, Kadd Kal Tbv Alovvctov, 82 bib Kai irapd tois KaTa t^v 2t/ceXtaj' oIkovcti 
dLatpepovTcot (paal TtfxrjdijvaL Tbv ' ApiaTatov ws deov, Kai fxaXiad^ virb tQv (xvyKO/xi^ovTOJv tov 
TTJs iXalas Kapirov, Paus. 8. 2. 4 iirei tol Kai deol TOTe eylvovTo 4^ dvOpuiruv, ot yepa Kal 4s 
Tode '4tl '^xovaiv cbs 'Aptcraios k.t.X. 

Corp. inscr. Gr. ii no. 2364, 2 (Karthaia) r^ 'A7r6\Xaji'[t] 'Apt(rTat[y] was a misreading 
amended ib. p. 10"]! = Inscr. Gr. ins. v. i no. 545, 2 tC)l^ AirbWuivi deKdT-rjv. 

^ Farnell G^. Hero Cults p. 49 ff. 

^ Paus. I. 29. 2 KaTiovcn. 5' is avTT]v wepi^oXbs iaTiv' ApTeixidos koI ^bava ^ AplaTiqs Kal 
KaWlffTTjs ' w$ /x€v iyi) SoKto Kal bfioXoyel Ta ^ttt} rd Udfxcpo} (so A. Hecker for aaTr<povs 
codd., cp. Paus. 8. 35. 8),t?7S 'ApT^/At56s elaiv iirLKXrjaeis aSrat, Xeydfievov de Kal dXXov 4s avTds 
\byov eidoos vTrep^-qaoimai. Perhaps we catch an echo of the other version in Hesych. s.v. 
KaXXio'Ti; • . . . /cat r/ ev t(^ Kepa^a (e)i/c4' i5pvfx4vr]'^KdT7), rjv ^viOL''ApTe/j.Lv \4yovaLV. 



Aristaios 269 



name implies a powerful goddess and her son. Are we transported 
back once again to the domain of Cretan religion, with its great 
goddess and youthful companion-god?' Artemis certainly bulked 
big in Keos. She had a sanctuary at loulis, as we gather not only 
from the myth of Ktesylla^ but also from extant inscriptions^. 
Her head appears on bronze coins of the town struck in s. iii B.C.^ 
And her name at least is perpetuated by that of Saint Artemidos, 
the Cean protector of ailing children^ If, then, we may assume that 
in Keos, as at Athens, Artemis was Arzste, it is possible to plead 
that Aristaios was a theophoric name^ attached to her pdredros^ — 
possible, but precarious. 

On the whole, I am disposed to see in Aristaios another example 
ofthoseearlykings of Greece( Agamemnon, Amphiaraos,Trophonios, 
Asklepios, etc.), who bore the title of the sky-god because they were 
regarded as his human embodiment'. Hyginus — was it only a lucky 

^ Ant. Lib. i (after Nikandros erepotoiJ/xej/a book 3) Hermochares of Athens saw 
Ktesylla, daughter to Alkidamas of loulis, as she danced round the altar of Apollon at 
Karthaia on the occasion of the Pythian festival. Falling in love with her, he inscribed an 
apple and let it drop in the precinct of Artemis. Ktesylla picked it up and read thereon 
a vow to marry Hermochares of Athens. Thereupon, moved by modesty and anger, she 
flung the apple away. When Hermochares pressed his suit, Ktesylla's father consented 
and, laying hold of the bay-tree, swore by Apollon to that effect. But after the Pythia 
Alkidamas forgot his oath and gave his daughter to another. The wedding was at hand, 
and the girl was already offering her sacrifice in the precinct of Artemis, when Hermochares 
indignant at losing his bride burst in. Ktesylla was smitten with love for him and, helped 
by her nurse, eloped with him by night to Athens, and there married him. Fate ordained, 
however, that she should die in childbed, because her father had broken his word. When 
she was being carried out to burial, a dove flew up from the bier and the body of Ktesylla 
vanished. Hermochares consulted the oracle about it and was bidden to found at loulis 
a sanctuary of [Aphrodite {secL J. G. Schneider)] Ktisylla. The Ceans still worship her 
— the men of loulis calling her Aphrodite Ktesylla^ the rest Ktesylla Hekaerge. 

Ov. met. 7. 368 — 370 is likewise indebted to Nikandros (cp. E. Oder De Antonino 
Liberali Bonnae 1886 pp. i fF. , 42 ff., M. Schanz Geschichte der romischen Litteratur"^ 
Munchen 1899 ii. i. 219). 

The tale of Hermochares and Ktesylla is paralleled by that of Akontios and Kydippe 
(C. Dilthey De Callimachi Cydippa Leipzig 1863, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 237 f.). 

^ Michel Recueil d'lnscr. gr. no. ']%'] = Inscr. Gr. ins. v. i no. 617 ('fragmentum 
deforme lapidis communis, olim in casa G. F. Depastae in regione AiadAtoi' rov 'Ofta 
inaedificatum ') 'A/)W//i5o|s lepov in lettering oi s. iii B.C. 

Corp. inscr. Gr. ii Add. no. 2367 = Lebas — Foucart Peloponnese no. \'j^6 = Inscr. Gr. 
ins. V. I no. 618 ('luHdis in arce') [ ] s'Ett^^/ooj'os Kai ol iraides ApT^jUi[5]i. 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Crete etc. p. 96 pi. 22, 15 and 16 f.. Hunter Cat. Coins ii. 
204 no. I, McClean Cat. Coins ii. 518 no, 7247 pi. 245, 23, Head Hist. num."^^. 484. 

* Supra i. 172. 

^ Examples of the name as borne by men are collected in W. Pape — G. E. Benseler 
Worterhuch der griechischen Eigennamen^ Braunschweig 1875 i. 128 and in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 859. 

^ Supra ii. 294 ff. 

^ Supra ii. 1069 f. Zeus ' A7a/x.^;Ltj'a>i', 1070 ff. Zeus 'A/jLtpidpaos, 1073 ff. Zeus Tp€<pd}pios 
or Tpocpibvios, 1076 ff. Zeus ' Acr/cX777rt6s. 



270 



Aristaios 



guess? — dubs him 'King' of the Ceans^ Diodoros, probably drawing 
upon Timaios^ (c. 346 — c. 250 B.C.), is aware that he left descendants 
in Keos, and states that in Sardinia he begat two sons called 
Charmos and Kallikarpos^. The well-omened* jingling names are 
suggestive of a Dioscuric pair. Finally, Aristaios, identified by the 
poets with Zeus^, appears as a Zeus-like head, bearded and often 
laureate, on Hellenistic coins of Keos (figs. 179 — 182)^ and of the 




Fig. 179. 




Fig. 180. 




Fig. 181. 




Fig. 182. 




Fig. 183. 




Fig. 184. 




Fig. 185. 




Fig. 186. 



1 Hyg. poel. astr. 2. 4 (quoted supra p. 266 n. 3). 

- Supra p. 268 n. 4. ^ Diod. 4. 82. 

■* With XdpjuLos cp. Pind. Pyth. 9. 64 dpdpdai, x^PI^^ 0tXois of Aristaios himself. 

^ Supra p. 267 f. 

^ Brit.Mus, Cat. Coins Crete etc. p. 89 pi. 21, i — 5 ' Aristaeus ?, ' Hunter Cat. Coins 
ii. 203 pi. 43, 14 'Zeus (Aristaios),' Weber Cat. Coins ii. 557 nos. 4632 — 4634 pi. 168 
' Aristaeos,' McClean Cat. Coins ii. 518 pi. 245, 26 f. 'Aristaeos,' Head Hist, num.^ 
p. 482 f. 'Aristaeos represented like Zeus.' Rev. KEI or KEIIIN Seirios. I figure two 
bronze coins in the Leake collection and two in the McClean collection. 



Zeus Aphrios 



271 



Cean towns loulis (fig. 183)^ Karthaia (figs. 184, 185)^ and Koresia 
(fig. 1 86)1 

In this connexion a word must be added on a Thessalian cult 
about which we are very imperfectly informed. Three out of the four 
tetrarchies of Thessaly recognised a month Aphrios'^, which belonged 
to the second half of the year^ but cannot as yet be more nearly 
defined. B. Keil^, K. TUmpel^, and J. W. Kubitschek® held that its 
name implied the worship of Aphreia^, a clipped form of the 
Thessalian Aphrodite. But N. I. Giannopoulos has done good service 
by publishing a couple of inscriptions from Pherai, which afford a 

^ Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Crete etc. p. 96 f. pi. 22, 18 'Bearded head,' Hunter Cat. 
Coins ii. 204 nos. 2 — 4 'Zeus (Aristaios),' McClean Cat. Coins ii. 518 pi. 245, 24 
'Aristaeos,' Head Hist, num.'^ y*. 484 'Aristaeos.' Rev. I0YAI6 or lOYAI Bee. My 
fig. 183 is from a silver didrachm, now in the British Museum, published by W. Wroth in 
the Hum. Chron. Third Series 1891 xi. 129 no. 25 'Aristaeus,' which reads lOY and has 
in the field a dog's head and H. 

- W. M. Leake Hujnismata Hellenica London 1856 Insular Greece p. 6 'Jupiter,' 
McClean Cat. Coins ii. 516 no. 7234 (my fig. 184), Head Hist, num? p. 483 'Aristaeos.' 
Rev. KAP0A Seirios. 

McClean Cat. Coins ii. 517 pi. 245, 17 (my fig. 185) ' Bearded head.' Rev. Grape-bunch. 

^ Brit. Mns. Cat. Coins Crete etc. p. 94 pi. 22, 8 'Aristaeus?,' Weber Cat. Coins ii. 
559 no. 4645 pi. 169 'Aristaeos,' Head Hist. num.'^^. 484 'Aristaeos.' Rev. KOPH Star. 
My fig. 186 is the Weber specimen. 

Agreus on autonomous and imperial bronze 
coins of Korkyra has a more distinctive type — 
a bearded god clad in a long chitdn and hold- 
ing a cornu copiae {e.g. Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins 
Thessaly etc. p. 155 pi. 25, 7 f., p. 159 ff. 
pi. 26, 4, 6, Hunter Cat. Coins li. 21 pi. 32, 
4 and p. 22 no. 57, McClean Cat. Coins ii. 
282 pi. 191, 9 and 12, Head Hist, num.^ 
p. 328). Obv. Zeus Kdsios [siipj-a ii. 906 n. 3 fig. 823) or Head of emperor. I figure a 
specimen in my collection. 

^ Hestiaiotis: Aiginion [Inscr. Gr. sept, ii no. 323, i ixrj\ybs 'A0]pt[oi;]), Chyretiai 
[ib. no. 349 b, 4 'A(0)p4ou). Pelasgiotis: Azoros {ib. no, 1295 a, 5 fX7]vds'A(ppiov), Gonnos 
{ib. no. 1042, 13 f. 'A|0ptou), Larissa {ib. nos. 542, 9 fxriuos 'A(ppio[v], 544, 2 f. ttjv 
dev\[Te]pav e^dfirjvov, 11 'A0p£y, 546, 16 vovix7){viq.) ' A(ppiov, 547, 7 [x['qvbs) 'A^piov, 556, 
10 f. [M'>?]1i'os 'A0pt[ou], 568, 4 fj-rjvos 'A<ppodLg-iov? ('( ='A0/)iou) lectio incerta': p. 320 
*'A(ppiov legit Rensch"" and ^' Atppodicnos nihil est', v"A(ppios'). Thessaliotis : Pharsalos [ib. 
no. 256 b, II 'A<p[piov}'\). 

^ Ib. no. 544, 2 f. , II {supra n. 4). ^ B. Keil in Hermes 1885 xx. 630. 

' K. Tlimpel in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 2724 and 2796. 

^ J. W. Kubitschek ib. i. 2724. 

^ J. Franz in the Ann. d. Inst. 1842 xiv. 136 ff. no. i published a metrical inscription 
from Gallipoli (Kallipolis) on the Thracian Chersonese, of which a revised transcript was 
given by J. H. Mordtmann in the Ath. Mitth. 1881 vi. 260 ff. beginning 'Aptpeirjs vItjl 
T€T€i[fjt.€v]ov iepbv d(TTv \ dpxoi'l-(av tbpvjxa k.t.X. Kaibel Epigr. Gr. no. 1034 printed the 
poem from Franz' copy, but omitted the opening word as an obvious error. Later, in Hermes 
1884 xix. 261, he suggested that 'Apcpiirjs might be a stone-cutter's slip for 'Acppeirjs in the 
sense of ' A<f>po'yev€ias. Lastly B. Keil ib. 1885 xx. 630 supported Kaibel's suggestion by 
noting the month "A<ppios, which according to him implied a Thessalian 'Acppia to match 
the Thracian ' A<f>pda. 




Fig. 187. 



272 



Zeus Aphrios 



more likely explanation. Both are engraved on marble stelai topped 
by a small pediment. The first to be found read AlA^t^PlOY, which 
Giannopoulos^ shrewdly interpreted as a dedication (in dialect^) 
'to Zeus Aphrios! Various scholars shook sapient heads over this 
new-fangled epithet^. But all doubts as to its authenticity were dis- 
sipated when Giannopoulos produced a second inscription from the 
same town, containing the god's name in full — AMA^PIOY, *to 
Zeus Aphrios'^! 

It remains to determine the sense of Aphrios, and that is no easy 
task. Indeed, we are reduced to pure conjecture. I should assume 
derivation from the Greek aphros, 'foam.' Significance might attach 
to bubbles on the local spring^, froth on the river, foam on the sea, 
and any or all of these things might be attributed to the action of the 
sky-god. An Indian story tells how Indra — the thunder-god who 

1 N. I. Giannopoulos in the AeXriov ^iXapxa^oi^ 'Eratpe^as "Odpvos 1901/2 p. 47, z'd. in 
the 'E0. 'ApX' 1913 p. 220. Height o'sS"*, width 0-25'". 

2 For -ov=-(pm ThessaUan see e.g. A. Thumb Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte 
Heidelberg 1909 p. 242 and in greater detail F. Bechtel Die griechischen Dialekte Berlin 
1921 i. 179. 

^ A. I. Spuridakes in the AeXriov ^iXapxc^iov 'Eraipeias "Odpvos 190 1/2 p. 24 no. 19 
('E0. 'ApX' 1913 p- 220) took Aia^piov to be the tomb *of Diaphrios.' A. Jarde and 
M. Laurent in the Bti/L Corr, Hell. 1902 xxvi. 385 no. 93 read Aia<pplov, but left it 
without interpretation. A. Rutgers van der Loeff in the Alh. Mitth. 1904 xxix. 220 n. i 
and O. Kern in the Inscr. Gr. sept, ii no. 452 incline to accept Giannopoulos' view. But 
Kern ih. prints Ai.a(ppiov because J. von Prott thought it ' viel wahrscheinlicher als Aia^ptou.' 

^ N. I. Giannopoulos in the 'E0. 'Apx* J[9i3 P- 219 f. no. 4. Height 0*84'", width 0*35"^. 

^ At Pherai this would be the fountain of Hypereia (F. Stahlin Das hellenische Thes- 
salien Stuttgart 1924 p. 107 with fig. 5 chart of Velestino (Pherai)), who appears on silver 
drachms (W. Froehner Collection Photiades Pacha : Monnaies grecques Paris 1890 p. 14 
no. 165 pi. I (=my fig. 188), Head Hist, nuni? p. 307. Obv. Head of the nymph 





Fig. 188. Fig. 189. 

Hypereia crowned with reeds; behind, lion's head spouting water. Rev. 4>EPAI0YN 
Hekate, with two torches, on galloping horse; in the field, a wreath containing the 
name ASTOMEAON) and hemidrachms of j. iv B.C. {Brit. Mus. Cat. Cf?mj Thessaly 
etc. p. 48 pi. 10, \i^\i2.di, Mc Clean Cat. Coins ii. 222 pi. 175, 25 worse, F. Imhoof-Blumer 
in the Journ. Intern, d^ Arch. Num. 1908 xi. 65 cp. 75, Head Hist, num.^ p. 307. 
Fig. 189 is from a specimen of mine. Obv. Head of Hekate, wreathed with myrtle ; 
behind, torch. Rev. 4>EPAI0YN The nymph Hypereia, in chiidn and himdtion, 
placing her right hand on a lion-head fountain; in the field, a wreath containing 
the name AZTO. Cp. M. Leumann ''Aaro- fur 'Apto-ro- auf thessalischen Inschriften' 
in Glotta 1929 xviii. 65 f.). 



Zeus Aphrios 273 

conquered the demons of drought^ — swore to the Asura Namuki^ 
that he would slay him neither by day nor by night, neither 
with staff nor with bow, neither with the palm of the hand nor with 
the fist, neither with the wet nor with the dry. So he killed him in 
the morning twilight by using as a thunderbolt the foam of water^. 

1 A. A. Macdonell Vedic Mythology Strassburg 1897 p. 54. 

2 Id. ib. p. 161 f. concludes: *The etymology of the name is according to Panini 
(6> 3j 75) na-mtcci, "not letting go." In that case it would mean "the demon withholding 
the waters "12 (i2Cp. Kuhn, KZ. 8, 80).' F. Max Milller Vedic Hymns Oxford 1891 
p. 1 1 1 says : ' na-muk, not delivering rain. ' 

^ The Satapatha-Brdhmana trans. J. Eggeling Part v {The Sacred Books of the East 
xliv) Oxford 1900 p. 222 f. 12. 7. 3. i ff. : ' i. By means of the Sura-liquor Namuki, the 
Asura, carried off Indra's (source of) strength, the essence of food, the Soma-drink. He 
(Indra) hasted up to the Asvins and Sarasvati, crying, "I have sworn to Namuki, saying, 
' " I will slay thee neither by day nor by night, neither with staff nor with bow, neither 
with the palm of my hand nor with the fist, neither with the dry nor with the moist ! " ' 
and yet has he taken these things from me: seek ye to bring me back these things !" 
2. They spake, "Let us have a share therein, and we will bring them back to thee." — 
"These things (shall be) in common to us," he said, "bring them back, then!" 3. The 
Asvins and Sarasvati then poured out foam of water (to serve) as a thunderbolt, saying, 
"It is neither dry nor moist"; and, when the night was clearing up, and the sun had not 
yet risen, Indra, thinking, "It is neither by day nor by night," therewith struck off the 
head of Namuki, the Asura. 4. Wherefore it has been said by the Rishi (Rig-veda 
S. VIII, 14, 13 [cited m/ra]), "With foam of water, Indra, didst thou sever the head 
of Namuki, when thou wert subduing all thine enemies." Now, Namuki is evil : having 
thus, indeed, slain that evil, his hateful enemy, Indra wrested from him his energy, or 
vital power.' 

W. H. D. Rouse 'Baldur Story' in The Folk-Lore Journal 1889 vii. 61 notes the 
Taittlrya Brdhmana i. 7. 1. 7 ('He moulded this foam of the waters: that, you know, 
is neither dry nor wet. It was dawn, the sun had not risen : that, you know, is neither 
day nor night. He cut off his head with the foam of the water in this world'). 

M. Bloomfield in ih.Q Journal of the American Oriental Society 1893 xv. 155 ff. collects 
other allusions: 'At Ramayana iii. 30. 28 (Bomb.; iii. 35. 94 Gorresio) we read : . . . " Khara 
fell down slain. ..as Vrtra was slain by the thunderbolt, as Namuci by the foam." At 
Mahabh. ix. 2436:... "the lord Vasava, perceiving a fog, cut off his (Namuci's) head with 
the foam of the waters." Nilakantha in his commentary on Mahabh. i. 7306 ff. (Calc. ; 
i. 197. 31 Bomb.) says:... "just as when Namuci was to be slain (Indra's) thunderbolt 
entered into the foam of the waters"...* (*A variation of this story at Mahabh. v. 318 — 330 
tells how the great Rsis had promised Vrtra that they would not slay him with anything 
dry or wet, with a stone or wood, with a knife or arrow, neither by day nor by night. 
This promise was kept until at dawn one day Indra saw "foam in the sea similar to 
a mountain"; this along with his thunderbolt he threw upon Vrtra; Visnu entered the 
foam and slew Vrtra...). Mahidhara at VS. x. 33 says: "the A9vins and Sarasvati gave 
to Indra a thunderbolt in the form of water-foam. With that Indra cut the head of 
Namuci." And at xix. 71 :..."with the foam of water did you take off the head of the 
Asura Namuci." Sayana at RV. viii. 14. 13: "Indra. ..cut off his head at the junction of 
day and night, with foam, which is different from dry and wet. This purport is set forth 
in this verse : O Indra, with the foam of the waters, turned into a bolt, did you take off 
the head of the Asura Namuci." The Brahmanas are more explicit. At MS. iv. 3. 4 we 
have :..."having spread a fog at sunrise, he cut off his head with the foam of the waters."... 
The Pafic. Br. xii. 6. 8 has :..."he cut off his head at dawn before the sun had risen with 
the foam of the waters. For at dawn before the sun has risen : that is neither night nor 
day; and foam of the waters : that is neither wet nor dry." ' 

C. III. 18 



274 Zeus Aphrios 

Sir James Frazer\ who cites the tale as a parallel to the myth 
of Balder, adds: 'The foam of the sea is just such an object as 
a savage might choose to put his life in, because it occupies that 
sort of intermediate or nondescript position between earth and sky 
or sea and sky in which primitive man sees safety. It is therefore 
not surprising that the foam of the river should be the token of a 
clan in India^.' 

The Greeks apparently looked upon foam as one manifestation 
of the sky-god's seed, and thus in a manner akin to dew or rain. 
Nonnos^ states that Hephaistos, when enamoured of Athena, 

Shot forth the hot and self-sped foam of love. 

The same poet elsewhere* tells how a dolphin once carried Aphro- 
dite to Kypros, 

What time the gendering dew of Ouranos, 
Down-streaming with his manhood's gore, gave shape 
To the foam of childbed and brought forth the Paphian. 

The Orphic Rhapsodies^ used similar language in narrating the 
birth of Aphrodite from the foam that arose when the seed of Zeus 
fell into the sea. Both incidents of course involve the naive deriva- 
tion of Aphrodite from aphros^. But the idea of seminal foam is as 

Bloomfield ib. further contends that this legend of Indra and Namuki gave rise to 
a class of magical practices in which demons were routed by means of river-foam, called 
* river-lead,' or some surrogate such as lead, iron-filings, and even the head of a lizard. 
See e.g. Hymns of the Atharva-veda trans. M. Bloomfield {^The Sacred Books of the 
East xlii) Oxford 1897 p. 65 f. i. 16. i — 4 with p. 256, The Satapatha-Brdhmana trans. 
J. Eggeling Part iii i^The Sacred Books of the East xli) Oxford 1894 p. 92 5. 4. i. 9 f 

^ Frazer Golden Bough'^ : Balder the Beautiful ii. 280 f. 

2 E. T. Dalton 'The Kols of Chota-Nagpore' in Transactions of the Ethnological 
Society of London 1868 New Series vi. 36 — again cited by Frazer Tot emism and Exogamy 
i. 24 ('the foam of the river is an Oraon totem and not to be eaten by the clansmen'), 
ii. 290 ('The Amdiar will not eat the foam of the river '). 

^ Nonn. Dion. 13. 179 depfxbv dKovrl^wv airdaavrov d(ppbv'^pd}TU}v. 

^ Id. id, 13. 439 ff. oTTTrdTe yap yovdecrca KardppvTos dpaevL X^dpcp \ Ovpavii] ixbp(pw(7e 
Xexwioj' d(ppbv eiparj \ koI Hatpirjv uidive, k.t.\. 

^ Orph. frag. 183 Kern ap. Prokl. in Plat. Cratyl. p. no, 23 ff. Pasquali (quoted 
supra ii. 1029). 

^ Modern adherents of this time-honoured view include the following : 

(i) L. Meyer Vergleichende Grammatik der Griechischen und Lateinische7i Sprache"^ 
Berlin 1884 i. 2. 641 ' 'A^po-dt-rri ("die im Schaum leuchtende (?)"),' ib- 990 *'A0po-5tT^ 
(eigentlich "im Schaum glanzend" oder "im Gewolk glanzend" ?),' id. Handb. d, gr. 
Etym. \. 160 f. from d(ppb-s 'foam'+a participial form of the root d^ 'to shine' (cp. 
Sanskrit su-dzti), '"im Schaume glanzend."' So also H. Hirt T>er indogermanische 
Ablaut Strassburg 1900 p. 99 §364 'idg. deja "scheinen"...'A0po5ir7;.' I pursued the 
same will-o'-the-wisp in the Class. Rev. 1903 xvii. 177. 

(2) L. V. Schroeder Griechische Gbtter und Heroen Berlin 1887 i. 7f assumes an 
Indo-Europaean *abhradttd or *abhraditi from Sanskrit abhra 'cloud' (d0/)6s) -fthe root 



Xeus Aphrios 275 



di *to hasten' (Si'oj', 5iea-6aL, etc.) ' "im Gewolk sich bewegend, im Gewolk dahineilend 
oder fliegend."' 

(3) P. Kretschmer Die Griechischen Vasenmschri/ten Giitersloh 1894 p. 156 n. i 
^'A(ppo8irr] enthalt in seinem ersten Teil unzweifelhaft d0p6s, in seinem zweiten wahr- 
scheinlich *681t7), das sich zu odtTrjs verhalt wie rafiif] zu Ta/xir)s,' id. in the Zeitschrift fUr 
vergleichende Sprachforschung 1895 xxxiii. 267 ^Acpp-odirri "Auf dem schaume dahin- 
wandelnd." So F. Diimmler in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. i. 2773 "auf dem Schaum 
hinwandelnd," O. Kern Die Religion der Griechen Berlin 1926 i. 206 "die auf dem 
Schaume wandelnde" ('Sehr anschauHch dazu E. Oberhummer, Die Insel Cypern I, 
S. 108 flf.'). 

(4) Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1348 n. 2 suggests 'A^po-dirrj from a,<pp6$ + *8i(a 
(StatVw, diepos) 'wetted with foam,' cp. Anacreont. 53. 30 ff. Bergk'* xapoTr^s 6r^ iK 
daXdo'ffrjs \ dedpoffcjfjiivTjv Kvdijprju | iXox^vcre ttovtos cL<j>p(^, Himer. or. i. 20 '^tl rbv d(ppbv 
jxeTO, T7}v ddXaacrav e| aKpuiv irXoKapnav (rrd^ovaav. 

Others treat the name as non-Greek {e.g. A. Fick Die Griechischeti Personennamen^ 
Gottingen 1894 p. 439 'Der Name 'A<ppo8iTrj ist wohl kaum griechisch' etc.) and 
advocate a variety of Semitic etymologies (listed by K. TUmpel in the fahrb. f. class. 
Pkilol. Suppl. 1880 xi. 680 f. and Gruppe op. cit. p. 1348 n. 3). A couple will serve as 
examples, or at least as warnings: 

(i) E. Roth Geschichte unserer abendldndischen Philosophie Mannheim 1846 i. 263 with 
n. 452 and L. Preller Griechische Mythologie'^ Berlin i860 i. 263 note the Semitic apkrodeth, 
'dove' (Aramaic mnS , Phoenician with article {sic) DTIlpi^). This is to some extent 

approved by K. Tiimpel loc. cit. and by E. H. Meyer in the Gott. gel. Anz. 1888 p. 
138. See further W. Muss-Arnolt A Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language Berlin 
1905 ii. 827 s.v. 'puridu,* 'a bird,' C. Bezold Babylonisch-assyrisches Glossar Heidelberg 
1926 p. 226 s.v. 'puridu, puriddu, piridu,' 'e. Vogel,' W. Gesenius Hebrdisches und 
aramdisches Handworterbuch iiber das alte Testatnent^^ rev. F. Buhl Leipzig 191 5 p. 657 
s.v. IIS [pered] (derived from parad 'to flee' — ass. parddu probably 'to flee,' purtdu 

'leg' [properly 'goer'] — in Hebrew = 'mule'), J. Levy Neuhebrdisches und chalddisches 


Worterbuch Leipzig 1889 iv. loi s.v, n*in5) f. [p9ridhah] (arab. jujJ [farid] syn. mit 

l^S [peredh] 'ein Stiick von dem Taubenpaar, das(nachLev. i, 14 fg.) geopfert werden 

soil, einzelne Taube.' But all this fails to justify the initial 'A- of 'A^poS/r?;. 

(2) F. Hommel ' Aphrodite- Astarte' in the /ahrb. f. class. Philol. 1882 xxviii. 176 
contends that 'A0po5tT?7 is a direct loan-word from the Phoenician form Ashtoreth : ' das 
sh dieses wortes (wie auch seiner babylonischen nichtsemitischen urform Ishtar) wurde 
dem folgenden / in der aussprache moglichst angeglichen, so dasz dieselbe eher Adtoreth 
als Ashtdreth lautete; das wird unwiderleglich bewiesen durch die form ABtar bei den 
Siidarabern, welchc.die Astarte von Babylonien entlehnten. auf diese aussprache des sh 
in Ashtdreth wie engl. th nun grlindet sich meine identification: bekannt ist, dasz in 
etymologisch verwandten, um so mehr aber in lehnwortern, urspriingliches Q (sprich wie 
engl. tJi) durch/, in alter zeit wohl auch/-^ (griech. 0) ersetzt wurde^ (^wer mir entgegnet 
dasz in altester zeit noch nicht den laut / gehabt habe, den verweise ich darauf, dasz 
aus AftSreth — die Griechen hatten ja liberhaupt kein f — schon des anklangs an d<f)p6s 
halber ganz ungezwungen Aphroteth werden konnte, ja muste. fur fremdes / war der 
nachstliegende griechische laut eben nur <p) ; vgl. nur russisch Fedor aus griechisch 
GeoSwpos. die Griechen horten nun Ashtdreth wie AphtSreth, was mit einer bei lehnwortern 
so uberaus haufigen metathesis umgestellt wurde zu Aphroteth — 'A(f)podLTrj.' Id. Aufsdtze 
und Abhandlungen arabistisch-semitologischen Inhalts '^ixanch&n 1892 i. 34 n. i *Auch die 
Griechen horten ja Ashtoret (vgl. Ishtdritu neben Isthar und zur Lange Namtdru aus 
Namtar) als A^toret, da sie (vgl. russ. Marfa aus Martha) Aphtoret und weiter Aphrotet 
(' A(ppodiT7}) draus machten.' Id. Ethnologic und Geographie des alten Orients Munchen 
1926 p. 1040 adheres to his view ''A^poSiri; aus Attoret (Astarte, Mittelform Afrotet) ' 
and cites in support H. Grimme in Glotta 1925 xiv. 18 with n. i. See also Schrader 
Reallex? i. 168, who cp. as a doubtful parallel ye(f)vpa = a Semitic gesHr. 



276 Zeus Aphrios 

old as Hesiod^ reappears in fifth-century science^, and quite con- 
ceivably accounts for the existence of Aphrios as an appellative of 
Zeus. 

On the whole, I incline to accept Hommel's hypothesis that 'Aippodlrr} (F. Blass in 
Collitz — Bechtel Gr, Dial.-Inschr. iii. 2. 239 fif. no. 4952 A, 27 ^A(f>op{8)iTav = Ditten- 
berger Sy/L inscr. Gr.^ no. 527 a, 27 ' Atppodirav in an oath from Dreros in eastern Crete, 
c. 220 B.C., quoted supra i. 729 n. 2) really was a Greek attempt to pronounce Astoreth 
and at the same time to make sense of a foreign name by assimilating the first part of it to 
d<pp6s. G. Meyer Griechische Gra??imatik^ Leipzig 1896 p. 246 n. i summarises the 
process: 'F. HoMMEL...nimmt die Entwickelung Astdreth * Adtoreth (siidarab. Ad/a?-) 
* AftSreth und daraus mit Metathesis im Anklang an d^/aos Aphroteth an.' 

See further V. Costanzi 'Zej)s "A0/3tos e il nome 'AcppndiTr)^ in the AtH d. r. accad. di 
set. di Torino 1913 — 1914 xlix. 315 — 321. 

1 Hes. theog. 190 ff. [supra ii. 447 n. 8). This and many other literary allusions are 
collected by L. Stephani in the Co7tipte-rendu St. Pet. 1870 — 1871 p. 11 ff. 

Late chroniclers, by way of providing an eponym for the Africans, personified the 
Hesiodic d0pos and put together the following pedigree : 

Kronos = Philyra 



I 1 

Aphros = Astynome Cheiron 

forefather of the 
Aphroi 

Aphrodite 

So Sex. lulius Africanus [c. 200 a.d.) ap. Kedren. hist, covip. 15 d (i. 28 Bekker), lo. 
Antioch. {i.e. Malalas, s. y'i)frag. 4. 4 {Frag. hist. Gr. iv. 542 Muller), cp. the Chronicon 
Paschale (early in s. vii) 36 D — 37 a (i. 66 Dindorf) which speaks of 6 "A<ppaos, octtls 
'iyrjixe rrjv ' AaTvuofXTjv e/c r^s Aa/cept'as vrjaov (K. Tiimpel in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. 
i. 2796). On this whole genealogy see supra ii. 693 n. 4. 

^ Diogenes of Apollonia j^^^. 6 Diels ap, Aristot. hist. an. 3. 2. 512 b 8 ff. aurai 5e 
{sc. at 0X^j8es) (rw epfiar it ides KoXovuTai. to 5' atfia t6 fieu irax^^TaTov inrb tCov capKOibQiv 
iKTriveTUL • virep^aXKov de els Toi>s tottovs toutovs XeirTov Kai depfiov koI d(ppQd€S yiveTai, cp. 
Clem. Al. paed. i. 6 p. 119, 2 ff. Stahlin Tivhs 8e Kai Tb airipixa tov ^(fov d(ppov eXvai tou 
a'ijxaTOS kut' oialav VTroTiOevTat, 6 dr) ttj eix(j){)T(^ tov dppepos d^pfxr] wapd rds av/nirXoKas eKTupax- 
6kv iKpiiri^Sfxevov e^acppovTai kclv rats (nrepfiaTiaiv (L. Dindorf cj. cnrepfiaTiTiffLv) irapaTld- 
CTat (})\e\plv evTcvdev yap 6 'ATroXXwvtdrT^s Ai.oyiur)s Ta d<ppodl<na KeK\i]a6ai /3oi;Xerat. The 
same idea is found in the medical writers, e.g. Galen, irepl x/>etas tQu iv dvdp<JoTrov <Tibfj.aTi 
jxop'nav 14. 9 (iv. 183 Kiihn) avrb be to (Tirepfxa TruevfxaTtbdis iaTi /cat olov d<ppQ>8es, id. Trepl 
airip/xaTos i. 5 (iv. 531 Klihn) ai> yap {sc. Aristotle) els 6 KaXQs ehaaas d(l)pip to airip/jia, 
Vindician. frag. Bruxell. de semine 1 (in M. Wellmann Fragmentsainmlung der griech- 
ischen Arzie Berlin 1901 i. 208, 2 ff.) Alexander Amator veri {sc. ^iXaXrjdrjs) appellatus, 
discipulus Asclepiadis, libro primo De semine spumam sanguinis eius essentiam dixit 
Diogenis placitis consentiens... 3 {id. p. 210, 8 ff.) Diogenes autem Apolloniates essentiam 
< seminis > similiter spumam sanguinis dixit libro physico : etenim spiratione adductus 
spiritus sanguinem suspendit, cuius alia pars carne bibitur, alia superans in seminales 
cadit vias et semen facit, quod < non > est aliud quam spuma sanguinis spiritu collisi. It 
occurs also in theological and exegetical authors such asCornut. theo/. 24 p. 45, 3 ff. Lang 
'AtppobiTT) 8i effTiv 7j avvdyovaa to dppev Kai to drjXv ddua/mis, Taxa bid Tb d(f>pojb7) Ta (nrip- 
/xara tCov fcf^wv elvai Ta^jTrjv ea'X'7fwct ttjv ovofiaaiav, schol. Eur. Tro. 990 t7}v 'A<ppobiTrjv 
eTVfxoXoyouaip oi fi^v irapd Tbv d<ppbv Tbv iv ttj avvovcrig., oi bi k.t.X., Isid. orig. 8. 11.77 quod 
autem Saturnum fingunt Coelo patri genitalia abscidisse et sanguinem fluxisse in mare, 
atque ex spuma maris concreta Venus nata est, illud aiunt quod per coitum salsi humoris 
substantia est, et inde 'A^pob'iTrjv Venerem dici, quod coitus spuma est sanguinis quae ex 
succo viscerum liquido salsoque constat. 



Zeus Thaulios 277 

That, however, is guesswork, and other guesses are almost 
equally permissible. For instance, philologists have shown that 
aphrds is related both to ombvos.'x^vcv', and to niphos, nephele, 'cloud^.' 
We might, therefore, without deserting the Greek area, conjecture 
that Zeus Aphrios was originally a Thessalian rain-god or cloud-god. 
Further evidence is much to be desired. 

(d) Zeus ThauUos, 

Some twenty minutes west of Pherai ( Velestind), on the right 
bank of a small torrent known as Michali-Revma^, A. S. Arvanito- 
poullos located a large and important cult-centre. Since 19 19 he 
has been at work, helped latterly by Y. Bequignon and P. Collart of 
the French School, uncovering the area and determining its history^. 
No fewer than six successive epochs are involved. The site was 
already occupied in neolithic times — witness numerous sherds and 
a marble idol. Then came a * Mycenaean' sanctuary ^ evidenced 

The widespread beliefs attaching to ' cuckoo-spit' are not unworthy of attention. The 
name is popularly given to a mass of froth concealing the larvae of certain insects. One of 
the main gettera of the cercopidae or frog-hoppers is labelled aphrophora, and one of its 
species is aphrophora spumaria (R. Lydekker The Royal Natural History \^or\AQix\ 1896 
vi. 195 f. with figs.). J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 
ii. 682 says : ' The froth on willows, caused by the cicada spumaria, we call kukuks-speichel, 
Swiss guggerspeu, Eng. cuckoo-spit, -spittle, Dan. giogespyt, but in some cases witch's 
spittle, Norweg. trold-kiaringspye.' E. H. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 
p. 1 1 1 , <^ propos of the cuckoo as a ' Gewittervogel ' notes : ' Sein Speichel verklindet Regen 
und hilft gegen Ausschlag' (after K. Bartsch Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrduche aus 
Meklenburg ^Mien 1880 ii. 175). P. Sebillot Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1906 iii. 303 
'D'apres un vieil auteur, les cicades et grillons naissaient du crachat et escume de I'oyseau 
appele cocu ou coucou' (after E. Rolland Faune populaire de la France Paris 1879 ^^• 
(Les oiseaux sauvages) 98, who cites Jean de Luba {Jeg. Johannes de Cuba) Ortus sanitatis). 
J. Jonston Thaumatographia A^a/z^ra/zV Amstelodami 1665 p. 351 '• Cicadas ex cuculorum 
sputo nasci scripsit Isidorus'' is alluding to Isid. orig. 12. 8. 10 cicadae ex cuculorum nas- 
cuntur sputo. See further C. Swainson The Folk Lore and Provincial Names of British 
Birds London 1886 p. 122, who states inter alia that 'In Devonshire, boys take the 
insects in the spittle for cuckoos in their early stage.' 

^ Prellwitz Etym. Wbrterb. d. Or. Spr.^ pp. 68, 311, Boisacq Diet. itym. de la Langue 
Or. pp. 106, 666, Walde Lat. etym. Worterb.^ p. 378 s.v. 'imber,' MMWex A Itital. Worterb. 
p. 162 s.v. 'emfris.' 

* Was Zeus here as elsewhere {supra ii. 894 n. 3) superseded by St Michael? 

^ Until the official account of this interesting excavation has been published, we must 
be content with the very inadequate preliminary reports. See the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1920 
xliv. 396, 1921 xlv. 529f., 1923 xlvii. 524, 1924 xlviii. 482, 1925 xlix. 458 — 460 fig. 3, 
1926 1. 562 f. fig. 9, A. J. B. Wace in the [ourn. Hell. Stud. 1921 xli. 273, A. M. Woodward 
ib. 1924 xliv. 275, 1925 xlv. 224 f., 1926 xlvi. 246 f., 1927 xlvii. 256 f., id. in The Year's 
Work in Class. Stud. 1^24 — /9^5p. 68, the [ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1922 xxxvii 
Arch. Anz. p. 247, 1925 xl Arch. Anz. p. 328, 1926 xli Arch. Anz. p. 429 f., 1927 xlii 
Arch. Anz. p. 389 f. 

^ Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1926 xli Arch. Anz. p. 429, cp. Bull. Corr. Hell. 
1923 xlvii. 524 and A. M. Woodward in the [ourn. Hell. Stud. 1926 xlvi. 246. 



278 



Zeus Thau Ho s 



by terra-cotta figures and vase-fragments. Next, a necropolis of 
the 'geometric' period. Over a score of graves, rectangular in shape, 
built of and covered with large stone slabs ^, were but poorly 
furnished; they contained a few vases, small bronzes, and iron 
weapons. The cist-graves had, however, been left undisturbed by 
later builders. Immediately above them was placed the Hellenic 
temple, or rather a sequence of three Hellenic temples. The first, 
which appears to have been constructed, in part at least, of timber^, 
dated from s. vii B.C., to judge from the fragment of an early Doric 
capital. To it belonged a mass of votive offerings in bronze, silver, 
gold, ivory, and other materials ^ These had been deposited in two 
bothroi or favissae, one about 11-50"^ to the south, the other to the 
west of the temple: the contents of the latter were thrown in with 
the earth as filling for a retaining-wall of the next temple. The 
offerings included many bronze animals (horses, cocks, geese, etc.), 
a bronze handle in the form of a griffin's head, the bronze statuette 
of a warrior*; gold and silver ornaments of 'orientalising' date; 
an Egyptian head of good style, scarabs with bogus hieroglyphs; 
terra-cotta figurines of korai seated or standing, some being frag- 
ments of almost life-sized figures, sundry types of koilroi, statuettes 
of sick or deformed persons, several ex-voto effigies of hands and 
feet; carved ivory seals and couchant beasts recalling those from 
Sparta^ The second temple, built c, 550 — 500 B.C. and burnt 
c. 400 B.C., is represented by many architectural remains found 
underneath the south-east corner of its successor. Here were four 
Doric columns in poros with fragments of archaic Doric capitals 
and frieze-blocks in the same material, showing traces of painted 
stucco — all used as foundations of the latest edifice^ Within the 
temple was the base of a bronze statue, inscribed in lettering of 
450 — 400 B.C. '[? Strongyl]ion made meV Parts of a female statue 
in marble were also found, half life-sized and of good fifth-century 
work^. The third temple was erected in the first quarter o{ s. iv B.C. 



^ Details in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1925 xlix. 459 f. 

2 Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst, 1926 xli Arch. Anz. p. 429, D. S. Robertson 
A Handbook of Greek 6^ Roman Architecture Cambridge 1929 p. 65 n. 3. 
^ Bull. Corr. Hell. 1923 xlvii. 524. 

4 Bull. Corr. Hell. 1926 1. 562 with fig. 9. 

5 A. M. Woodward in the /ourn. Hell. Stud. 1924 xliv. 275. 
^ Bull. Corr. Hell. 1925 xlix. 460 with fig. 3. 

^ A. M. Woodward in the /ourn. Hell. Stud. 1926 xlvi. 247 n. 26 [ ]lov /x' 

47roL€cr[ev]: 'The discoverer would restore the name Strongylion.' 
^ Id. id. p. 247. 



Zeus Thaulios 279 



and in its turn destroyed by fire c. 200 B.C. It was approximately 
26-50™ long by 16-82™ broad. On the east side the stylobate is 
preserved, with the two lower steps of white local marble. The 
building itself was a hexastyle peripteral temple of the Doric 
order. Its columns, oi poros coated with stucco, carried an entabla- 
ture of which portions have come to light. Among them may be 
noted a marble metope with the relief of a lion killing a bulF; also 
various fragments of the cornice with carved and painted decora- 
tion^. To the east of the temple are the foundations of six struc- 
tures differing in date: one at least of these seems to have been 
a natskos, the rest bases or altars of rectangular plan, built oi poros 
in massive blocks. The finds comprise many pedestals and frag- 
ments of statues, bronze phidlai for libation, and broken vases 
ranging as late as s. iii or s. ii B.C. Of greater moment are the 
inscriptions. There are ten bronze plaques preserving the terms of 
twenty-five laws or proxeny-decrees. There is the fragment of a 
decree in the Thessalian dialect. And there are other records of 
interest^. For instance, five large and five small pieces of inscribed 
stelai, which include a fresh dedication to the Thessalian goddess 
Enhodta^. Finally, in post-classical times the temple-area was used 
as a Christian cemetery. 

It would seem, then, that from the neolithic age down to our 
own era the spot was in some sense holy ground. It is not, however, 
quite obvious what deity or deities were here worshipped by the 
Greeks. On the one hand, the prevalence of female terra-cotta 
figurines in the archaic period points to the possibility that the 
sanctuary was then devoted to a female divinity ^ On the other 
hand, A. S. Arvanitopoullos, on the strength of certain inscriptions 
actually found at some distance from the temple, believes that it 
wasthecult-centreof Zeus Thaiilios. Perhapsit may be suggested that 
at Pherai, as at Larissa^, the cult of Zeus was associated with that 



^ A. M. Woodward in \\iQ Journ. Hell. Stud. 1925 xlv. 224, id. in The Year's Work 
in Class. Stud. ig24. — ig2^ p. 68. 

^ A. J. B. Wace in the fourn. Hell. Stud. 192 1 xli. 273. 

'^ E.g. a dedication in large letters ar6.aavro k.t.\., the formula ei^a/xiva nal Kara- 
Tvxovaa {Bull. Corr. Hell. 1924 xlviii. 482 with n. 4, A. M. Woodward in ihe/ouru. 
Hell. Stud. 1925 xlv. 225). 

•* Bull. Corr. Hell. 1924 xlviii. 482, A. M. Woodward in the /ourn. Hell. Stud. 1^2 s^ 
xlv. 224 f. For ''EtvoUa as an appellation of Artemis, Hekate, and Kore see O. Jessen in 
Pauly — Wissowa Real-Etic. v. 2634 f. 

5 Bull. Corr. Hell. 1926 1. 562, A. M. Woodward in the [ourn. Hell. Stud. 1927 
xlvii. 257. 

^ Supra ii. 1155 n. 4. 



28o 



Zeus Thau Ho s 



of Enhodia}, whose head indeed appears on the coinage of the town 
(fig. 190)^. Her ritual — if we can trust a tale told by Polyainos^ — 
might require the sacrifice of a choice bull with gilded horns, fillets, 
and blue gold-spangled draperies. 

Zeus Thaulios undoubtedly had a cult at Pherai. A votive stele 
of marble, found there by Arvanitopoullos* has a small pediment 





Fig. 190. 



Fig. 191. 

1 A dedication to Enhodla at Pherai was published by P. Monceaux in the Bull. Corr. 
Hell. 1883 vii. 60 no. 14 {Velestino) KaXKiKXeia \ HapfxepiaKov \ 'Ej'oSiai ev^a/nevrj. 

^ A silver drachm struck by Alexander of Pherai (369 — 357 B.C.) has odv. head of 
Hekate Enhodia to right inscribed ENNOAIAZ, rev. AAEE lion's head {Brit. Mus. 
Cat. Coins Thessaly etc. p. 47 no. 17 (wrongly described) pi. 10, 13, Head Hist, num.- 
p. 308). Fig. 190 is from J. Hirsch Rhousopoulos Sale Catalogue p. 88 no. 1446 pi. 19, on 
which see K. Regling ' E N NOAI A ' in \.h.eJourn. Intern. d'Arch. Ntim. 1905 viii. 175 f. 

^ Polyain. 8. 43 r-iys 'Icoi'i/C'^s dTrotic/as ^s Ty]v 'Aaiav d^iKOfievTjs tois '^pvdpas KarixovffLv 
eTToX^/iet Ki/wTTOs tov Kodpidcov y^povs. 6 debs 'ixPW^^ avT(^ cTTpaTrjybv irapa QecradXQv Xa^eiv 
TTjv Upeiav TTJs'Evodias' 6 de wpeff^eOeTaL irpbs QeacaXovs Kai fxrjuvei rb \6yiov tov deov. oi 
de 'iirefxxpav avri^ T'qv iepeiav ttjs deov ^pvffd/ixTjP . avrr], (papfxdKWP ^/xTretpos ovaa, ravpov i^ 
dyeXrjs pieyiaTov Kai KdWicrrov truAXa/SoCca, rot, fi^v K^para KaT€XP^<T(j}(Te Kai rb ffQ/xa /care- 
KOiTfJiTjae ariixixafft Kai xpycroTrdtrrois aXovpyici Kai ixerd r^s rpocprjs dva/xi^acra fiaviovoibv 
(pdpfxaKOV '^btoKev aur^J (pay elf rb de (pdpfiaKov avrbv re rbv ravpov i^efirjue Kai tovs yevaa/xiuovs 
adrov fxaviovpyeiv ^fxeWev. oi fxev 5rj ttoX^ixlol dvrecrTpaTOTridevov, i] 8e ev 8\j/€(. tQv iroXe/iluv 
^tofjibv irapadeiaa Kai 6<xa irpbs dvaiav, iK^Xevce irpoadyeiv rbv ravpov. b bk virb rod (papp.dKov 
fiepofvuis Kai olarpdv ^^eTr-qbrjffe Kai /Ae7a fjiVKdofievos ^(pvyev. oi ttoX^/jllol xp^o'OKepoiv KaTecrrefji- 
fievov bpQvres Kai (pepofievov is to eavTuv (XTpaTbtrebov dirb ttis Ovaias tCov ivavrlojv ws dyadbv 
crjfxeiov Kai oidjvLafxa atcriov ebi^avTO Kai crvXXa^ovTes KaXXiepovcn tois deols Kai tGiv KpeCov 
^Kaaros (piXoTLfxws edaiaavTO (hs baip.oviov Kai deias lepovpyias /xeraXayxdvovres. avriKa 8t} 
irdv rb crrparbiredov virb /xavlas Kai Trapa<ppoo'6vT]s i^iararo' Trdvres dveir'^bujv, btedeov, 
dueffKiproiv, rds (pvXaKas dir^Xenrov. 'KpvcrdfXT) ravra Ibovcra rbv KvQirov eK^Xevae did rdxovs 
birXiffai tt)v arparidv Kai rots iroXepiioLS eirdyeiv d/iivvacrdaL fxr] dvvap.4voLS. ovroj bi] KvQttos 
dveXcbv awavras eKpdrTjae rrjs ''Epvdpalcjv -rrbXeus fieydXrjs re Kai evdatjuLovos. It can hardly be 
doubted that this curious recital has borrowed more than one trait from the Thessalian cult 
of Enhodia. 

^ A. S. Arvanitopoullos in the Ilpa/cr. dpx- €r. 1907 p. 152, id. in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1908 
p. 36, 1910 p. 407 f. 



Zeus Thau /i OS 



281 



above, a space left blank for a painted portrait below, and in the 
middle a Thessalian^ inscription: 

All 'To Zeus 

GAYAIOY Thaulios: 

A second stele from Pherai, published by N. I. Giannopoulos 

(fig. 191 )^ bears a relief representing a stSle with pediment, akroteria, 

and central disk^, beneath which is the fragmentary inscription: 

AIIOAYAI[OY] 'To Zeus Thauli\ps\: 




Fig. 192. 

Yet another dedication to the same god has recently been found at 
Pherai, but is still unpublished*. 

Zeus Thaulios was worshipped also at Pharsalos^ Above the 
springs of the Apidanos, in a quarter called Tampachana, rises a 
fair-sized hill commanding a wide prospect^ Remains of isodomous 
masonry suggest that the place was fortified in ancient times'. The 

1 Supra p. 272 n. 4. 

^ N. I. Giannopoulos in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1913 p. 218 fig. 3 ( = my fig. 191) Pherai no. i 
Aa Qa.v\l\ov\. Height 0-37'", breadth 0-2 1'". 

^ Supra i. 292 ff. 

^ Bull. Corr. Hell. 1925 xlix. 460, A. M. Woodward in \S\q. Journ. Hell. Stud. 1926 
p. 247. 

^ A. S. ArvanitopouUos in the IIpa/cT. dpx- ^'^- 1907 PP- 151 — ^53 C'lfpoi/ AiosGauX/ou'). 

* F. Stahlin Das hellenische Thessalien Stuttgart 1924 p. 138 fig. 9 gives a small plan. 

'' Id. ib. p. 136 reports that he found on this hill ('auf dem Hligel der Fatihmoschee 
an der Apidanosquelle') prehistoric sherds and one of geometric date. He conjectures that 
it was the site of Phthia, the town of the Myrmidones. 



282 Zeus Thaulios 

rocky surface of the hill-top has been so worked as to leave out- 
standing sundry breast-shaped knobs, meant presumably to fit into 
corresponding hollows on the under side of votive bases. One such 
patch of tooled rock at the north-eastern edge of the summit exhibits 
a carefully incised dedication 

AlOAYAini 'To Zeus ThaMios' 
by certain 'kinsfolk of Parmeniskos^.' The hill (fig. 192) is crowned 
by an old Turkish mosque^, founded — so it is said — centuries ago on 
the site of an older church. The minaret fell and could not be set up 
again till a cross was fixed on its highest point. So here the Turks 
must needs reverence the cross! This mosque is built of ancient 
materials: many statue-bases, architectural blocks, and a very early 
Doric capital oi poros are still to be seen in its walls. A trial excava- 
tion west of the mosque proved unproductive. But the inhabitants 
aver that here inscriptions and marble statuettes and numerous 
coins have come to light. Again, in the quarter of Pharsalos known 
as Koloklompas^ N. I. Giannopoulos^ found an altar inscribed in 
lettering which dates from the latter part of s. iv B.C. : 

AIO^ OAYAIOY 'Of Zeus ThaHlios! 
The appellative has been traced further afield^. Hesychios gives 
Thailmos (?) or ThaMos as a title of the Macedonian Ares^, and 
Thaidia as the name of a festival held by Kteatos and the Dorians ''. 
Lastly, the clan Thaulonidai at Athens had an eponymous ancestor 
Thaulon, who figures in a myth relating to the cult of Zeus Polieiis^. 
It looks as though Thaulos^ ThaiUios^ Thatilon had been in early 
days a divine epithet used by more than one Greek community. 

^ A. S. Arvanitopoullos in the IIpa/cT. apx- ^t. 1907 p. 152 Ai(i) QavXiwi — dyxi-o'TQv 
tQv irepl IlapiJi€vi(TKOV. Cp. KaXXf/cXeta | JIap/xeui(TKOv {supra p. 280 n. i). 

'^ See the view in the II/oa/cT. a.px- ct. 19 10 p. 177 fig. i ( = my fig. 192). 

^ F. Stahhn Das hellenische Thessalien Stuttgart 1924 p. 143 n. 10. 

•* F. Hiller von Gaertringen in Hermes 1911 xlvi. 154, N. I. Giannopoulos in the 'E0. 
kpX' 1913 p- 218 n. I. 

^ SeeV.Costanzi 'ZeusThaulios'in they^Z/^^woi^M;?/ Pavia 191 3 i. 406 — 411 andO.Hofer 
in Roscher Lex. Myth. v. 533 — 535. 

^ Hesych. QavfjLos (O. Hoffmann Die Makedotten, ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum 
Gottingen 1906 p. 94 n. 127 cj. OaOXXos. F. Hiller von Gaertringen in Hermes 191 1 xlvi. 
154 cj. 0ai;Xtos, which is better) f GaOXos- "A/077S Mafce56j'tos (so M. Schmidt for Ma/ceSoytws 
cod. Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. iv. 263 B, against Hesychian usage, cj. Ma/ceSoj'iAcws. 
Musurus cj. Ma/ceSotrt). 

^ Hesych. 9ai5Xia (so Stephanus Thes. Gr. Ling. iv. 257 A for QavXla cod.)- eopri} 
[T}apavTXvot (referred to the preceding gloss by J. V. Perger)] dx^eto'a virb Kredrov (I. Voss 
cj. ew o/craeroOs)' Trap' 6 /cat davXl^etv <:<pa<Ti {ins. T. Hemsterhuys) > Xiyecv tovs Aiopieis. 
Even thus emended, the gloss remains obscure. The allusion to Kteatos (? the son of 
Molione {supra ii. 1015 n. 8)) is not found elsewhere, and perhaps postulates do-axOeTaa. 

^ Infra § 9 (h) ii (5). 



Zeus Thatilios 



283 



With regard to its original meaning nothing is known. Con- 
jectures have been advanced by W. Tomaschek^, F. Hiller von 
Gaertringen^, F. Bechtel^, and F. Solmsen* But none of these is 
convincing. I venture therefore to add to their number the sugges- 
tion that ThaMios denotes ' god of the Dew,' being in fact a word 
akin to the German Tau^ the Dutch dauw, and the English dew^, 

^ W. Tomaschek in the Sitzungsber. d. kais. Akad. d. Wiss. in Wien Phil. -hist. Classe 
1894 cxxx Abh. ii. 55 (from the root Bv-^ 'stiirmen'). 

2 F. Hiller von Gaertringen in Hermes 191 1 xlvi. 156 considers the possibility of 
connexion with ^dXXw, ^aXX6s, GaXi^o-ia, but rightly observes that the au of GaiJXtos, Gai^Xwi/ 
is quite incompatible w^ith the a: a ofr^ddXa: daXidu}. 

^ Id. ib. cites a suggestion of F. Bechtel : ' Nur als einen Einfall will es Bechtel gelten 
lassen, dass GaiJXwz' den Toter bedeute : ^ai;-, zu combiniren mit germanischem dau im 
gotischen datips, ahd. tot, nhd. todt. Dann wiirde Gai^Xwi' dasselbe wie ^ov<p6vos, 
GaiJXia = jSou^oj'ia sein, und Zeus GaiJXtos der Gott, dem die Bov<p6vLa gelten. Sachlich 
diirfte hiergegen nichts einzuwenden sein; das Verschwinden des Wortstammes im 
taglichen Sprachgebrauche der Griechen ware ein Beweis fUr das hohe Alter der religiosen 
Sitte und Vorstellung.' 

* F. Solmsen 'Zeus Thaulios' in Hermes 191 1 xlvi. 286 — 291 criticises Bechtel's view : 
' So verfuhrerisch die Deutung erscheint, so erheben sich doch gegen sie lautliche Bedenken 
von gotischer Seite her. Neben daiips "tot" daujyus "Tod" namlich steht hier diwans 
*'sterblich." Dessen -iw- geht auf -eu- zuriick, also muss. ..das -au- von daups dauptis 
alteres -on- fortsetzen, und damit lasst sich das -au- von GaiyXtos usw. schlechterdings nicht 
vereinigen. ' Solmsen further propounds a conjecture of his own : ' GauX- kann sich Laut 
fur Laut mit -davK- decken, dem zweiten Bestandteil des lydischen, genauer lydisch- 
phrygischen Namens Ka^'Sai^Xas. tJber das eigentliche Wesen dieser Figur belehrt uns 
der bekannte Hipponaxvers'Ep/>i'^ K^vayxO' U^g' Kwdyxo-^ MrjtovicrTl KavdavXa^ (Hipponax 
frag. I Bergk"*, 4 Diehl, 45 Knox). On this showing QaijXoju would denote 'Throttler' 
('Wtirger'), GaiJXta 'the Throttling- festival' ('Wurgefest'), and GaiJXios the god served 
with such rites. Sacrifice effected by, or at least accompanied with, strangulation appears 
to have been an early institution : Solmsen adduces the bull-dragging for Poseidon 
''EXiKdiPios [II. 20. 403 f. cited supra i. 506 n. i), the bull-hanging for Athena at Ilion {supra 
i- 533 fig* 406), the slaughter of a bull for Poseidon at intervals of five and six years 
alternately, on the top of a pillar made of 'mountain-bronze' (? brass) and inscribed with 
the laws, by the natives of Atlantis (Plat. Critias 119 C — e), and the yearly hanging of a 
young kid for Aspalis Ameilete Hekaerge in the precinct of Artemis at Melite in Phthia 
(Ant. Lib. 13 after Nikandros erepocoij/xeva 2). Analogous cases are mentioned by 
W. Robertson Smith Lectures on the Religion of the Semites^ London 1927 p. 343 n. 3. 
But, unfortunately for Solmsen's view, Thaulon is expressly said to have slain his ox with 
an axe {infra §9 (h) ii (5)). 

^ A. Fick Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen^ G'6\.'(\w^^n 1876 
ii. 388, Prellwitz Etym. Wbrterb. d. Gr. Spr."^ p. 183, Boisacq Diet. Hym. de la Langue 
Gr. p. 342 f. 

If it be objected that the Macedonian Ares GauXos {supra p. 282) can hardly have been 
a dew-god, we must remember that at Athens an early myth made Ares the husband of 
Agraulos the dew-sister (Hellanik./ra^. 69 {Frag. hist. Gr. i. 54 Muller)=/?'«^. 38 {Frag, 
gr. Hist. i. ii9jacoby) ap. Souid. s.v." Apeios ird'yo^ = et. mag. p. 139, 1 4 ff. = Bekker aw^r^/. 
i. 444, 8fF.,cp. Paus. i. 21. 4, Apollod. 3. 14. 2: see K. Tiimpel in Pauly — Wissowa 
Real-Enc. ii. 650, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 32, 1204 n. i, Farnell Cults of Gk. States 
V. 402). It is by no means certain that Ares was ab origine only a war-god, and Makedonia 
is the sort of place in which we might expect to find traces of wider functions. 



284 Rain-magic in modern Greece 

§ 9. Zens and the Rain, 
(a) Rain-magic. 

i. Rain-magic in modern Greece. 

Rain-making by means of magic, with some admixture of prayer, 
is practised even nowadays in the less frequented parts of Greece. 
Mr J. C. Lawson^ tells us that in Thera {Santorini) he found the 
local rain-maker high busy with her spells : 

' I chanced one day upon a very old woman squatting on the extreme edge 
of the chff above the great flooded crater which, though too deep for anchorage, 
serves the main town of the island as harbour — a place more fascinating in its 
hideousness than any I have seen. Wondering at her dangerous position, I asked 
her what she was doing ; and she replied simply enough that she was making 
rain. It was two years since any had fallen, and as she had the reputation of 
being a witch of unusual powers and had procured rain in previous droughts, she 
had been approached by several of the islanders who were anxious for their 
vineyards. Moreover she had been prepaid for her work — a fact which spoke 
most eloquently for the general belief in her ; for the Greek is slow enough (as 
doubtless she knew) to pay for what he has got, and never prepays what he is 
not sure of getting. True, her profession had its risks, she said ; for on one 
occasion, the only time that her spells had failed, some of her disappointed clients 
whose money she had not returned tried to burn her house over her one night 
while she slept. But business was business. Did I want some rain too ? To 
ensure her good will and further conversation, I invested a trifle, and tried to 
catch the mumbled incantations which followed on my behalf Of these however 
beyond a frequent invocation of the Virgin {Jlavayia \iov) and a few words about 
water and rain I could catch nothing ; but I must acknowledge that her charms 
were effectual, for before we parted the thunder was already rolling in the 
distance, and the rain which I had bought spoilt largely the rest of my stay in 
the island. The incantations being finished, she became more confidential. She 
would not of course let a stranger know the exact formula which she employed ; 
that would mar its efficacy : she vouchsafed to me however with all humility the 
information that it was not by her own virtue that she caused the rain, but 
through knowing "the god above and the god below" {rov dvco deb kcll t6v Kara) 
deo). The latter indeed had long since given up watering the land ; he had 
caused shakings of the earth and turned even the sea-water red. The god above 
also had once rained ashes ^ when she asked for water, but generally he gave her 
rain, sometimes even in summer-time.' 

The names of Zeus and Poseidon have long since passed into 
oblivion^. But, in view of this remarkable confession, who shall say 
that their memory does not in some sense linger yet } 

^ J. C. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 19 10 
p. 49 f. Supra ii. 829. 

2 In the drying-up of the springs and in the rain of ashes Mr Lawson sees an allusion 
to the great eruptions of 1866, which were graphically described to him by the old crone. 

^ Supra i. 165. 



Rain-magic in modern Greece 285 

Better known is the rain-magic of northern Greece and the 
Balkans. In times of prolonged drought a girl is dressed up in 
flowers and, with a troop of children at her heels, is sent round to 
all the wells and springs of the district. At every halting-place she 
is drenched with water by her comrades, who sing this invocation^: 

Perperik, all fresh bedewed, 
Freshen all the neighbourhood ; 
By the woods, on the highway. 
As thou goest, to God now pray : 
O my God, upon the plain, 
Send thou us a still, small rain ; 
That the fields may fruitful be. 
And vines in blossom we may see ; 
That the grain be full and sound. 
And wealthy grow the folks around ; 
Wheat and barley 
Ripen early, 

Maize and cotton now take root ; 
Rye and rice and currant shoot ; 
Gladness be in gardens all ; 
For the drought may fresh dews fall ; 
Water, water, by the pail ; 
Grain in heaps beneath the flail ; 
Bushels grow from every ear ; 
Each vine-stem a burden bear. 
Out with drought and poverty, 
Dew and blessings would we see. 

At Shatista in south-west Makedonia the song is alliterative^: 

Perperuna perambulates 

And to God prays : 

' My God, send a rain, 

A right royal rain, 

That as many (as are the) ears of corn in the fields. 

So many stems (may spring) on the vines,' etc. 

Similarly on the island of Imbros a girl dressed up with 'leaves and 

^ Text in T. Kind Neugriechische Anthologie Leipzig 1844 i. 18. Translation in 
L. M. J. Garnett — J. S. Stuart-Glennie Greek Folk Poesy London 1896 i. 60 f. (in part 
cited by Frazer Golden Boicgh'^ : The Magic Art i. 272 f.). For variants see A. Passow 
Popularia carmina Graeciae recentioris Lipsiae i860 nos. 311 IlepTre/jtd, 312 ^epirepovva., 
313 IlepTrepouj'a (all from Thessaly and Makedonia), G. F. Abbott Songs of Modern Greece 
Cambridge 1900 p. 190 f., id. Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 pp. 118 — 120, 
W. Mannhardt Wald- und Feldkidte'^ Berlin 1904 i. 328 f., J. C. Lawson Modern Greek 
Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 19 10 pp. 23 — 25. Cp. O. Schrader in 
J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1909 ii. 40 b. 

2 Text and translation in G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 119 
H^pirepovva irepvaTei | Ki) rbv deb irepiKaXer \ 'Qi fxov, §pe^e fxia ^poxVi \ Mict ^poxv 
^aaCKiK-q, \ "Oa dorrdxua 's to, xwpd^ia, | T6<ra Ko^raovpa 's t dyUTrAta,' k.t.X. 



2 86 Rain-magic in modern Greece 

flowers goes round the village and at every house is drenched with 

water, while her comrades sing^: 

The Walker walks her ways 

And God the Lord she prays. 

God, send the rain 

On us again, 

That strong the corn may grow 

And strong the laddies too. 

The name Perperid has many variations. At Kataphygi it has been 

corrupted into Piperid, 'Pepper-tree^': 

Piperia, dew-collecting piperia, etc. 

In Zagorion, a district of Epeiros, it has become Papparo^na, 
* Garden-poppy,' and the chief actor in the ceremony must be largely 
dressed in poppies^ Other forms used by the Greeks are Perpertna^, 
Perperitsa^ , Purperouna^, Purpirouna? . In Bulgaria we hear of 
Preperuga or Peperuga^\ in Wallachia, oi Papeluga^ or P apalnga}^ -. 

Papaluga, climb into heaven, 
Open its doors. 
Send down rain from above, 
That well the rye may grow. 

E. Gerard^ gives the following account oi Papaluga: 

'When the land is suffering from protracted and obstinate droughts, the 
Roumanian not unfrequently ascribes the evil to the Tziganes \sc. gypsies], who 
by occult means procure the dry weather in order to favour their own trade of 
brick-making. In such cases, when the necessary rain has not been produced 
by soundly beating the guilty Tziganes, the peasants sometimes resort to the 
Papaluga^ or Rain-maiden. This is done by stripping a young Tzigane girl quite 
naked, and dressing her up with garlands of flowers and leaves, which entirely 
cover her, leaving only the head visible. Thus adorned, the Papaluga is conducted 
round the village to the sound of music, each person hastening to pour water 

^ Text and translation (by R. M. Dawkins) in M. Hamilton Greek Saints and their 
Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 p. 120 IIopTraTTy/oa iropTrarei, ] Kai debu irapaKokei \ 
KijpLOv, 6ei, I Bp^^e ytiict ^poxo, \ Na d^rjvovv ra crtrdpia, | Noi d^ifiu' rd TraXXi/cdpta. 

2 G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 119. 

^ J. C. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 1910 
p. 24 (after Lamprides Za7opia/cd p. 172 ff.). 

^ B. Schmidt Das Volksleben der Neugriechen Leipzig 1871 i. 30. 

^ Id. ib.y J. C. Lawson op. cit. p. 24. 

^ T. Kind T/)a7(ij5ta r^s vias 'EXXdSos Leipzig 1833 p. 13, J. Grimm Teutonic Mytho- 
logy trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 ii. 594, W. Mannhardt Wald- und Feldkulte^ 
Berlin 1904 i. 328 f. 

7 W. R. S. Ralston The Songs of the Russian People'^ London 1872 p. 228. 

8 W. R. S. Ralston op. cit.^ p. 228, W. Mannhardt op. cii.^ i. 329. 
» W. R. S. Ralston op. cit.'^ p. 229. 

^^ J. Grimm op. cit. ii. 593 n. 2, W. Mannhardt op. cit? i. 329. 

11 E. Gerard The Land beyond the Forest Edinburgh and London 1888 ii. 13. 



Rain-magic in modern Greece 287 

over her as she passes. The part of the Papaluga may also be enacted by 
Roumanian maidens, when there is no particular reason to suspect the Tziganes 
of being concerned in the drought. The custom of the Rain-maiden is also to be 
found in Servia, and I believe in Croatia.' 

Sir James Frazer^ notes : 

' In Roumania the rain-maker is called Paparuda or Babaruda. She is a gypsy 
girl, who goes naked except for a short skirt of dwarf elder {Sambucus ebulus) 
or of corn and vines. Thus scantily attired the girls go in procession from house 
to house, singing for rain, and are drenched by the people with buckets of water. 
The ceremony regularly takes place all over Roumania on the third Tuesday 
after Easter, but it may be repeated at any time of drought during the summer.' 

In Dalmatia those who take part in the procession are called 
Prporushe and their leader Pripats^ or Prpats^, The origin of the 
word Perperid has been much discussed. It is often derived from 
a Slavonic root meaning 'to flutter' and taken to denote a 'butterfly V 
Butterflies were believed to spring from dew-drops^, and this would 
suit the opening words of the rain-song: 'Perperia, all fresh bedewed,' 
etc.® But a butterfly, even if we identify it with the souF, has no 
essential connexion with the present form of rain-magic. More 
probable by far is Mr J. C. Lawson's^ contention that perperia (for 
periporeia) began by meaning any 'procession round' the village, 
then acquired the special force of 'procession in time of drought,' 

^ Frazer Golden Bough'^ : The Magic Art i. 273 f. (citing inter alios W. Schmidt Das 
Jahr und seine Tage in Meinung und Branch der Roindnen Siebenbiirgens Hermannstadt 
1866 p. 17). 

2 W. Mannhardt op. cit? i. 330, Frazer op. cit. i. 274. 

^ W. R. S. Ralston op. cit.'^ p. 228, Frazer op. cit. i. 274. 

* F. Miklosich Etymologisches Worterbuch der slavischen Sprachen Wien 1886 p. 243 
s.v. perpera, perperica, Old Slav. *prepera, *preperica. Cp. B. Schmidt Das Volksleben 
der Neugriecketi Leipzig 1871 i. 30 n. 4 : 'Die bisherigen Erklarungsversuche befriedigen 
in keiner Weise, und es lohnt nicht sie anzufuhren. Auch kann schwerlich zur Deutung 
des Namens Oikonomos' Mittheilung a. a. O. [S. K. Oikonomos in Bretos' ^^Ovlkov 
"B.fji€po\6yiou v. J. 1868, p. 107] beitragen, wonach man in Thessalien die aus den Puppen 
der Seidenraupen auskriechenden Schmetterlinge irepir^pLa {to) und — die weiblichen — 
Trepirepivais nennt.' 

^ Plin. nat. hist. 11. 112, cp. Aristophanes of Byzantion hist. an. epit. \. 36 p. 8, 
10 ff. Lambros (cited supra ii. 646 n. o). 

* A. Passow Popularia carmina Graeciae recentioris Lipsiae i860 no. 311. if. 
ne/37re/ota dpoaoXoyia \ 5p6cn(re rrjv yeiTOVLa. 

' Supra ii. 645 n. 4, J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 
1883 ii. 829, E. H. Meyer Germanische Mythologie Berlin 1891 pp. 63, T13, P. Sebillot 
Le Folk-lore de France Paris 1904 i. 190, 1906 iii. 332 f., Schrader Reallex.^ ii, 326. 

^ J. C. Lawson op. cit. p. 24: 'But the most general, and, as I think, most correct 
form is TrepTrepia (or trepirepila). With the ancient word irepirepeia, derived from the Latin 
perperus and used in the sense of "boasting" or "ostentation," it can, I feel, have no 
connexion ; and I suggest that it stands for irepLTropeia, with the same abbreviation as in 
TrepTrarw for irepnraTQ, " walk," and subsequent assimilation of the first two syllables.' Etc. 



288 Rain-magic in modern Greece 

and lastly became the title of the leader in that procession. The 
Macedonian Perperoiina^ and the Imbrian Porpatera^ are both 
expressly said to 'go their round.' 

Another Bulgarian name for the chief performer is Djuldjul, 
corresponding with the Serbian Dodola^. The Serbian usage is as 
follows. A girl called the Dodola is stripped naked, but so wrapped 
up in grass, herbs, and flowers that nothing of her can be seen, not 
even her face. Escorted by other girls, she then passes from house 
to house. Before each house her comrades form a ring. She stands 
in the middle and dances alone. Out comes the goodwife and 
empties a bucket of water over her. But still she keeps dancing and 
whirling, while her companions sing* : 

To God doth our Doda call, oy Dodo oy Dodo le! 

That dewy rain may fall, oy Dodo oy Dodo le ! 

And drench the diggers all, oy Dodo oy Dodo le ! 

The workers great and small, oy Dodo oy Dodo le ! 

Even those in house and stall, oy Dodo oy Dodo le! 

Sometimes they sing, not a prayer for rain, but a rain-charm of 
a simple order^: 

We go through the village. 

The clouds go across the sky \ 

We go faster. 

Faster go the clouds ; 

They have overtaken us 

And wetted the corn and the vine. 
Or: 

We go through the village, 

The clouds go across the sky ; 

From the clouds fell a ring, — 

Our leader seized it. 

At Melenik in Makedonia, where the surrounding rustics speak 
Bulgarian, the corypheus is saluted as NtoimtouM^-. 

Hail, hail, Dudule, 

(Bring us) both maize and wheat, 

Hail, hail, etc. 

It should be added that, whereas in Serbia and Bulgaria the 
principal part in this performance is always assigned to a girl, in 

^ Supra p. 285 n. 2. ^ Supra p. 286 n. i. 

^ W. Mannhardt op. citP- i. 329 f. 

^ J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 ii. 593 f. 
^ W. R. S. Ralston op. cit.'^ p. 228, W. Mannhardt op. cit.^ i. 330, Frazer Golden 
Bough^: The Magic Art i. 273. 

^ G. Y. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 119. 



Rain-magic in modern Greece 289 

Makedonia and Dalmatia it is given to a boy or a young 
unmarried man^ The name Dodola is unfortunately of unknown 
origin^. 

As to the significance of the rites here noticed, W. Mannhardt^ 
held that the leaf-clad girl personifies vegetation, and his lead is 
followed by Sir J. G. Frazer^ and Mr J. C. Lawson^ W. R. S. 
Ralston^, however, regarded her as representing the earth, and so do 
B. Schmidt' and G. F. Abbott^. The two lines of explanation are 
not widely divergent; indeed, they practically coincide. For in 
Greek lands the corn-mother seems to have been but a differentiated 
form of the earth-mother^. Accepting Ralston's interpretation, I 
think it not improbable that the girl clad in greenery, who is sup- 
posed to catch a ring falling from the clouds ^^, really plays the part 
of the Earth married to the Sky amid a mock shower of fructifying 
rain^. Be that as it may, this at least is clear, that the drenching of 
the maiden with water is intended as a rain-charm, potent enough 
according to the principles of imitative magic, and that the company 

^ B. Schmidt op. cit. i. 30 n. 3, W. R. S. Ralston op. cit.^ p. 227 f., J. Grimm op. cit, 
ii. 593 f., G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 118 ff., W. Mannhardt 
op. cit.'^ i. 328 ff. 

^ For guesses see J. S. Stallybrass in J. Grimm op. cit. ii. 594 n. 2 ('Slav, dozhd is 
rain, and zhd represents either gd or dd; if this be the root, dodo-la may be a dimin.'), 
W. R. S. Ralston op. cil? p. 229 ('The name of Dodola is by some philologists derived 
from doit'' -^io give milk, Dodola being looked upon as a bountiful mother, a type of 
teeming nature. Others connect it with Did-Lado, from the Lithuanian Didis = great, 
and Lado, the Slavonic Genius of the spring'). 

I risk yet another suggestion — Hellenic, not Slavonic. F. Bechtel in the Nachr. d. 
kon. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. Gottingen Phil. -hist. Classe 1890 pp. 29 — 31 and in his recent 
work Die griechischen Dialekte Berlin 192 1 i. 64 has established the fact that the Aeolic 
name for Demeter was Au-fji.dTrip, with a clipped form Aoj'ts (first restored by J. G. J. 
Hermann in k. Dem. 122 for 5cos ^fioiy ovofx' iari of cod. M.). R. Meister Die griech- 
ischen Dialekte Gottingen 1882 i. 75 had already cited in this connexion the place-names 
Acortov ireblov and Aojdu^vr). O. Hoffmann Die Griechischen Dialekte Gottingen 1893 ii. 
374 f. concludes that the North Achaeans in general originally worshipped the goddess 
under the title Au)/j.dT7]p. On this showing Dodona was the town of AwScJ, a reduplicated 
*Aw, cp. Sim(m)ias of Rhodes {c. 300 B.C.) ap. Steph. Byz. s.v. Acadoovrj- ...'Ziimij.ias 
6 'P65ios' ' Ztjvos ^dos Kpovidao /xaKaip' vvedi^aro Aw5w.' The same reduplication might, 
I conceive, account for the Serbian Dodo, Dodola, etc. 

^ W. Mannhardt op. cit."^ i- 33i' 

^ Frazer Golden Bough^: The Magic Art i. 272, 274 f. 

^ J. C. Lawson Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion Cambridge 
1910 p. 25. 

^ W. R. S. Ralston, op. cit? p. 228, infra p. 290 n. i. 

^ B. Schmidt op. cit. i. 31. 

^ G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 120. 

^ Supra i. 396 f. 

10 Supra p. 288. 

^1 Infra § 9 (e) ii. 



C. HI. 



19 



290 Rain-magic in modern Greece 

of maidens moving through the village is in like manner what it 
definitely claims to be — a cloud-charm^. 

Similar in character, but more obviously suggestive of a wedding, 
is the May-day ceremonial of the Kledofia. Miss M. Hamilton^ 
(Mrs G. Dickins) says of it: 

'In Thessaly in the district of Karankunia^ the day is dedicated to the 
blessing of the wells and springs, and the festival is called the Kledona^^ which 
means 07Jiens. Little girls go round singing in bands of five during the early 
morning, the smallest being dressed as a bride. Two carry a water-vessel, and 
the other two are bridesmaids. From the vineyards they take twigs, and drop 
these into the vessel along with tokens from the youths and maidens of the place. 
Then they visit all the wells and pour in half of the water, afterwards refilling 
the vessel, while they sing a petition for blessing on the waters and crops.' 

I am indebted to Professor A. J. B. Wace for the following descrip- 
tion of the rite as performed by the Vlachs at Midsummer : 

'In the summer of 1910, while travelling in South-west Macedonia, I had the 
opportunity of seeing how the girls of the Vlach (Macedo-Roumanian) village of 
Samarina celebrated the festival of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist on 
24th June (O.S.) with the custom of the klidhoiie^ (sing, klidhoiia) and other 

1 Supra p. 288. W. R. S. Ralston op. cit.^ p. 228 : 'The people believe that by this 
means there will be extorted from the "heavenly women" — the clouds — the rain for 
which thirsts the earth, as represented by the green-clad maiden Dodola.' Frazer 
Golden Bough^'. The Magic Art i. 275 : 'The words of the Servian song. ..taken in con- 
nexion with the constant movement which the chief actress in the performance seems 
expected to keep up, points \_sic'\ to some comparison of the girl or her companions to 
clouds moving through the sky. This again reminds us of the odd quivering movement 
kept up by the Australian rain-maker, who, in his disguise of white down, may perhaps 
represent a cloud ^ (^See above, pp. 260 sq. This perpetual turning or whirling movement 
is required of the actors in other European ceremonies of a superstitious character. See 
below, vol. ii. pp. 74, 80, 81, 87. I am far from feeling sure that the explanation of it 
suggested in the. text is the true one. But I do not remember to have met with any other).' 
Whatever the explanation of the flutter, the flutter accounts for the confusion of irept- 
TTopela, irepirepeia, irepirepia, 'procession' {supra p. 287 n. 8), with irepirepLa, irepTrepivaLs, 
'butterflies' {supra p. 287 n. 4). 

^ M. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 19 10 p. 164. 

^ 'Eo-Titt 1890 p. 268. 

^ M. Hamilton op. cit. p. 158 on St John's Eve: ' The consultation of oracles belongs 
to the magic of the Eve. The usual ceremony in Greece is called kledonas, which is 
worked by the vepb d/j,i\7]To — speechless water. A water-vessel is filled at the spring and 
carried to the house by some maiden without speaking. Into it are thrown tokens of all 
kinds, which are drawn out next morning, and from them each forms his conclusions as to 
future fortunes. Usually it is merely a case of marriage-questionings on the part of the 
village girls.' Etc. 

^ Prof. Wace appends a brief bibliography including L. M. J. Garnett — J. S. Stuart- 
Glennie T/^e Women of Turkey and their Folk-lore The Christian Women London 1890 
p. 20 ('The procession of the Perperuda...\% also an institution among the Vlach 
women... The third Thursday after Easter is the day chosen for this propitiation of the 
Water Deities.' 'The ceremony of the Klithona, observed by the Greeks on St. John's 
Eve, is also performed by the Vlach youths and maidens under the same name, but with 



Rain-magic in modern Greece 291 

observances. On the eve of the festival (the evening of June 23rd O.S.) the girls 
collected in bands and went about the village singing songs from conduit head to 
conduit head, putting water in the crock containing the klidhofie and pouring it 
out again. Finally, at the last conduit visited, the water is left in. The klidhone are 
trinkets, one contributed by each girl and tied up a with flower or sprig of basil 
or some other herb, so that each can easily recognise her own again, and are 
placed in an earthenware crock. The trinkets remain in the water over night ; 
and the next day after church the bands of girls collect together again and go 
about the village with one of their number dressed up as a bride called Romand^ 
singing songs as before and with the crock containing the klidhone. In the 
evening about sunset they go to a retired spot just outside the village, and joining 
hands and singing suitable songs pour away the water and take out the klidhone 




Fig. 193. 

one by one. They tell fortunes by the condition of the trinkets : for instance, if 
one has gone yellow, the omen is good ; if black, the omen is bad. It seems possible 
that the dressing up of agirl as a bride and the visiting of the conduits is connected 
with a rain-charm^. This is in brief the custom at Samarina ; but it was difficult 

slight differences of detail'), p. 120 ff. (the Klithona on St John's Eve in Thessaly and 
Makedonia, Perperia during drought in the same districts), G. Weigand Die Aromunen 
Leipzig 1894 ii. 130 {Pirpiruna or Dudtda in South Roumania, etc.), 136 f. no. 80 
(a Pirpiruna-?,ong in Vlach with German rendering), G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore 
Cambridge 1903 pp. 53 — 57 (a minutely careful account of 6 KK-qdova's on St John's Eve 
and Day in Makedonia, with text and translation of the songs appropriate to the occasion), 
Cosmulei Datiui, Credinte, si Siiperstitii Aro??idnesti, p. 42 (St John's Day brides etc. 
among the Vlach s). 

P. Carolidis Bemerkungen zii den alien kleitiasiatischen Sprachen und Mythen Strassburg 
i. E. 1913 p. 142 f. ('Das Fest des KXiySovas') gives a good account of the festival as 
observed in western Asia Minor, in the Aegean islands, and in some parts of European 
Greece on June 24, the Birthday of St John the Baptist. 

^ Prof. Wace translates the Pirpiruna-sor\g from G. Weigand op. cit. ii. 136 no. 80 
(Krusevo) ^ Pirpinma \ sarandtina \ give rain, give, j that the fields may grow, | the 
fields and the vineyards, | the grasses and the meadows.' 

19 — 2 



2g2 Rain-magic in modern Greece 

to get any detailed information as the girls, especially the older ones, are shy, 
and only the smaller girls go through their observances in the light of day. The 
others prefer the screen of night, which shelters them from the prying eyes of 
the boys.' 

G. F. Abbott^ points out that this picturesque custom, which is now 
little more than a pastime, had once a serious purpose. Behind the 
water-jar with its sprigs of basil and talk of sweethearts lies the 
old-world endeavour to bring about fertility. The hydromancy pre- 
supposes rain-magic ; and the little girl in her bridal veil, who goes 
the round of the conduits, is — if I am not much mistaken — the 
playful and unconscious representative of Mother Earth herself. 

Another group of festivals that imply rain-magic is characterised 
by much mutual drenching of the celebrants with water, salt or 
fresh. For instance, off the coast of Lykia lies Megiste (^Kastellorizo), 
an island destitute of springs and exposed to serious droughts. 
Miss M. Hamilton^ (Mrs G. Dickins) has given a graphic account 
of the way in which its inhabitants keep the festival of Saint 
Elias (July 20): 

'St Elias is considered lord of rain, and at the time of his festival in July a 
great amount of reciprocal drenching takes place. For many days before the 
feast the children throw each other clothed into the sea, and get drenched head 
to foot ; they go round the roads calling aloud t aV 'Aia, making the saint's name 
their cry, and drag along everyone whom they find dry. This they do with the 
impunity which comes from ecclesiastical support. On the feast-day no one can 
go dry through the streets, and sponge-fishers even drag people from their 
houses to the sea. The whole village is drenched as if with rain.' 

Miss Hamilton^ justly compares the chief celebration in Kypros: 

'At Pentecost the seaports, such as Larnaka and Lemesso, are frequented 
by large assemblies of country people. Every one bathes in the sea, where they 
call it the Holy Shore {"A'ios TiaXos). Then they take little boats and sail near to 
the shore all day long, amusing themselves with music and such pleasantries as 
mutual drenchings. It is unlucky not to get wet on this day, and they have the 
custom of sprinkling water all over their houses also. In inland districts they 
go to rivers and springs, and bathe and splash each other. The festival is 
officially called the Deluge (KaraxXvor/Lids'), but in common talk the islanders 
speak of it as the festival of Aphrodite, for they cherish the memory of the god- 
dess of Paphos.' 



^ G. F. Abbott Macedonian Folklore Cambridge 1903 p. 53. 

^ M. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 
p. 123, cp. p. 20. Ead. in the Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. 1906 — 1907 xiii. 354 (cited supra i. 
182 f). 

^ M. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 
p. 153 f. (after A. Sakellarios Td KuTrpia/cd Athens 1868 i. 702), cp. p, 124. 



Rain-magic in modern Greece 293 

Dr J. Rendel Harris^ has drawn attention to analogous rain-charms 
practised throughout Armenia and Syria: 

'Amongst the Armenian people it is the custom, on a particular day in the year, 
to throw water over one another. The day of this exercise is the Feast of the 
Transfiguration, and the festival itself is called by the name of Vartevar. 
Although in its modern form the custom of water-throwing is little more than a 
sport of boys, the evidence is abundant that the throwing of water was originally 
a religious exercise, and that it goes back to very early times. Its religious 
character is attested by the fact that in the Armenian Churches there is an asper- 
sion of the people by the priests on the Transfiguration festival; while the boys 

are throwing water out of doors the priests are throwing water indoors The 

custom can be verified all over Armenia ; we found it at Moush, at Pirvan, at 
Egin, at Harpoot, at Ourfa, and practically in everyplace where we made enquiry 
... we were told that at Sivas, Erzeroum, and some other places, it was the custom 
to let a pigeon fly, in remembrance of Noah'^. This is not done at Egin, nor could 
we verify it in other places visited. At Aintab we found that they not only threw 
water over one another, but that they made a special point of throwing water 

upon the graves Upon enquiry from the Jacobite Syrians as to whether 

they had a Vartevar like the Armenians, the reply was in the affirmative, only 
they differed from the Armenians in keeping the custom upon the Feast of 

Pentecost instead of the Transfiguration The more intelligent amongst the 

Armenians said that they thought the custom had come down to them from the 
worship of Anahid, which preceded their conversion to Christianity.' 

Dr Rendel Harris^ further notes that at any time of drought the 
Armenians may have recourse to the primitive practice of making 
a puppet and immersing it in water: 

'At Egin, when rain is wanted, the boys take two sticks in the form of a 
cross, and with the addition of some old clothes and a cap they make a rain- 
dolly. This figure they carry round the town, and the people from the roofs of 
the houses throw water on it. They call the dolly the "Chi-chi Mama," which 
they interpret to mean "the drenched mother." As they carry the dolly about 

^ J. Rendel Harris in Folk-Lore 1904 xv. 429 f. ('Annual Rain-Charm'), M. Hamilton 
Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910P. iii. Vartevar, pace 
Rendel Harris, is certainly derived from the Armenian vart, 'rose,' and must be regarded 
as a survival of the ancient Rosalia (P. Carolidis Bemerkungen zu den alien kleinasiatischen 
Sprachen und Mythen Strassburg i. E. 1913 pp. 139 ff., 178 ff., M. P. Nilsson in Pauly — 
Wissowa Real-Enc. i a. iiii ff., c^. Jotcrn. Hell. Stud. 1900 xx. 11 ff.). 

- F. Macler in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1908 i. 
804b: 'The festival of the Transfiguration [Vardavar) is called the Festival of Roses, 
after an old heathen festival which was celebrated on the same day. On the day pre- 
ceding this festival, the commemoration of the Tabernacle of the Jews is held. On that 
day people sprinkle each other with water when they meet in the streets ; and in certain 
provinces of Armenia pigeons are set free, either in recollection of the Deluge, or as a 
symbol of Astlik, the Armenian Venus.' 

Was the famous type of Noah in the ark on coins of the Phrygian Apameia Kibotos 
(literature supra ii. 610 n. 9) occasioned by a local festival of this sort? 

2 J. Rendel Harris in Folk-Lore 1904 xv. 431 f. ('Occasional Rain-charms'), 
M. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 1910 p. 121. 



294 Rain-magic in modern Greece 

they ask, "What does Chi-chi mother want?" The reply is, "She wants wheat, 
boulgoiir'''' (cracked wheat), &c. "She wants wheat in her bins, she wants bread 
on her bread-hooks, and she wants rain from God." The boys take up contributions 
at the rich houses. At Ourfa the children, in times of drought, make a rain-bride, 
which they call Chinche-gelin. They say this means in Turkish "shovel-bride." 
They carry the bride about and say, "What does Chinche-gelin want.^*" "She 
wishes mercy from God; she wants offerings of lambs and rams." And the 
crowd responds, "Give, my God, give rain, give a flood." The rain-bride is then 
thrown into the water. At Harpoot they make a man-doll and call it " Allah-potik." 
I cannot find out the meaning of the last half of this name. The doll is carried 
about with the question, "What does Allah-potik want?" "He wants rain from 
God ; he wants bread from the cupboard ; he wants meat from dish ; he wants 
boulgour ixovi\\ivi\s \ salt from the salt-cellar ; money from the purse." Then they 
all cry out, " Give, my God, rain, a flood." At Trebizond, as we were told, they 
make a rain-dolly. The children dress it up as a bride and veil its face. They 
ask money from the people. I was unable to find out whether the dolly was 
thrown into the sea, which is what one would expect from parallel cases.' 

Professor R. M. Dawkins^ and Miss M. Hamilton ^ (Mrs G. 
Dickins) have shown that the universal Greek custom of immersing 
the cross and blessing the waters at Epiphany is not merely an 
ecclesiastical commemoration of Christ's baptism in the Jordan but 
also a popular rain-charm of the usual mimetic kind. Professor 
Dawkins^ observes: 

'At Epiphany a priest goes in procession to a spring, river, cistern, or to the 
sea, and immerses a cross three times. At the same time a white dove is released. 
The cross is fetched out by a man who dives for it.' 

Miss Hamilton* records numerous local varieties of the custom. 
A few samples will suffice: 

'At Athens an imposing procession goes from the church of vSt. Dionysios to 
the large reservoir on the slope of Lykabettos, and the bishop there performs 
a ceremony similar to that at the Piraeus. Some of the city churches, too, 
celebrate the Blessing of the Waters, either within their walls or outside on an 
erected shrine. The seaports and island towns have great celebrations. At Syra, 
the chief commercial island, an urn of water is first blessed in the church, and 
then a procession marches down to the harbour, where all the boats and steamers 
are waiting. After the ceremony is finished, the ships are free to sail away. At 
Nauplia also the ceremony is interesting, and it differs in a few respects from 
the preceding. The archbishop in full regalia proceeds to the harbour, and amid 
a great assembly throws in the wooden cross, to which no ribbon is attached. 
The local fishermen, as divers, are stripped ready to find it, and a struggle 

1 R. M. Dawkins in Folk-Lore 1904 xv. 214. 

- M. Hamilton Greek Saints and Their Festivals Edinburgh and London 19 10 
pp. 112 — 127 ('Epiphany. The Blessing of the Waters and its connection with Rain- 
charms'). 

^ R. M. Dawkins loc. cit. 

4 M. Hamilton op. cit. p. ii2ff. 



Rain-magic in modern Greece 295 

ensues among them. When the cross is successfully found, all the surrounding 
people are sprinkled with the water. The successful diver has the right of visiting 
all the houses of the town to levy a contribution on that day. He may gain a 
large sum of money thereby, and sometimes companies are formed on the 
agreement that all the members shall share in the profits of the successful one. 
This commercial spirit prevails at Phaleron also. 

The village of Lytochoro^ in Thessaly gives an elaborate and curious version 
of this ceremony. The name of Sichna is given to the festival, on account of the 
tall standards used. Each church of the district possesses one of these Sichna 
with a gilt cross at the top, and on the Eve of Epiphany they are conveyed to 
the two central churches of the town. During the vigil which is held all wait for 
midnight, when the heavens are believed to open and the Holy Spirit descends 
upon the head of Christ. Then at dawn they leave the churches, taking the ikons 
of the saints and the flags and standards, and go to the river Lakkon to baptise 
the cross and bless the water. The priests line up on the banks, and round about 
are half-naked divers as at Nauplia. On the rising ground stand the citizens. 
At sunrise a song is sung calling on St. John to baptise the Christ Child, and 
a priest prays. Then three times the tall standards are bent and dipped in the 
water, and three times they are raised in the air, in imitation, it is said, of the 
trees by the Jordan banks. It is a common belief that all trees on Epiphany Eve 
bow down in adoration of Christ.... 

To continue the Sichna. The cross itself is cast into the river, and the divers 
struggle for it. The successful diver returns to town and gathers up contributions 
from the houses. All drink of the holy water, and after general blessings they 
march back in procession to the two churches, where Benediction is held. Next 
day the Sichna are restored for another year to their respective churches. 

In Samos^ Epiphany is celebrated in the following way. All the women 
send on Epiphany morning a vessel full of water to the church, and the priest 
blesses the water. The same day a servant is sent into the fields with this 
blessed vessel to sprinkle the ground and the trees, singing meanwhile the song 
of Christ's baptism.' 

An Epiphany song from Imbros connects the Jordan water used 
for baptism with the rain which blesses the earth^: 

'There came the day of lights and baptisms. There came great rejoicings and 
our Lord. Down to the river Jordan went \leg. Down by the river Jordan was 
sitting] our Lady the Panagia. She took water and washed herself, and with 
a gold kerchief dried herself, with the Gospels in her arms and the censer in 

^ Xlapj/acro-os, 1882, p. 582. 

2 2ayLctaK-(£, p. 48 [? E. Stamatiadis Sa^uta/cd]. 

^ M. Hamilton op. cit. p. 126 f. citing Si^X\o70s ix. 341 "HX^ave rd (pCoTo. k oi (pcoTLa/Jioi \ 
K 7} x^pats fxeydXai^ r' Aixpivrr] fias. \ Kdrw 's rbv 'Opddvi] rbv trorafxov \ Karrav 17 Kvpd 
fxas ij naj'a7ia | "'Eiraipve vepaKi /cat ivi^ovrav \ koI XP^^V ixavdrfkL acpoyyi^ovTav \ Me rd 
'Eiayy^XLa 's ttju dyKaXid \ Kai rd dvjuiaToijpLa 's rd 5dKTv\a \ Kal rbv ay lo Vidwr) irapa- 
KoKei. j ' Ayio Tidwr] Av<p^VT7) Kal wpbdpofJLe, \ Aduaaai /cat (xdjveis /cat Trpo8po/iids \ Aid vd 
jSaTTTicTT;? rbu Nto Xpiarb. \ Fid KovroKaprepei cos to irovpvb \ Ttd vdval^oi [? dva^aivui] 'iravw 's 
Tov ovpavb I Ftd vd prj^o) dp6<ro /cdrco 's ttjv yrj \ Nd dpoadij 'Acp^PTtji fx^ riju Kvpd | Nd bpoadodv 
7) [^leg. o'C] ppiJcreLs fik rd vepd \ Nd /card irpavvovv [_leg. KaraTrpavvovv] rd ^o^^ovXa | Kai vd 
Karair^aovv rd TelduXa. 



296 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 

her hands, and she called on St. John : "St. John, Lord and Forerunner, thou 
art mighty ; thou savest and goest before to baptise the young Christ." "Wait for 
the dawn that I may go up into Heaven, and may throw down refreshment on the 
earth, that our Lord with our Lady may be refreshed, that the springs and waters 
may be refreshed, that the flocks may prosper and the idols fall."' 

Even more explicit is another song from the neighbourhood of 

Mount Olympos, which represents the baptism in Jordan as 

accompanied by a deluge of rain^: 

'At the river Jordan, the holy place, the Lord is baptised and saves the whole 
world. And a dove came down, white and feathery, and with its wings opened ; 
it sent rain down on the Lord, and again it rained and rained on our Lady, and 
again it rained and rained on its wings.' 

ii. Rain-magic in ancient Greece. 

No description of a ceremony exactly resembling the rites of 
modern Greece has come down to us from classical times. But 
points of similarity are not wanting. Thus we have seen reason to 
conjecture that the early Greek rain-maker, probably clad in a 
sheep-skin to copy the fleecy clouds, worked his magic on the 
nearest hilP. Some such ritual was, we thought, presupposed by 
the Homeric epithet nephelegereta^ and by the Aristophanic chorus 
of Cloud-maidens* if not also by the Orphic hymn that bade the 
Clouds send showers to fertilise Mother Earths 

Usage, no doubt, differed from place to place. In Rhodes the 
Telchines are said to have been charlatans who by their magical 
arts could produce at will clouds, rain, hail, and snow. Unfortunately 
no details of their procedure are on record^ 

At Krannon in Thessaly drought was cured by the shaking of 

^ M. Hamilton op. cit. p. 127 citing na/jj'a(ro-6s, 1882, p. 580; Laspopoulos, "OXvfjiTros 
Kal oi KOLTOiKoi avTov : — l^TOv'IopddvT) TroTa/x6, arbv ayLO rbv rbiro \ 6 Kijpios jSa^ri^eTai /cat 
<xu}^* ovXov TO Koa/no. I Kal Kara^dv^ fj.(.d iripbiKa, daTrpr] Kal TrXov/jLTna/uL^ur) j fxe \_leg. /xe] 
TOL (prepd TTjs dvoiXTo, Kal jSpex^i- tov dcpeprr) \ Kal irdXiv ^ava^p^x^Tai Kal ^pex^i- tW Kvpd 
TTji I Kal ttoKlv ^ai^a^pix^Tai Kal /S/jexei rd (ftTepd ttjs. 

^ Supra pp. 31 f., 68. 

^ Supra p. 30 ff. Cp. i. 14 n. i. 

^ Supra p. 69 f. 

^ Supra p. 70. Cp. Orph. h. Not. 82 NOTOT, dv/xia/uLa XijSavov. i ff. \aL\pr}pbv ir-qSrifxa 
5l 7]€pos i/ypoTTopevTov, I iOKeiais TTTepTjyecrcL dovo^ifxevov ^vda Kal evda, \ eXdois <tvu vetpeXats 
voTiaLS, 6fij3poLO yevdpx^-' \ tovto yap e/c Aios ecrrc aedev yepas rjepoipoLTOv, | dfji^poroKovt 
vecp^Xas e^ rjipos 4s (so £. Abel for els) x^oi^a ir4[XTrei.v. | rotydp toi XirbfJieada, /maKap, lepolai 
Xap^vra \ irifxireLv KapTroTp6<povs Sfi^povs iirl firjripa Yatai'. 

^ Zenon of Rhodes /rag. i {Frag. hist. Gr. iii. 175 Muller) ap. Diod. 5. 55 Xkyovrai 
5' ovTot {sc. ol TeXx^f'fs) '^cti yorjTes yeyovivai Kal wapdyeiv ore ^oijXolvto pe<pr) re Kal 6/bL^povs 
Kal xaXdfas, 6/xoiws be Kal x'ova ecp^XKeadaL' ravra be Kaddirep Kal rovs fxdyovs iroieiv 
IcTopovcnv. aXXdrTecdat {aXXdrreiv codd. C.F.G. ex silentio Wesselingi) 5c Kal rets 
Iblas fxop(pds, Kal eluaL (pdovepovs iv r^ bidaaKaXia tCjv rex^w?'. 



Rain-magic in ancient Greece 297 

a bronze car and the recital of a prayer for rain. Coins of the town 
show this car, always with an amphora or a fluted bowl resting upon 
it, and often with a raven or two perched on its wheels ^ 

At Eleusis the first formal act of the yearly festival was the 
proclamation, on Boedromion i6^ 'To the sea, initiates^!' On hearing 
this, the assembled multitude hurried down to bathe in the nearest 
salt water. Passing through a gate, which adjoined the Dionysion* 
in the south of the town and is possibly to be identified with the 
Itonian Gate^, they made their way to two lagoons called the 
Rheitoi, sacred to Demeter and Kore respectively ^ More than one 
notorious incident was connected with their wholesale immersion. 
It was said^ that Phryne, who habitually wore a clinging chiton and 
scorned to use the public baths, nevertheless at the Eleusinia and 
at the Poseidonia laid aside all her garments, loosened her hair, 
and stepped into the sea before the whole concourse of people — a 
sight which inspired Apelles to paint his Aphrodite Anacfyomene^, 
Again, it was remembered that in 339 B.C., when the initiates had 
gone down to purify themselves in the sea, a shark carried off one 
— some said two — of their number^ This curious happening, 
whether fact or figment, seems to have provoked imitation. For we 
are told^^ that on another occasion, when an initiate was washing a 
pig in the harbour of Kantharos at the Peiraieus, a shark seized 
and bit off the lower half of his body. The Eleusinian bathe has 
been commonly regarded as a rite of purification ^^ and as such 

^ Supra ii. 831 ff. figs. 788 — 792. S. W. Grose in the McClean Cat. Coins ii. 203 
no. 4566 pi. 171, 20 ( = my fig. 791) says oddly 'insect on r. wheel.' 

2 Plout. de glor. Ath. 7, v. Camill. 19, v. Phoc. 6, Polyain. 3. 11. 2. 

^ On d\a5e, fxi<xTaL see Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen pp. 207, 214 ff., 244, Harrison 
Proleg. Gk. Rel.^ p. 152 f., P. Foucart Les mysteres d' Eleusis Paris 1914 p. 314 ff., 
P. Stengel Die griechischen Kullusaltertiimer Miinchen 1920 p. 182. 

^ Corp. inscr. Att. iv. i. 2 no. 53 a, 34 ff. = Michel Recueil d' Inscr. gr. no. 77, 34 
ff. = Dittenberger Syll. inscr. Gr.^ no. 550, 34 ^. = ib.^ no. 93, 34 ff. (Attic decree of 
^iSfj B.C.) Kai res Td(f)po /cat to iidaros Kpareip to ey Aios tov fii.(xdo(rd\iui€vov, birbaov iurds pel 
TO Aiopvaio /cat top ttvKov l(t) dXade €[x](r€\a\^PO<nv oi ix^xxTai. 

^ Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 215 n. i, P. Foucart op. cit. p. 315. 

^ Paus. I. 38. I, Hesych. j-.z/. 'Petro/, Phot. lex. s.v. 'Petrd (citing Soph. y9^^. 936 
Dindorf, 1089 Jebb), et. mag. p. 703, 13 f., Favorin. lex. p. 1617, 7 ff. 

"^ Athen. 590 F. 

^ OvQxhecV Schriftquellen p. 349 ff. nos. 1846 — 1863, A. Reinach Textes grecs et latins 
relatifs h Vhistoire de la peinture ancienjte Paris 192 1 i. 332 ff. nos. 425 — 445 (id. ib. 
p. 332 n. I dates the incident 'avant 340'). 

** Schol. Aischin. in Ctes. 130 p. 45 a 8 ff. Baiter— Sauppe. 

10 Plout. z;. Phoc. 3. 

^^ So already schol. Aischin. in Ctes. 130 p. 45 a 11 f. Baiter — Sauppe KaTcXOSpTuv 
Twp ix\j<xtG}p iirl ttjp ddXacra-ap iwl to Ka6apdi]PaL, cp. Hesych. s.v. 'VeiToi- ...66ep tovs 
XovTpovs dypl^eadai rous didaovs. 



298 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 

compared with Christian baptism^. Other views, however, might be 
defended. G. Glotz has shown that to be plunged in the sea was 
a not infrequent form of popular ordeaP. Mrs A. Strong and 
Miss N. Jolliffe have much to say on * Apotheosis by Water^.' But 
in any case the resemblance of the ancient to the modern custom 
of a communal dip makes it probable that the opening rite at 
Eleusis, which came 'at the end of the long drought of summer and 
before the first rains of autumn V served the purpose of a powerful 
rain-charm. 

Again, on the closing day of the mysteries, Boedromion 23^, 
two top-shaped bowls of terra cotta known as the pleniochoai or 
'flood-pourers' were first filled and then turned upside down, one 
towards the east, the other towards the west, with the addition of a 
mystic formula^. Since Kritias or Euripides in his Perithous'^ 
described these pleniochoai as emptied into a cleft in the ground, it 
may fairly be suspected that at Eleusis as at Athens^ an attempt 
was made to fertilise Mother Earth by means of an obvious rain- 
charm. What the mystic formula was, we do not know. Possibly it 
consisted in the enigmatic saying konx, ompax^ the meaning of which 
is still to seek^ 

^ E.g. Tertull. de bapt. 5 certe ludis Apollinaribus et Eleusiniis (so Fulvius Ursinus 
for Pelusiis) tinguuntur idque se in regenerationem et impunitatem periuriorum suorum 
agere praesumunt, Clem. Al. strom. 5. 11 p. 373, 23 f. Stahlin ovk direiKdTOJS dpa /cat 
tQv fivaTTjpiojv T'2v irap "EXXT^crtJ' apx€6 [xkv ra Kaddpaia, Kaddirep Kai tois /3ap/3(xpois to 
Xovrpdv. K.T.\. See further F. M, Rendtorfif Die Taufe im Urchristentiim Leipzig 1905, 
H. Windisch Taiife und Siinde im dltesten Christentum Tubingen 1908, R. Reitzenstein 
Die Vorgeschichte der christlichen Taufe Leipzig-Berlin 1929. 

^ G. Glotz Vordalie dans la Grece primitive Paris 1904 p. 11 ff. ('Les ordalies par 
la mer'). 

^ E. Strong and N. Jolliffe in i\ie/ourn. Hell. Stud. 1924 xliv. 103 ff. 

^ E. O. James in J. Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 19 18 
X. 563 a. 

^ Mommsen Feste d. Stadt Athen p. 242 ff. 

^ Athen. 496 A — B IIAHMOXOH. or/ceOos Kepafxeouv ^efxjSiKujdes edpaiov i}<xvxVf ^ kotv- 
\l(TKOv '4vL0L irpoaayopeijovacv, ws <p7j<TL Ila/i^iXos. x/owfrat 8e avri^ ev 'EXevalvL rrj reXevTaiq. 
Tu>v jULvcTTrjpicjv rjfjL^pa, rjv /cai (xtt' avrov Trpoaayopevovai HXrj/uLoxoas' iv f] 8vo irXrijiioxoas 
irXyipibcavTes, ttjv fxev irpbs dvaroXas, tt)v 5e irpos dijaiv dvLarafxevoL dvarp^iTovaLv, eTriXeyoures 
priatv ixvaTLKTjv. /xurjixoveveL de avrCov Kai 6 rbv Ueipidovv ypdipas, etre K/oirias earlu 6 rijpavvos 
7} 'EvpLirl5r)s (frag. 592 Nauck^), Xeycov ovtojs' ''Iva -rrX-qnoxbas rdad' els x^ovlov | x^^I^^ 
eixprj/uLOis 'rrpox^o}fJiev.^ 

' Supra n. 6. 

^ Supra pp. i79ff., 188. 

^ Hesych. Koy^^ 6/j.Tra^ (C. A. Lobeck cj. Koy^ o/j^oicos, ird^)' eirKpixjvrjjUia reTeXecTjuevocs. 
Kai TT]s diKaaTiKrjs xpTjipov •^xos, ws 6 rrjs KXe^p^dpas. irapd de 'Attikols /3\o^. The witty 
polemic of Lobeck Aglaophamus i. 775 — 783 hardly suffices to establish his emendation 
(which is printed as a certainty in both editions by M. Schmidt) and in any case should 
not absolve us from the duty of seeking an explanation for the formula. I should infer 



Rain- magic in ancient Greece 299 

But there is more definite evidence than this of a rain-ritual at 
Eleusis. Hippolytos-'- {c. 235 A.D.) mentions 'the great unspeakable 
mystery of the Eleusinians kye kyel that is "rain — conceive." And 
Proklos^ (438^ A.D.) states that 'at the Eleusinian rites they looked 
up to the Sky and shouted hye, "rain," then down to the Earth and 
added kye, "conceive."' The words have at once the directness of 
primitive thought and the jingle of primitive magic*. Dr L. R. 
Farnell^ is right when he comments: 

'This genuine ore of an old religious stratum sparkles all the more for being 
found in a waste deposit of neo-Platonic metaphysic. The formula savours of 
a very primitive liturgy that closely resembled the famous Dodonaean invoca- 
tion to Zeus the sky-god and mother-earth ; and it belongs to that part of the 
Eleusinian ritual "quod ad frumentum attinet^."' 

For, if the culminating act of the mysteries was the exhibition to 
the initiates of a corn-ear reaped in silence', we can well believe 
that rain-magic was essential to the performance. 

from Hesychios' gloss that ^67^, o/zTra^ or the like was a purely onomatopoeic phrase — 
'splosh, splash!' — meant to imitate the sound of falling rain-drops. This might fitly 
terminate the naive rain-magic of the *flood-pourers.' 

F. M. Cornford's 'Kd7^oi' Tra^, "Sound the conch — enough"' (Harrison Proleg. Gk. 
RelJ^ p. 161 n. 2) is open to Lobeck's objection: 'quid ab Hierophantae persona magis 
alienum esse potest, quam hoc ludicrum vocabulum Pax? quod non minore audientium 
risu exceptum fuisset, quam si hodie aliquis sacrae cathedrae orator pro eo quod in fine 
concionis pronunciari solet Amen, diceret Basta!' 

^ Hippol. ref. haeres. 5. 7 p. 146 Duncker — Schneidewin tovto, (prjaiv, earl to jmeya 
Kai apprjTov 'EXevcriviojv fivarrjpLov ve Kve. 

^ Prokl. iit Plat. Tim, iii. 176, 26 fi". Diehl 8 by] /cat ol deafxol tCjv 'Adrjvaiuu eldores 
irpoairaTTOv ovpavcp /cai 717 irpoTeKeiv rods ydfxovs, els de tovtovs ^XiTroures Kal ev rots 
'WkevcnvloLS iepois els ixkv top ovpavbv ava^Xiirovres i^owv 'ue' (so C. A. Lobeck for vie 
codd.), Kara^Xixpavres §^ els t7)v yrju to ' /ci^e ' (so C. A. Lobeck for Kvie codd. Q.D.), dia 
toOtcov ws iraTpbs Kal /xTjTpbs ttjv y^veaiv elvai irdvToov yLvdxTKouTes. Infra § 9 (e) ii. 

^ W. Christ Geschichte der griechischen Litter atur^ ii. 2. 1059. 

^ See R. Heim ' Incantamenta magica graeca latina' in the fahrb. f. class. PhiloL 
Suppl. 1893 xix. 544 ff. (citing ^.^. Varr. rer. rust. i. 2. 27, Verg. eel. 8. 80 f., Pelagon. 19, 
Marcell. de med. 15. 11) and, for a modern parallel, supra i. 413 n. o. 

The relation of such an 'uralte Wunschausdruck ' to actual prayer is considered by 
F. Schwenn Gebet und Opfer Heidelberg 1927 pp. i — 8 ('Ein Sttick der Liturgie von 
Eleusis'). 

^ Farnell Cults of Gk. States iii. 185. 

^ Aug. de civ. Dei 7. 20 in Cereris autem sacris praedicantur ilia Eleusinia, quae apud 
Athenienses nobilissima fuerunt. de quibus iste {sc. Varro, c^t. frag. 140 Funaioli) nihil 
interpretatur, nisi quod adtinet ad frumentum, quod Ceres invenit, et ad Proserpinam, 
quam rapiente Oreo perdidit ; et banc ipsam dicit significare fecunditatem seminum... 
dicit deinde multa in mysteriis eius tradi, quae nisi ad frugum inventionem non pertineant. 
Farnell op. cit. iii. 358 gives a misleading reference and an erroneous text. 

'' Hipp. ref. haeres. 5. 8 p. 162 Duncker — Schneidewin (cited supra ii. 295 n. 2). 
Farnell op. cit. iii. 183 n.^ takes the phrase ev a-iojirrj to go with the words before it, not 
with those after it, but admits that its position in the sentence is against him and can only 
plead that * Hippolytus is not careful of the order of his words.' The same view had long 



300 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 

ago been expressed by C. Lenormant in the Mdmoires de V Acadimie des Inscriptions 
1861 xxiv. I. 374 f., who M^as followed by S. Reinach in L Anthropologie 1903 xiv. 356 f. 
{'I'epi de ble, presente en silence a la foule assemblee'), Frazer Golden Bough'^ : The 
Magic Art ii. 139 n. i (eTriSei/ci'iyj'res rots iTroTTTetjovai to fiiya Kal davfiaarbv Kai TeXeidrarou 
eTTOTTTiKov eKet ixvar-qpLov ev aiwTrrj, redepLCfievov araxw (so punctuated by Duncker — 
Schneidewin)), P. Foucart Les mysteres d^^leusis Paris 1914 p. 434 (' Cette explication 
me parait beaucoup plus satisfaisante, et je n'aurais pas hesite a I'adopter s'il ne fallait 
admettre dans la phrase de saint Hippolyte une construction fautive. Apres tout, mieux 
vaudrait s'y resigner, si Ton y gagnait une interpretation plus conforme au mode d'enseigne- 
ment qui fut en usage dans I'initiation'). S. Reinach, however, in the Rev. £t. Gr. 1906 
xix. 344 n. I pointed out that 'le silence est tres souvent necessaire a I'accomplissement 
de rites comme celui de couper une plante sacree ' : accordingly in his Cultes^ niythes et 
religions Paris 1906 ii p. xi he renders 'I'epi de ble, moissonne en silence.' Classical 
scholars in general have concurred in this opinion, e.g. Harrison Proleg. Gk. Rel!^ p. 549 
'an ear of grain reaped in silence,' M. P. Nilsson A History of Greek Religion trans. 
F. J. Fielden Oxford 1925 p. 108 'the reaping of a few ears in silence,' J. M. Edmonds 
Lyra Graeca London 1927 iii. 517 'an ear of corn reaped in silence.' 

With regard to the significance of the rite, we are ill informed and widely diverse 
hypotheses have been propounded : 

(i) The context in Hippolytos asserts that the Athenians in their Eleusinian usage 
were following the lead of the Phrygians, who spoke of God as 'a green ear reaped' 
{supra ii. 295 n. 2 xkoepov (tt^xw redepiafi^vop). The allusion is to a Naassene hymn 
describing Attis in very similar terms {supra ii. 296 n. 4 x^^^P^^ araxw afxir}6ivTa, cp. 
Firm. Mat. 3. 2 amare terram volunt {sc. Phryges) fruges, Attin vero hoc ipsum volunt 
esse quod ex frugibus nascitur, poenam autem quam sustinuit hoc volunt esse, quod falce 
messor maturis frugibus facit : mortem ipsius dicunt, quod semina collecta conduntur, 
vitam rursus, quod iacta semina annuis vicibus reconduntur (C. Halm cj. rettascuntur. 
K. W. A. Reifferscheid cj. redduntur. C. Bursian cj. recidivantur)). But Attis never 
had any footing at Eleusis ; and Hippolytos' attempt to find an Eleusinian counterpart of 
him ends in a sentence probably defective and certainly obscure (Hippol. ref. haeres. 5. 8 
p. 162 f. Duncker — Schneidewin 6 5e (rrdxi»s ovto^ eari Kai irapa *A.drjvaloLs 6 irapbi rod 
axO'Po.KTTjp'KTTOv (p(3}(rT7}p xAcios fji^as, Kaddirep avros 6 iepocpdvTrjs, ovk aTroKeKOfMfx^vos fieu, 
ttJS 6 "Attls, evvovxi-O'fJ'^fos de dm Kioveiov Kai irdcrav TrapyTrjiuL^vos ttjv capKLKrfv yivecLV, 
vvKTos iv 'EXeuo-tvi vnb 7ro\\(^ irvpi reXQv ra fieydXa Kai dpprjTa fivcrTTjpia ^oq. Kai K^Kpaye 
Xiycow ^ lepbv ^t€K€ Trdruia Kovpov Bpt/^o) "Bpi/xdv,^ tovt^cttlv Icrxvpa i(Txvp6u). 

(2) According to F. B. Jevons, the corn-ear exhibited at Eleusis implies a corn-totem 
in the remote past. ' Originally every ear of corn was sacred to the tribe which took corn 
for its totem Then some one particular ear or sheaf of ripe corn was selected to repre- 
sent the Corn-Spirit, and was preserved until the following year, in order that the 
worshippers might not be deprived during the winter of the presence and protection of 
their totem. The corn thus preserved served at first unintentionally as seed, and suggested 
the practice of sowing ; and even when a larger and proper stock of seed-corn was laid 
in, the one particular sheaf was still regarded as the Corn-Mother, which, like the Peruvian 
Mother of the Maize, determined by her supernatural power the kind and quantity of the 
following harvest. In Eleusis this sheaf was dressed up as an old woman {supra i. 397 
n. 4), and was preserved from harvest to seed-time in the house of the head-man of the 
village originally, and in later times in a temple. This sheaf was probably highly taboo, 
and not allowed to be touched or even seen except on certain occasions This manifesta- 
tion of the Corn-Goddess afforded not merely a visible hope and tangible promise that 
the sowing of the seed should be followed by a harvest of ripe corn, but in itself constituted 
a direct communion with the deity...' (F. B. Jevons An Introduction to the History of 
Religion'^ London 1902 p. 364 ff.). 'When, then, we find that in later times an ear of 
corn was exhibited, we may fairly infer that it was an ear of corn which was exhibited in 
the primitive agricultural rites, and that it was originally the embodiment of the Corn- 
Goddess' {id. z'^.^ p. 381). Cp. S. Reinach Cultes, mythes et religions Paris 1906 p. xi 



Rain-magic in ancient Greece 301 

' Recourant aux textes, nous y trouvons une trace certaine non seulement du culte, mais 
de I'adoration et de I'exaltation (au sens chretien) de I'epi de ble.' 

(3) Elsewhere Reinach treats the corn-ear as the offspring of a priest and a priestess, 
representing Zeus and Demeter, whose union ensured the fertility of the soil by means 
of sympathetic magic (S. Reinach in the Rev. £t. Gr. 1906 xix. 344 'Get epi que montre 
I'hierophante represente, a mon avis, le produit du mariage du pretre et de la pretresse 
qui constitue un des actes mystiques les plus importants du rituel ; le pretre et la pretresse, 
dans cet episode, figurent le dieu celeste et la deesse chthonienne — en langage mytho- 
logique, Zeus et Demeter — dont I'union assure la fecondite des champs'). A very similar 
account of the rite is given by Harrison Proleg. Gk. Rel? p, 548 ff. and Frazer Golden 
Bough'^ \ The Magic Art ii. 138 ff., who further equate the corn with the child Brimos. 
Now the union of Zeus and Demeter, impersonated by the hierophant and the priestess, 
is certainly attested by several late authorities (Tertull. ad nat. 2. 7 cur rapitur sacerdos 
Cereris, si non tale Ceres passa est? (J. Topffer Attische Genealogie Berlin 1889 p. 94 n. 4 
thinks that here Demeter is not to be distinguished from her daughter), Clem. Al. protr. 
2. 15. I ff. p. 13, 2 ff. Stahlin (cited supra i. 392 n. 5), Arnob. adv. nat. 5. 20 f., 37 (cited 
supra i. 393 n. o), Asterios bishop of Amaseia (dated c. 330 — c. 410 A.D. by W. Christ 
Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur^ Miinchen 1924 ii. 2. 1429) horn. 10 encomium in 
sanctos martyres (xl. 324 B Migne) ov /ce^dXatoj/ tt^s (r7js.6pr]aK€ias to, ev 'EXevalyi fivar-^pia 
Kai drj/xos 'Arrc/cos Kai 7/'EX\ds Trdaa (rvuaipei, 'Iva TeXearj /jLaTaioTrjTa ; ovk €K€i to KaTajBdaiov 
rb (TKOTeivbv Kai al cre/Mval tou l€po<pdvTov irpbs t7]v lipeiau avvrvxi-o-i. jjlovov irpbs /jlovtju ; ovx 
ai XapiTrddes c^^vvvvTaL, /cat 6 iroKvs Kai duapidjmrjTOs drjfios ttjv acorrjpiau avrCov elvat vo/xi- 
^ovcTL rd eV Tip (jKOTip irapd tQu dvo irpaTTOfxeva; schol. Plat. Gorg. 497 c p. 913 a 37 ff. 
iTeXelTO de raOra /cat Arjoi Kai Kdpr}, otl Tavrrju /xev UXoijtojv dpTrd^eie, Ar]oT 8^ fjnyeLr) Zei^s- 
€v oh TToWd ixkv €TrpdTT€To aicTXP^i eXeyeTo 8^ k.t.X., Psellos riVa Trepl 8aLix6v(av 8o^d^ov(nv 
'EiXXrjves; p. 39 f. (cited supra ii. 132 n. 2)). It is probable that in early days this union 
was a real one, the hierophant having actual intercourse with the priestess, but that later 
it became merely symbolic, the hierophant using an application of hemlock as an antaphro- 
disiac (Hippol. ref. haeres. 5. 8 p. 164 Duncker — Schneidewin cited supra p. 300 n. o (i), 
with the remarks of Frazer Golden Bough^: The Magic Art ii. 139 n. i). But though the 
ceremonial marriage of the hierophant (Zeus) with the priestess (Demeter) has some claim 
to be regarded as fact, yet it must be admitted that not one of the ancient writers called in 
evidence describes the offspring of this marriage as an ear of corn. At most we can say 
that in the Sabazian myth Zeus became by Deo Brimd or Demeter the parent of Phere- 
phatta or Kore {supra i. 392 ff.). It might also be maintained — the hypothesis is not 
extravagant — that Kore was at Eleusis represented by a bunch of wheat-ears, possibly 
arranged in the form of a corn-daughter or harvest-maiden {supra i. 397 n. 4 pi. xxviii). 

(4) F. M. Cornford 'The 'ATTAPXAI and the Eleusinian Mysteries' in Essays and 
Studies presented to William Ridgeway Cambridge 19 13 pp. 153 — 166 likewise identifies 
the TedepLcpL^vov <jTdxvv with Kore. His argument may be briefly resumed as follows. 
The dirapxal- or ' first-fruits,' sent by the Greek states to Eleusis, were in accordance with 
ancestral custom stored in underground granaries (P. Foucart in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 
1880 iv. 225 ff. line 10 ff. pi. 15 = Corp. inscr. Att. iv. i. 2 no. 27^, 10 ff. = Michel 
Recueil d^Inscr. gr. no. 71, 10 ff. = Roberts — Gardner Gk. Epigr. ii. 22 ff. no. 9, 10 ff. 
= J. V. Prott and L. Ziehen Leges Graecorum sacrae ii no. 4, 10 ff. = Dittenberger Syll. 
inscr. Gr.'"^ no. 83, 10 ff. = Inscr. Gr. ed. min. i no. 76, 10 ff. (an Athenian decree of ^. 
423/2 B.C. found at Eleusis) olKoSop.eaai Se trtpos rpes 'EXeucrti/|t /card rd Trdrpia hbiro dv 
SoK€c ToTs /uepoTTOLOLS Kai TOL dp[x]i-T\eKTovL eTTLT^Seiou evai drrb to dpyvpio to toIv deotv. t6[i' 
8e Kal^pTTov ivdavdol ifx^dXXep hbv du irapaXd^ocn irapd tou 5e/xdp[xoj'], | dTrd/Jxecr^at Se Kai 
ros x<^^I^I^^X°^ /card TaiTa). Such a granary might be called p.4yapou (Hesych. s.v. 
piiyapa, Phot. lex. s.v. pidyapov, Eustath. in Od. p. 1387, 17 ff.) or (ppeap {A. Dem. 99 
JlapQeu'iLp (pp^aTL, Paus. i. 39. i (pp4ap..''AudLov KoXoipieuov, i. 38. 6 (ppeap... KaXoijpieuou 
KaXXixopou (cp. A. Dem. 272), [which, however, were wells for water. A. B.c]. ). The 
purpose of the custom was ' to put these specimens of grain that was to be used for seed 
into fertilising contact with the sacred store' (p. 163). In the autumn, at the Eleusinia, 



302 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 

the cLTrapxal were taken up from the subterranean store-house. The best part of them, 
made into a pelands, was offered in sacrifice, the rest would be sold (the Athenian decree 
already quoted continues 36 ff. Qvev de airb ixkv to ireKavo KadoTi av 'Eu/uLoXiridaL 
[iXckelllyo^vraL, Tpirroiav de ^bapxov xp^<^OK€pov toIv deoiv /?€/ca[r^/)]j[ai a\iro tov Kpidop 
Kal TOV irvpov Kal toc TptTTToXi/jLOL Kal TOL [de]\oi. Kol Tei deal. koI toi Ei;/36Xot hiepeXov 
heKdcTTOi, T^Xeov kuI \ t€l 'Adevaiai j3ov xpi'(r6/c€po;' • ras 8e aXXas Kpidas Kai rrvpos dwlodofji^vos 
ros /iLepoiroibs fxeTCL res ^oXes dvad^/naTa dvaTi6ev\at. tolu deo'iv, iroLeaa/JL^vos hdTT dv toi 
de/iioi TOI 'Adeuaiou 5o/ce|i, Kal iTnypd(f>€v rots dvad^fiaaiv, hoTi dito to Kapvo res d7rapxe|s 
dvedide, Kai /leXX&op tov dirapx^fJ'-^J^ov) — presumably not to be eaten, but to be mixed with 
the grain for sowing. The dTrapxdi thus became veritable 'starting-points' of the kvkXos 
yevea-ecos. All this was aptly expressed in mythological parlance. Kore is carried off and 
wedded to Plouton in his underground abode. ' She re-emerges as the potential mother 
of the new crop' (p. 163). And 'When we are told that the final revelation to the 
Eleusinian epoptae was a (rrdxvs TedepiajULivos,... is it possible that we may see in this 
(TTaxvs the epiphany of Kore herself as represented by the dirapxa-l ?' (p. 162). Lastly, 
the 'redistribution of the d7rapxai,..is reflected in the myth of Triptolemos, charged by 
Demeter with the dispersal of the seed-corn to all the civilised world' (p. 164). 

(5) Count Goblet d' Alviella Eleusinia Paris 1903 pp. 71 — 73 holds that the nature 
of the deities worshipped at Eleusis facilitated the coming of higher hopes for a future 
life. Demeter received into her bosom both the sown corn and the buried dead. She 
would extend her protection not only to the former but also to the latter — witness their 
name Arj/jufiTpeiot (Plout. de fac, in orb. lun. 28 koI ToifS veKpovs 'AdTjva'toi Arnut.rjTpeiovs 
(hvofia^ov TO iraXaiov). Kore too, the very personification of the sown corn, descended 
every autumn into the underworld only to come up again in the springtime young and 
fresh as ever. Thus the grain was taken as a fit emblem of human existence, and in 
Attike was sown on graves (Cic. de legg. 2. 63 nam et Athenis iam ille mos a Cecrope, ut 
aiunt, permansit, ocius terra humandi: quam cum proximi iniecerant, obductaque terra 
erat, frugibus obserebatur, ut sinus et gremium quasi matris mortuo tribueretur, solum 
autem frugibus expiatum ut vivis redderetur). Similarly in Egypt Osiris or the Osirised 
dead was assimilated to wheat or barley germinating in the earth when watered from 
above. Indeed it seems likely that in s. ix — viii B.C. such Egyptian beliefs found their 
way to Eleusis, lending point and precision to the hopes already inspired by the Greek 
agrarian cult. ' Le rite final de I'epoptie, c'est-a-dire la presentation de I'epi de ble, 
moissonne en silence, que I'hierophante exhibait aux neophytes comme le dernier mot des 
Mysteres, ne constituait, sans doute, a I'origine, qu'un rite agricole ; il n'y avait rien a y 
changer pour en faire un symbole de palingenesie humaine' (p. 72). 

(6) P. Foucart, the father of this Egyptising hypothesis, in his final M^ork on the 
subject Les ??tysteres d^Eleusis Paris 1914 p. 432 ff. would identify the cut corn, not with 
Kore, but with Dionysos, who had of old been associated with Demeter (Plout. quaestt. 
de Arati sigiiis frag. 7. i Dubner ap. schol. Arat. phaen. 1068 hib Kai oi TraXaioi tov 
Alovvctov TTJ Afi/JLTiTpa avyKadi^pojcrav, alviTTOjxevoL to yovLfxav ttjs vypdTTjTos) and at Eleusis 
played Theos to her Thea (but see, for other possibilities, O. Hofer in Roscher Lex. 
Myth. V. 536 — 539. A. B.C.), he being the Greek equivalent of Osiris as she of Isis 
(P. Foucart op. cit. p. 90 ff.). On this showing the presentation of the corn-ears to the 
Eleusinian mystics was a rite derived from Egypt, where harvesters were wont to set up 
the first ears reaped, beating their breasts before the sheaf and calling aloud upon Isis 
(Diod. I. 14 fiapT^pLOV de (p^povcri ttjs evpiaeus tCov elprjfx&cjv KapwQv to T7)po6/ijievov Trap 
avTOis e^ dpxoii<j}v voixlixqv' ^tl yap Kal vuv /card tov depLO/xbv Toi/s rrpuiTovs afx-qdevTas crrdxi'S 
devTas Tovs dvOpibirovs KbiTTeadaL irXiqciov tov bpdy/maTos Kal ttjv '^Icriv dvaKaXeiaOaL, Kal 
TOVTo irpaTTeiv tiij.7]v dirov^ixovTas ttj 6e(^ tQv evprjfievcjv KaTa Tbv i^ dpxv^ ttjs evpecrews 
Kaipbv, cp. Firm. Mat. 2. 6 f. defensores eorum volunt addere physicam rationem, frugum 
semina Osirim dicentes esse, Isim terram, Tyfonem calorem : et quia maturatae fruges 
calore ad vitam hominum colliguntur et divisae a terrae consortio separantur et rursus 
adpropinquante hieme seminantur, banc volunt esse mortem Osiridis, cum fruges recon- 
dunt so K. W. A. Reifferscheid for reddunt cod. J. F. Gronovius cj. condunty F. Oehler 



Rain-magic in ancient Greece 303 











ON 

bio 



304 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 




Rain-magic in ancient Greece 305 

cj. recidunt), inventionem vero, cum fruges genitali terrae fomento conceptae annua 
rursus coeperint procreatione generari. pone banc veram esse sacrorum istorum rationem. , . 
cur plangitis fruges terrae et crescentia lugetis semina?) as they mourned for Osiris, 
probably in the dirge called M.avepQ}s (A. Rusch in Pauly — Wissowa Real-Enc. xiv. 1048 ff.). 
Foucart pursues the theme of corn as an emblem of Osiris, and draws attention to the 
curious 'Osiris beds' found in 1905 by the late Theodore Davis, in a tomb dating from 
the reign of Amenhotep iii (1412 — 1376 B.C., according to H. R. Hall), and now preserved 
in the Museum at Cairo (T. M. Davis The Tomb of louiya and Toniyou London 1907 p. 45, 
J. E. Quibell Tomb of Yiiaa and TImiu Le Caire 1908 p. 35 no. 51022 pi. 16, p. 36 
no. 51023). Quibell says of no. 51022: 'This object consists of a wooden frame, on 
which was laid a papyrus mat : over this was stretched a double cover of coarse cloth, 
stitched down the side: on this a bed of clay was placed, of the shape of the body of 
Osiris, and in it barley planted. When the plants had grown to a height of about 
o m. 15 cent, a doubled cloth was laid over them and the whole was lapped round with 
a series of strips of cloth'; etc. My fig. 195 is from a fresh photograph. Similarly in 
1898 — 1899 V. Loret found in the tomb of Maherpra, fan-bearer under Hatshepsut (reign 
1501 — 1479 B.C., according to H. R. Hall), a frame of cedar-wood, on which is stretched 
a thick mat of reeds covered by three layers of linen. On the linen is drawn in black ink 
the profile of Osiris (1.42"^ high). The contour is filled in with a mixture of earth, barley- 
grains, and a gummy fluid. The grains had sprouted to a length of 6 — 8 centimetres 
(G. Daressy Fouilles de la valUe des Rots Le Caire 1902 \. 25 f. no. 24061 pi. 7 = my 
fig. 194, A. Wiedemann 'Osiris vegetant' in Le Museon Nouvelle serie 1903 iv. 11 1 — 
123, H. Haas Bilderatlas ziir Religionsgeschichte Leipzig — Erlangen 1924 ii — iv p. vii 
fig. 115). Again, in the 'Innermost Treasury' of the tomb of Tut-ankh-Amen (1360 — 
1350 B.C., according to H. R. Hall) the late Earl of Carnarvon and Howard Carter dis- 
covered 'a mock figure representing the regermination of Osiris' (H. Carter The To??ib of 
Tut-ankh-Amen London 1933 iii. 39, 61 pi. 64, A and b). Carter says: 'This object... 
comprises a wooden frame moulded in the form of that god, hollowed out, lined with linen, 
filled with silt from the Nile bed, and planted with corn. ...This was moistened; the grain 
germinated, and the inanimate form became green and living ; thus symbolizing the resur- 
rection of Osiris and of the deceased. This life-size efiigy was completely wrapped in linen 
winding-sheets and bandaged in the like manner as a mummy.' Foucart further notes that 
in the Saitic period an Osiris-figure made of Nile-mud and filled with corn-grains was 
occasionally placed between the legs of the mummy : the sprouting of the corn would 
typify the resurrection of the god (A. Erman Die dgyptische Religion Berlin 1905 p. 188, 
id. A Handbook of Egyptian Religion trans. A. S. Griffith London 1907 p. 187). 

{7) This aspect of Osiris-worship has been more fully exploited by Sir James Frazer 
and Prof. A. Moret. P'razer Golden Bough^: Adonis Attis Osiris^ ii. 89 ff. describes 
inter alia the decoration of a chamber dedicated to Osiris in the Ptolemaic temple of Isis 
at Philai (cp. supra ii. 773 n. o) : 'Here we see the dead body of Osiris with stalks of 
corn springing from it, while a priest waters the stalks from a pitcher which he holds in 
his hand. The accompanying inscription sets forth that "this is the form of him whom 
one may not name, Osiris of the mysteries, who springs from the returning waters " ' 
(Champollion Le jeune Monuments de V Egypte et de la Ntibie Paris 1835 i. 6 pi. 90 
south wall of the hall of Osiris (second and third registers = my fig. 196), Lanzone 
Dizion. di Mitol. Egiz. p. 705 f. pi. 261, 31 f. , E. A. Wallis Budge Osiris and the 
Egyptian Resurrection London — New York 191 1 i. 58 fig., A. Moret Kings and Gods of 
Egypt New York — London 191 2 p. 84 ff. fig. 7 f- pi. 11, id. in J. Hastings Encyclopcedia 
of Religion and Ethics Edinburgh 1917 ix. 75b, id. Le Nil et la civilisation dgyptiejtne 
Paris 1926 p. 104 fig. 23, H. Haas op. cit. p. vii fig. 155). Frazer op. cit. ii. 89 n. 2 
adds: 'Similarly in a papyrus of the Louvre (No. 3377) Osiris is represented swathed as 
a mummy and lying on his back, while stalks of corn sprout from his body' (Lanzone op. 
cit. p. 801 f. pi. 303, 2 ( = my fig. 197)). A. Moret La mise a mort du dieu en Egypte 
Paris 1927 deals in detail with 'La passion d'Osiris, dieu agraire' (p. 17 ff.), 'Rites de 
la moisson' (p. 19 ff. : illustrations of Diod. i. 14; evolution of the Osirian fetish stat, 

C. III. 20 



3o6 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 

'that which is drawn along,' later inert 'bride' or inert stat, from a portable granary (?)), 
'Les larmes d'Isis et la crue' (p. 31 f.), 'Rites des semailles' (p. 32 ff.), 'Fecondation de 
la terre par des statues' (p. 35 fif. )> with an appendix 'Sur le culte particulier de la gerbe 
en Egypte' (p. 54 ff. : corn-maidens in ancient and modern Egypt, after Miss W. S. 
Blackman 'Some occurrences of the Corn-aruseh in ancient Egyptian tomb paintings' in 
ihe Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 1922 viii. 235 ff. ). Now Frazer op. cit. ii. 89 f. 
expressly compares the corn-stalks that represent the resurrection of Osiris on Egyptian 
monuments with the reaped ear of corn exhibited to the worshippers at Eleusis. But he 
nowhere makes the mistake of supposing, as Foucart did, that the latter custom was 
derived from the former. They were analogous rites, that is all. 

(8) Thus the way is left clear for the conclusion enunciated years ago by Dr L. R. 
Farnell. All the evidence, he says, goes to prove that among the sacred things 
reverentially displayed at Eleusis there was a corn-token. 'And,' he continues, 'it may 
have also served as a token of man's birth and re-birth, not under the strain of symbolic 
interpretation, but in accordance with the naive and primitive belief in the unity of man's 
life with the vegetative world' (Farnell Cults of Gk. States iii. 184). N.B. the occasional 
use of KoXd/uLr} in the sense of 'old, withered body' {Od. 14. 214 f., Aristot. rAet. 3. 10. 
1410 b 13 ft'., Anth. Pal. 11. 36. 5 f. (Philippos), Cougny Anth. Pal. Append. 6. 250, 
3 K. = oracl. ap. Polyain. 6. 53, Loukian. Alex. 5). 




Fig. 197. 

In this connexion special interest attaches to two finds from the west of the classical 
area and to one literary record in the east. 

An Apulian amphora, formerly in the Barone collection, then in the Museo Campana, 
and now at Petrograd (Stephani Vasensamml. St. Petersburg i. 241 ff. no. 428), has the 
following designs: A (i) Zeus, with Hermes as charioteer, in a car drawn by four horses, 
and Dionysos (wrongly restored) in a car drawn by two panthers or lynxes, enter the 
Gigantomachy, led by a Fury between them, (ii) Within a heroion, surrounded by con- 
ventional figures bearing garlands and gifts, are seen five stalks of bearded wheat. 
B (i) A young warrior is wreathed by Nike between two of his companions, (ii) A 
domestic scene of man, woman, and maid — perhaps the homecoming of the successful 
warrior. The vase has been published and discussed by G. Minervini Monumenti antichi 
inediti posseduti da Raffaele Barone Napoli 1852 i. 99 ff. (mystical interpretation) pis. 21 ' 
and 22, I — 5 ( = my pi. xxx), F. Lenormant in the Gaz. Arch. 1879 ^' 3^ ^* with 2 figs, 
(follows Minervini), id. in Daremberg — Saglio Diet. Ant. i. 1066 fig. 1308 ('Adoration 
des epis a Eleusis'!), Farnell Cults of Gk. States iii. 216 f. pi. iii, b ('the first-fruits 
or oblations consecrated to the local Apollo or Demeter or Persephone'), R. Pagenstecher 
Unteritalische Grabdenkmdler 'S>ir2iS?>h\xrg 191 2 pp. ix fig., 100 (E. Fehrle cp. A. Dieterich 
Mutter Erde Leipzig — Berlin 1905 p. 48 f.), P. Wolters 'Die goldenen Ahren' in the 
Festschrift fiir fames Loeb Munchen 1930 pp. 123- — 125 figs. 13 and 14 (photographic) (the 
old Attic custom of sowing grain on the fresh-made grave, cp. Demetrios of Phaleron ap. 
Cic. de legg. 1. 63 nam et Athenis iam ille mos a Cecrope, ut aiunt, permansit, ocius terra 
humandi : quam cum proximi iniecerant, obductaque terra erat, frugibus obserebatur, ut 
sinus et gremium quasi matris mortuo tribueretur, solum autem frugibus expiatum ut vivis 
redderetur). The point to notice is that, in the lower register of the obverse, the herdion 
instead of containing the customary representation of the dead (H. B. Walters History of 




( 1 1 A ht'6ioH containing five stalks f)f bearded wlitrai, lliuiki-d Uy » onvcntional figuix-s bearing garlands and gifts. 
(2) A young warrior, wreallied by Nike, between two companions. A domestic scent- {his homecoming?). 
{3) The whole vase. (4) HcadofKore. (5) Palmelte. 

Stt pap s^A n. o iy,). 



Plate XXXI 




Three gold ears of barley found in a grave near Syracuse 
and now in the Loeb collection at Murnau. 



See page 307 ;/. o. 



Rain-magic in ancient Greece 307 

The Eleusinian formula hye kye occurs in an extended version 
on the inner surface of three curved terra-cotta blocks, which together 
made up a well-mouth outside the Dipylon gate at Athens^. This 

Ancient Pottery London 1905 i. 476 f. fig. 106, ii. 158) substitutes a small crop of wheat. 
Cp. an Apulian hydria in the British Museum {Brit. Mus. Cat. Vases iv. 175 no. F 353) on 
which the heroion contains a large acanthus-plant in lieu of a stele^ and an Apulian kratir 
formerly in the Coghill collection (J. Millingen Feintures antiques dc vases grecs de la 
collection de Sir fohn Coghill Bart Rome 181 7 p. 42 f. pis. 49 and 51, 2, Reinach Rep. 
Vases ii. 17, i and 18, 2) on which the heroion has within it nothing but a bay-branch. 

In a grave near Syracuse was found [c. 1900) a veritable triumph of the goldsmith's art, 
which I am able here to re-publish (pi. xxxi), thanks to the kind offices of Dr A. H. Lloyd. 
It has already been figured by S. P. Noe The Coinage of Metapontum [Nuniisinatic 
Notes and Mottographs No. 32) New York 1927 p. 9 and, more adequately, by P. Wolters 
'Die goldenen Ahren' in the Festschrift fiir James Loeb Mtinchen 1930 pp. iii — 129 pi. 
16 and figs. I — 15, id. *Gestalt und Sinn der Ahre in antiker Kunst' in Die Antike 1930 
vi. 284 — 301 pi. I and figs, i — 10, who refers it to the fourth or third century B.C. The 
jewel itself, now in the Loeb Collection at Murnau, consists of three superb ears growing 
on a single stalk. Wolters, accepting the opinion of Prof. G. Centner, says: 'Dargestellt 
sind Weizenahren ; wahrscheinlich die des Binkel- oder Igel-Weizens, Triticum compac- 
tum...Heutigen Tags werden noch verschiedene Varietaten in Sizilien gebaut. Moglich 
ware allerdings auch, dass ein besonders kurzahriger Hartweizen vorlage, von dem 
hauptsachlich die Varietat Triticum durum affine, ebenfalls in Sizilien gebaut wird ; sie 
ist vermutlich identisch mit dem ttu/jos Tpt/xrjvatos Theophrasts und heisst im heutigen 
Sizilien Timilia oder Tremilia.' Sir R. H. Biffen, however, has informed me (Jan. 14, 
1930) that these gold ears are barley, not bearded wheat, and certainly not a cross 
between the two. He notes that some details in the arrangement of the shields at the 
base of the ear are not true to nature. And he adds that the ears represented on Creek 
coins are regularly, not wheat, but barley (e.g. the hordeiim hexastichon on coins of 
Metapontum (F. Imhoof-Blumer and O. Keller Tier- und Fflanzenbilder atif Miinzen 
und Gemtnen des klassischen Altertums Leipzig 1889 p. 54 pi. 9, i, p. 56 pi. 9, 24, p. 58 
pi. 9, 35)). In any case we are at once reminded of the 'golden harvest' sent by the 
Metapontines to Delphoi (Strab. 264 oOs ourws airb yewpyias evTvxn(Tai <paatv cocrre d^pos 
Xpv(Tovv iv AeX0o£S dpadeivai). This, though very different in intention, must have been 
very similar in technique. 

Finally, it is not, I think, irrelevant to compare a well-known incident in the Cospel 
narrative. When certain Creeks, proselytes of the gate attending a Jewish festival, came 
to Philip of Bethsaida saying 'Sir, we would see Jesus,' Philip sought out Andrew and 
together with him told Jesus. Thereupon Jesus made answer: 'The hour is come, that 
the Son of man should be glorified. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of 
wheat fall into the earth and die, it abideth by itself alone ; but if it die, it beareth much 
fruit' (John 12. 20 ff.). The Master here hints at his own impending Passion as the 
supreme example of the law that Life must be reached through Death. That much is 
certain. But, in view of the fact that the fourth Cospel was written primarily for Creek 
readers, it is further probable that these profound words were meant to convey some 
message specially appropriate to the Creeks. And, if so, it is at least possible that the 
symbolism employed aimed at recalling the great lesson taught by the hierophant to the 
mystics of Eleusis. 

1 F. Lenormant Monographic de la Voie Sacrie Eleusinienne Paris 1864 p. 85 fif. no. 
30, id. in Daremberg— Saglio Diet. Ant. ii. 573, E. Pottier ib. n. 682 (first recognition of 
Men), P. Perdrizet in the Bull. Corr. Hell. 1896 xx. 78 ff. no. 2 (with facsimile of the in- 
scription. 'H. de chaque brique, d^'A,i', ep., o'"'04 ; diametre probable du puits, 
o'""8o; h. des lettres, de o"'"05 a o'""o7. Sur le bord superieur de chaque brique, deux 
lettres rapprochees <I>X'). 

20 — 2 



3o8 Rain-magic in ancient Greece 

deeply incised inscription reads: 

OnANOAAHNxAlPeTeNKN4>AII<AAAlKei<KeK 

nePxKE 

d Udv, 6 M.r}v, ;^atp€Te Nuv^at KoXai. ve, /cue, V7T€p)(V€^. 

Pan, Men, and ye fair Nymphs, all hail ! — 
Rain ! Conceive, conceive abundantly ! 

The association of Men with Pan and the Nymphs is noteworthy. 
The same triad appears on a votive reHef of Pentelic (?) marble found 
in or near Athens (fig. 198)^, which might almost serve as an illustra- 




Fig. 198. 

^ A mistake for vwepKve. H. Glintert, however, in his interesting treatise l/ber Reim- 
wortbildujigen im arischen und altgriechischen Heidelberg 19 14 p. 217 f. holds that 
virepx^^ was a new formation from x^^ ^^ the analogy of He Kve and under the influence 
of K^xvTui, x^T^^i etc. In any case we can hardly infer, with F. Lenormant, that this 
word formed part of the original Eleusinian formula. 

^ P. Perdrizet in the Bu//. Corr. Hell. 77 f. no. i fig. 5, W. Drexler in Roscher Lex. 
Myth. ii. 2731 with fig. 10, Stais Marbres et Bronzes: Athhies'^ p. 248 f. no. 1444, 
Einzelaufnahmeti no. 1248^ = no. 1254-^'' with Text v. 22 f. by E. Lowy, Svoronos Ath. 
Nationalmus. p. 443 no. 1444 pi. 72 ( = niy fig. 198). 



Rain-magic in ancient Greece 309 

tion of our text. For it arranges the divinities in the same order — 
Men in the centre between Pan on the left and a sample Nymph on 
the right. Pan and the Nymphs are natural protectors of grottoes, 
springs, and the like. Men is present partly because he was assimi- 
lated to Hermes^, partly because in his own character of moon-god^ 
he would be responsible for the dew^ which in Attike meant so 
much to the cultivator of the thirsty ground. We may take it, then, 
that the owner of this particular well sought to ensure his water- 
supply by a silent and undemonstrative invocation of appropriate 
deities, coupled with the old magical cry * Rain ! Conceive, conceive 
abundantly!' 

That cry was addressed to the divine Sky above and to the 
divine Earth below. No names were used, but it is probable that 
these powers had long been anthropomorphic. I should venture to 
identify them with the nameless Theos and Thea of Eleusinian 
inscriptions*, who elsewhere emerge into clearer light and more 

^ Supra ii. 285 n. o. ^ Supra i. 193 fig. 142, 642 fig. 501, 731 fig. 540. 

^ W. Drexler in Roscher Lex. Myth. ii. 2765. 

^ (i) An Athenian decree oi c. 423/2 B.C., found at Eleusis, mentions in line 38 (cited 
with context supra p. 302 n. o (4)) gifts roiv deoiv {sc. Demeter and Kore), TpLTrroX^fiitj, 
Tip 0e£^, TTJ Ge^, T(p'Sjv^o6\q3, rrj'Adrivaia. 

(2) The votive relief of Lysimachides, found in 1885 during the excavation of the 
'Ploutonion' at Eleusis (D. Philios in the 'E0. 'Apx- 1886 p. 19 ff. pi. 3, i, A. Bouche- 
Leclercq in Daremberg — Saglio Di'cL Ant. iii. 1008 fig. 4380, Farnell Cults of Gk. States 
iii. 135 f., 258 pi. I, Svoronos Ath. Nationalmus, p. 554 ff. no. 1519 pi. 88, Reinach 
Rip. Reliefs ii. 412 no. 2), renders in the style of 350 — 300 B.C. a Totenmahl or hero- 
feast inscribed {Corp. inscr. Att. ii. 3 no. 1620 b) Qedi 0ewi | Auo-t/xaxtSy;? dvedrjKe. Th